the symbolism of freemasonry
albert gallatin mackey
Of the various modes of communicating instruction to the uninformed,
the masonic student is particularly interested in two; namely, the
instruction by legends and that by symbols. It is to these two, almost
exclusively, that he is indebted for all that he knows, and for all that
he can know, of the philosophic system which is taught in the institution.
All its mysteries and its dogmas, which constitute its philosophy, are
intrusted for communication to the neophyte, sometimes to one, sometimes
to the other of these two methods of instruction, and sometimes to both of
them combined. The Freemason has no way of reaching any of the esoteric
teachings of the Order except through the medium of a legend or a
A legend differs from an historical narrative only in this—that it is
without documentary evidence of authenticity. It is the offspring solely
of tradition. Its details may be true in part or in whole. There may be no
internal evidence to the contrary, or there may be internal evidence that
they are altogether false. But neither the possibility of truth in the one
case, nor the certainty of falsehood in the other, can remove the
traditional narrative from the class of legends. It is a legend simply
because it rests on no written foundation. It is oral, and therefore
In grave problems of history, such as the establishment of empires, the
discovery and settlement of countries, or the rise and fall of dynasties,
the knowledge of the truth or falsity of the legendary narrative will be
of importance, because the value of history is impaired by the imputation
of doubt. But it is not so in Freemasonry. Here there need be no absolute
question of the truth or falsity of the legend. The object of the masonic
legends is not to establish historical facts, but to convey philosophical
doctrines. They are a method by which esoteric instruction is
communicated, and the student accepts them with reference to nothing else
except their positive use and meaning as developing masonic dogmas. Take,
for instance, the Hiramic legend of the third degree. Of what importance
is it to the disciple of Masonry whether it be true or false? All that he
wants to know is its internal signification; and when he learns that it is
intended to illustrate the doctrine of the immortality of the soul, he is
content with that interpretation, and he does not deem it necessary,
except as a matter of curious or antiquarian inquiry, to investigate its
historical accuracy, or to reconcile any of its apparent contradictions.
So of the lost keystone; so of the second temple; so of the hidden ark:
these are to him legendary narratives, which, like the casket, would be of
no value were it not for the precious jewel contained within. Each of
these legends is the expression of a philosophical idea.
But there is another method of masonic instruction, and that is by
symbols. No science is more ancient than that of symbolism. At one time,
nearly all the learning of the world was conveyed in symbols. And although
modern philosophy now deals only in abstract propositions, Freemasonry
still cleaves to the ancient method, and has preserved it in its primitive
importance as a means of communicating knowledge.
According to the derivation of the word from the Greek, "to symbolize"
signifies "to compare one thing with another." Hence a symbol is the
expression of an idea that has been derived from the comparison or
contrast of some object with a moral conception or attribute. Thus we say
that the plumb is a symbol of rectitude of conduct. The physical qualities
of the plumb are here compared or contrasted with the moral conception of
virtue, or rectitude. Then to the Speculative Mason it becomes, after he
has been taught its symbolic meaning, the visible expression of the idea
of moral uprightness.
But although there are these two modes of instruction in
Freemasonry,—by legends and by symbols,—there really is no radical
difference between the two methods. The symbol is a visible, and the
legend an audible representation of some contrasted idea—of some moral
conception produced from a comparison. Both the legend and the symbol
relate to dogmas of a deep religious character; both of them convey moral
sentiments in the same peculiar method, and both of them are designed by
this method to illustrate the philosophy of Speculative Masonry.
To investigate the recondite meaning of these legends and symbols, and
to elicit from them the moral and philosophical lessons which they were
intended to teach, is to withdraw the veil with which ignorance and
indifference seek to conceal the true philosophy of Freemasonry.
To study the symbolism of Masonry is the only way to investigate its
philosophy. This is the portal of its temple, through which alone we can
gain access to the sacellum where its aporrheta are concealed.
Its philosophy is engaged in the consideration of propositions relating
to God and man, to the present and the future life. Its science is the
symbolism by which these propositions are presented to the mind.
The work now offered to the public is an effort to develop and explain
this philosophy and science. It will show that there are in Freemasonry
the germs of profound speculation. If it does not interest the learned, it
may instruct the ignorant. If so, I shall not regret the labor and
research that have been bestowed upon its composition.
Albert G. Mackey, M.D.
Charleston, S.C., Feb. 22, 1869
back to top