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Hebrew, meaning the fire of God. An Archangel, mentioned only in Second Esdras. Michael Glyeas, the Byzantine historian, says that his post is in the sun, and that he came down to Seth and Enoch, and instructed them in the length of the years and the variations of the seasons. The Book of Enoch describes him as the angel of thunder and lightning. Insome of the Hermetic Degrees of Freemasonry, the name, as representing the angel of fire, becomes as ignificant word.
The Hebrew words Aurzm, and Thummim, have been variously translated by commentators. The Septuagint translatest hem, "manifestation and truth"; the Vulgate, "doctrine and truth": A quila, "lights and perfections" Kalisch, "perfect brilliancy"; but the most generally received interpretation is, "light and truth. "What the Urim and Thummim were has also been a subject of as much doubt and difference of opinion. Suddenly introduced to notice by Moses in the command in Exodus (xxviii,30) "and thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim"—as if they were already familiar to the people— we know only of them from the Scriptural account, that they were sacred lots to be worn conccaled in or behind the breastplate, and to be consulted by the High Priest alone, for the purpose of obtaining a revelation of the will of God in matters of great moment.

Some writers have supposed that the augury consisted in a more splendid appearance of certain letters of the names of the Tribes inscribed upon the stones of the Breastplate; others, that it was received by voice from two small images which were placed beyond the folds of the Breastplate. A variety of other conjectures have been hazarded, but as Godwyn (Moses and Aaron iv,8) observes, "he spoke best, who ingeniously confessed that he knew not what Urimand Thummim was."
Whatever may have been the precise forms of these mysterious objects, and there is yet much uncertainty aboutt hem in the minds of scholars, there seems no doubt that they were essential elements of the sacred oracle by which the Hebrews of old endeavored to find out the will of God. Urim has been suggested as meaning guilt, and Thummin, innocence, and these widely contrasting ideas may have had none other than acomprehensive Significance of the scope represented by the two, the Urim and Thummin; all that was light and dark, clean and unclean, stood before the Lord in this appeal for the Divine Guidance.
Perhaps there was associated with the vestment, the ephod, connected with the Urimand Thummim, something of the nature of casting lots, of divination, of an appeal for ajudgment from the God head, seeking a sign, to be exhibited by perhaps committing the question at issue to a sort of inspired ballot. But let the reader examine what is said in the Bible itself where evidently the Urim and Thummim were placed with in the Breastplate of the High Priest. Here they were used to reveal the will of God. The reference in First Samuel (xxvui,6) to dreams and to the Urim and Thurnmim indicate quite clearly the class in which these methods and means are capable of being placed. The verse says,

And when Saul enquired of the L ord,
the Lord answered him not, neither
by dreams, not by Urim, nor by prophets.

The opinion now almost universally accepted is that the Jewish lawgiver borrowed this, as he did the Ark, the Brazen Serpent, and many other of the symbols of his theocracy, from the usages so familiar to him of the Egyptian Priests, with which both he and Aaron were familiar, eliminating, of course, from them their previous heathen allusion and giving to them a purer signification..
In reference to the Urim and Thummim, we know not only from the authority of ancient writers, but also from the confirmatory testimony of more recent monumental explorations, that the judges of Egypt wore golden chains around their necks, to which was suspended a small figure of Theme, the Egyptian goddess of Justice and Truth. "Some of these breastplates," says Gliddon, Ancient Egypt (page32),"are extant in European museums; others are to be seen on the monuments as containing the figures of two deities—Ra, the sun, and theme. These represent Ra, orthe sun, in a double capacity, physical and intellectual light; and theme in a double capacity justice and truth."
Neither in the ancient Craft nor in Royal Arch Masonry have the Urim and Thummim been introduced; although Oliver discusses them, in his Landmarks, as a type of Christ, to be Masonically applied in his peculiar system of a Christian interpretation of all the Masonic symbols. But the fact is that after the construction of the Temple of Solomon we hear nomore of the consultation by the priests of the Urim and Thummim. They seem to have given way to the audible interpretation of the divine will by the prophets. That would necessarily disconnect them from Freemasonry as symbols and these symbols are there fore not to be accepted even by those who place the foundation of the Order at the Solomonic era.

However, they have been introduced as a symbol in to some of the continental high Degrees. Thus, in the last Degree of the Order of brothers of Asia, the presiding officer wears the Urim and Thummim suspended from a golden chain as the jewel of his office.
Reghellini, Esprit du dogme or Genius of Dogma (page 60), thus gives the continental interpretation of the symbols:" The folly of Solomon is commemorated in the instructions and ceremonies of a high Degree, where the Acolyte is reminded that Solomon, becoming arrogant, was for a time abandoned by the Divinity, and as he was, although the greatest of kings, only a mortal, he was weak enough to sacrifice to idols, and thereby lost the communication which he had previously had through the Urim and Thummim. These two words are found in a Degree of the Maître écossais, or Scottish Master. The Venerables or Worshipful Masters of the Lodges and the Sublime Masters explain the legend to their recipients of an elevated rank, as intended to teach them that they should always be guided by reason, virtue, and honor, and never abandon themselves to an effeminate life or silly superstition."
Doctor Mackey concluded that it was undeniable that Urim and Thummim have no legitimate existence as Masonic symbols, and that they can only be considered such by a forced and modern interpretation.
The author of a work entitled Leveritable Portrait d'un Franc-Magon or the True Portrait of a Freemason which was published by a Lodge at Frankfort, in 1742. It may be looked upon, says Kloss, as the earliest public exposition of the true principles of Freemasonry which appeared in Germany. Many editions of it were published. M.Uriot also published at Stongard, in 1769, a work entitled Lettres sur la Franche Maçonnerie or Letters on Freemasonry; which was, however, only an enlargement of thePortrait.
Among the ancients, cinerary urns were in common use to hold the ashes of the deceased after the body had been subjected to ineremation, which was the usual mode of disposing of it. Hewho would desire to be learned upon this subject should read Sir Thomas Browne's celebrated work entitled Hydriotaphioe, or Urn Burial, where everything necessary to be known on this topic may be found .
In Freemasonry, the cinerary urn has been introduced as a modern symbol, but always as having reference to the burial of the Temple Builder. In the comparatively recent symbol of the Monument, arranged probably by Cross for the Degree of Master in the American Rite, the urn is introduced as if to remind the beholder that the ashes of the great artist were there deposited. Cross borrowed, it may be supposed, his idea from an older symbol in the advanced Degrees, where, in the description of the tomb of Hiram Abif, it is said that the heart was enelosed in a golden urn, to the side of which a triangular stone was affixed, inscribed with the letters J.M.B. with in a wreath of acacia, and placed on the top of an obelisk (see Monument, and Time, also Broken Column).
A republic of South America. The Grand Orient of France is said to have chartered a Lodge in Uruguay in 1827, but there is no definite evidence to support this statement. Lodge No.217, Asilio de la Virtud, Home of Virlue, was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania on February 6, 1832, at Montevideo. On August 20, 1841, the Grand Orient of France issued authority for a Lodge which developed into a Chapter, Areopagus and Consistory. Warrants were also issued from Brazil.
By authority of one of the Grand Orients at Riode Janeiro, a Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite and a Grand Orient of Uruguay were formed in 1856 at Montevideo. Relations between the two Bodies were so friendly that the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council and the Grand Master of the Grand Orient were often one and the same person.
In 1923 the Grand Orient of Uruguay exercised control over eighteen Lodges.
The Grand Orient of France has a Lodge, Amis de la Patrie, meaning Friends of the Native Land, at Montevideo, where the Grand Lodge of England has Acacia Lodge and Silver River Lodge.
The peculiarity of constant intercourse between the Kings of Israel and Tyre pending the construction of the Holy House, has been frequently commented upon.That this was so is evident from the old sacred Seriptures, as well as from cumulative history by Josephus and others. This ancient custom of intercommunication would not be so marked, had these two kings ever met, yet during the years of construction, gifts and messages seem to have led to the more intimate custom of propounding problems and difficult questions. Hence the inducement to speculate upon whether there was any secret tie between these two Kings or merely friendship and business.

The customs, habits, and usages of the ancients are visible in every form and ceremony of Masonic work, aswell as in the instruction, except where modern innovators have injured, while endeavoring to improve, the time worn yet mellowed services of the Brotherhood. One of the most beautiful expressions occurring in the Catechism of Freemasonry is the answer to an interrogatory as to the position of the hand in assuming the vow of the First Degree; to wit, "In accordance with ancient usages the right hand has always been deemed the seat of Fidelity. "A somewhat similar expression occurs in relation to the casting off of the shoe; answer, "This was inaccordance with the usages of the ancient Israelites; a man plucked off his shoe and gave it to his neighbor; this was testimony in Israel. "The shoe was the symbol of subjection when sent by rulers to princes (see Ruth iv,7). It was the symbol of humiliation and surrender with Germans and Israelites. The formal divestiture was surrender of title (see Hand).
Book, was published in 1783 at London, by Captain George Smith, Inspector of the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, England, and the Provincial Grand Master of Kent, 1777-81. While Master of a Lodge at Woolwich, Brother Smith was disciplined for opening a Lodge and initiating candidates in the Kings Bench Prison.
Grand Secretary Sam H. Goodwin in his investigations of early Freemasonry in Utah has brought to light many note worthy facts. He finds the first Lodge organized in Utah was among soldiers of the United States Army sent there by President Buchanan. A Dispensation for Rocky Mountain Lodge dated March 6, 1859, was granted by Grand Master Samuel Saunders of Missouri, to (Lieutenant) John T. Robinson and other officers at Camp Floyd. About forty were associated in the movement. This Lodge received a Charter in 1860, No. 205 of Missouri.
In 1862 Grand Master Wm.R.Peniek reported that the Lodge had prospered but ceased working because the membership "consisted principally of Masons belonging to the U.S.Army who were forced to surrender their Charter on account of the Army being recalled to Washington City. "Grand Secretary Gourley also wrote "the Charter, jewels, records ,etc., were all returned to this office more correctly completed than those ever received from any surrendered Lodge under the Jurisdiction of this Grand Boby since its organization.

The jewels were of the very best quality, infact everything received by this office from that Lodge bore evidence of more than ordinary refinement and culture. "This complimentary allusion adds interest to Brother Goodwin's mention of two relies, a square and compasses, framed and under glass in the ante-room of Damascus Lodge No. 10, at Mt.Pleasant, of which it is recorded that they were made from a camp kettle by the blacksmith of General Albert Sidney Johnston's army at Camp Floyd, Utah, 1858, and that they were the first to be used there in a Masonic Lodge.

The Grand Master of Nevada, Joseph De Bell, issued a Dispensation February 4, 1866. for the organization of Mount Moriah Lodge at Salt Lake City. The question then rose as to the attitude to be adopted towards the Mormons. The Grand Master of Nevada vetoed the admission to the Craf to fany of Mormon faith and the Lodge submitted for the timebeing. Application at the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge for an unrestricted Charter was refused, but the Dispensation of the Lodge was renewed. A year later it was surrendered and a certificate of standing in the Craft issued to each member. After a refusal from the Grand Lodge of Montana the Grand Lodge of Kansas issued a Dispensation on November 25, 1867, and a Charter on October 21, 1868. At a Convention held at Salt Lake City, January 16, 1872, representatives of Wasatch, Mount Moriah and Argenta Lodges decided to organize a Grand Lodge. Officers were chosen and installed and the Grand Lodge was duly constituted. It adopted the attitude of the Grandlodge of Nevada and expelled one brother from the Crafts who had become a Mormon

Utah Chapter, No 1, Salt Lake City, was granted a Dispensation on December 13, 1872 A Charter was issued by authority of the General Grand Chapter on November 25, 1874 Utah No1; Ogden, No 2; Ontario, No 3, and Provo,No 4, were the four Chapters in existence in Utah when the Grand Chapter of the State was formed The first Convocation was held at Salt Lake City, September 5, 1911, and Companion C F. Jennings was chosen the first Grand High Priest
The general Grand Council issued a Dispensation for Utah Council, No 1, at Salt Lake Cityon February 13, 1892 It gave authority to Companions A Scott Chapman, Henry Budgeford and Edwin Copperfield to communicate the Degrees,and a Council, chartered on August 21, was constituted October 30, 1894

The Grand Encampment of the United States warranted three Commanderies in Utah, the first of which , Utah, No 1, at Salt Lake City, was granted a Dispellsation December 20, 1873, and chartered December 3, 1874 Utah, No.l; El Monte, No 2 and Malta, No 3, organized the Grand Commandery of Utah at Ogdenon Aprill 9, 1910, under a Warrant issued by Sir Henry Warren Rugg, Grand Master
Four Charters were granted to bodies of the Anciend and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, on October 21, 1903, at Salt Lake City namely, Utah Consistory, No1; Salt Lake Council of Kadosh ,No1; James Lowe Chapter of Rose Croix, No 1, and Jordon Lodge of Perfection, No 2

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