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The Grand Lodge of England assumed that title in the year 1813, beceause it was the n formed by the Union of the Grand Lodge of the Antients, the "Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of England according to the Old Institutions, "and the Grand Lodge of Moderns, the "Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons unde r the Constitutie of England. "The Body thus formed, by which an end was put to the dissensions of the Craft which had existed in England for more than half a century, adopted the title, by which it has ever Since been known, of the United Grand Lodge of ancient Freemasons of England (see Union of 1813).
The history of the introduction of freemasonry in to the United States of America is discussed in this work under the titles of the several States into which the Union is divided, and to which therefore the reader is referred.
It may, however, be necessary to say, in a general view of the subject, that the first notice we have of Freemasonry in the United States is in 1729, in which year, during the Grand Mastership of the Duke of Norfolk, Mr .Daniel Coxe was appointed Provineial Grand Master for New Jersey. We have not, however, been able to obtain any evidence that he exercised his prerogative by the establishment of Lodges in that Province, although it is probable that he did. In the year 1733, the "Saint John's Grand Lodge "was opened in Boston, inconsequence of a Charter granted, on the application of several Brethren residing in that city, by Lord Viscount Montague, the Grand Master of England. From that time Freemasonry was rapidly disseminated through the country by the establishment of Provincial Grand Lodges, all of which after the Revolutionary War, which separated the colonies from the mother country, assumed the rank and prerogatives of independent Grand Lodges. The history of these Bodies being treated under their respective titles, the remainder of this article may more properly be devoted to the character of the Masonic organization in the United States.

The Rite practiced in this country is correctly called the Amencan Rite. This title, however, has been adopted within only a comparatively recent period. It is still very usual with Masonic writers to call the Rite practised in this country the York Rite. The expression, however, Doctor Mackey held to be incorrect. The Freemasonry of the United States, though founded, like that practised in every other country, upon the three Symbolic Degrees which alone constitute the true York Rite, has, by its modifications and its adoption of advanced Degrees, so changed the Rite as to give it an entirely different form from that which properly constitutes the pure York Rite (see Amencan Rite).
In each State of the Union there is a Grand Lodge which exercises jurisdiction over the Symbolic Degrees. The jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge, however, is exercised to acertain extent over what are called the higher Bodies, namely, the Chapters, Councils, and Commanderies. Forby the American construction o f Masonic law, a Freemas onexpelled by the Grand Lodge forfeits his membership in all of these Bodies to which he may be attached. Hence a Knight Templar, or a Royal Arch Mason, becomes ipsofacto, because of that fact, suspended or expelled by his suspension or expulsion by a Symbolic Lodge, the appeal from which action lies only to the Grand Lodge. Thus the Masonic standing and existence of even the Grand Commander of a Grand Commandery is actually in the hands of the Grand Lodge, by whose decree of expulsion his relation with the Body over which he presides may be dissevered.

Royal Arch Masonry is controlled in each State by a Grand Chapter. Besides these Grand Chapters, there is a General Grand Chapter of the United States, which, however, exercises only a moral influence over the State Grand Chapters, since it possesses "no power of discipline, admonition, censure, or instruction over the Grand Chapters. "In Territories where there are no Grand Chapters, the General Grand Chaptere constitutes subordinate Chapters, and over these it exercises plenary jurisdiction.
The next branch of the Order is Cryptic Freemasonry, which, although rapidly growing, is not yet as extensive as Royal Arch Masonry. It consists of two Degrees, Royal and Select Master, to which is sometimes added the Super-Excellent, which, however, is generally considered only as an honorary or supplementary Degree. These Degrees are conferred in Councils which owe their obedience to Grand Councils. Only one Grand Council can exist in a State or Territory, as is the case with a Grand Lodge, a Grand Chapter, or a Grand Commandery. Grand Councils exist in many of the States, and elsewhere the Councils have been established by Charters emanating from the General Grand Council.

Templarism is governed by a Supreme Body, whose style is the Grand Encampment of the United States, and this Body, which meets triennially, possesses sovereign power over the whole Templar system in the United States. Its presiding officer is called Grand Master, and this is the highest office known to American Templarism. Throughout the States the reare Grand Commanderies, which exercise immediate jurisdiction over the Commanderies in the State, subject, however, to the super intending control of the Grand Encampment. Where there are no Grand Commanderies, Charters are issued directly to subordinate Commanderies by the Grand Encampment.
TheAncient and Accepted Scottish Rite is very popular in the United States. There are two Supreme Councils—one for the Southern Jurisdiction, which is the Mother Council of the world. Its nominal Grand East is at Charleston, South Carolina; but its Secretariat has been removed to Washington City since the year 1870. The other Council is for the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction. Its Grand Eastand Secretariat is at Boston, Massachusetts. The Northern Supreme Council has jurisdiction over the States of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. The Southern supreme Council exercises jurisdiction over all the other States and Territories of the United States.
In the popular mythology of the ancients there were many gods. It was to correct this false opinion, and to teach a purer theogony, that the initiations were invented. And so, as Warburton says, "the famous secret of the Mysteries was the unity of the Godhead." This, too, is the doctrine of Masonic initiation, which is equally distant from the blindness of atheism and the folly of polytheism
Brothers O.N. Pomeroy and Benjamin Dettlebaek, stationary steam engineers of Cleveland, Ohio, in the course of a friendly meeting, October 20, I898, conversed about an organization being formed of engineers who were Master Masons.
The outcome of this discussion was that on December 10, 1859, a notice was published in a local newspaper calling a meeting at the Forest City House, when twenty-seven were present on December 22, 1899. Similar organizations have been planted in other parts of the country and these have been grouped into the Universal Craftsmen Council of Engineers. This latter organization came into being through a conference held at Brother Pomeroy's residence at Cleveland, September 14, 1903, with the following, delegates: Oscar Mabie and John L.O'Brien of Chicago, John H.Leathers of Rochester, New York, James Gillespie of Philadelphia, Charles E.Davey of Detroit and Benjamin Dettleback of Cleveland. The organization has established a publication entitled the Universal Engineer. In similar crafts, associations have been formed, as at Cleveland, Ohio, including workers in electricity, plumbing, steam-fitting, printingsheet- metal, building, wood, etc. These are joined in the Body known as the Cleveland Federation of Craftsmen.
The prime characteristic of feudalism, the form of society left behind by the Barbarian Invasions of the Dark Ages, was its localism, or atomism. There was a castle here, a fortress there, an abbey, a manor, an independent town, a port, each like a small island, and often in a quarrel with some other small unit near it, with only a few tenuous filiaments of language and geography to hold them together in the absence of a national government, hughways, schools, or commerce.
The story of how these " islands of feudalism " were melted down first into nations, and then into a comity of nations, is the grand theme of European history. The method of that history is to begin with one or two of what the historians call "the universals, " which even in feudalism began to come into being; then to show how one after another followed; and finally how the set of universals triumphed over the old separatisms and dreadful feudal isolationism Freemasons can take a lively and even proud interest in this growing list of "universals" because the discoverers of their art and the founders of their fraternity are listed among them; and listed not by Masonic historians only, but by general historians who wrote not with Masons in mind, but for the general public.
Among those universals were: the Carlovingian Empire and its successors; the Medieval Church, with its customs everywhere the same; the use of Latin; universities; architecture, builder gilds, and especially the Free masons who carried the Gothic from Ireland to the Danube, and from Denmark to North Africa; the Orders of Chivalry; the Monastic Orders; the Renaissance; and, at the last, the printing press.
The universities had their rise in Salerno, Prague, Warsaw, Paris, Cologne, Dublin, Oxford, Cambridge, etc., at about the same time as the earliest development of Gothic architecture. Their history has a certain interest for Freemasons because up to a point their history ran parallel with the history of Masons; also because the Medieval Masons had a sincere and longlasting interest in them. The oldest versions of the Old Charges (or Old Constitutions or Old MSS.) strike a modern reader as quaint; but their writers had no intention of being quaint, nor were they quaint men; the only language they had to use, middle or late English, was as yet a half-formed language, and it is the language which tempts us to believe that the writers were simple-minded, or quaint, or only halfliterate.
If when these Old Charges are transliterated into modern English the full content of meaning possessed by them at the time of their writing is elaborated, it will show that the Freemasons were much concerned with the universities, because the universities were synonymous in their eyes with the Liberal Arts and Sciences, and the Masons claimed to be above all lovers and practicers of them. The legend about the two pillars, about liernaes, W7aymus Grecus, Euclid, and Pythagoras have that point. Moreover, the buildings of the Universities, some of which were famous structures, were erected by Freemasons, and a number of Freernasons lived and worked for many years in or near Oxford and Cambridge.

There was also, at some points, and as said above, a parallel in development. Each university was incorporated; had its charter; its offices and courts; had installation ceremonies. They began as gilds. In Northern Europe the Masters were in a gild, and they admitted scholars, who often were called apprentices. In southern Europe the scholars formed gilds, and these gilds chose and employed the Masters. One or two of the Medieval ceremonies still employed by Oxford at times of conferring Degrees, etc., are of an especial interest to students of the Masonic Ritual.
A university Lodge is any regular Lodge "on the campus" of a college or university, and designed to serve the needs of faculty and students. In America such a Lodge has no special membership provisions in its charter, but it may carry them in its by-laws. The Lodge lists published in Grand Lodge Proceedings are so completely nondescriptive that from them it is impossible to learn how many university Lodges there are in the United States, but there the number is not small.
In England where the Craft has always maintained a closer liaison with colleges and with scholarship the number is large relative to the number of schools A University Lodge was constituted in London, in 1730. No. 293 was constituted at Cambridge University ak 1763. The Lodge of Alfred, No. 455, was formed Oxford University, in 1769; it was succeeded by the Apollo University Lodge, No. 357, in 1818. Isaac Newton University Lodge was formed at Cambridge 1861; the Alma Mater, No. 1492, at Cambridge, in 1874; University Lodge at Sheffield, in 1919Achilles, No. 4078, at Newcastle, in 1920; Univer sity Lodge at Liverpool, in 1921; Imperial College Lodge, London, in 1923; Universities Lodge Cardiff, Wales, in 1934; at Birmingham, in 1936- the University of Manchester Lodge, in 1937. The Earl of Harwood, Grand Master of the linited Grand Lodge of England, is an honoraria Member or the last named. (The above list is from Unit)ersQy Lodge Sheffield, No. 5911;1919-1944; by Douglas D Enoop; printed by the Lodge; a brochure of 15 pages.)
Founded at Paris, in 1783, for the practice of mesmerism; Cagliostro, "the Divine Charlatan, "taking an active part in its establishment. Very little at this day is known of it.
See Mesmeric Freemasonry.
See Language, Universal, and Universal a Framasona Ligo.
The Esperanto—auxiliary language— name for Universal Masonic League, an organization founded on August 30, 1913, at Berne, in Switzerland, the object being to further the intimacy of relations between members of all regular Lodges, Grand Lodges, and Grand Orients of all Rites and countries of the world. This was to be on a basis of absolute neutrality in all respects, the members to be independent outside the above scope of the League. As an official organ the Bulletin was used of the International Bureau of Masonic Affairs, intercourse being maintained through the medium of the auxiliary languaes, Esperanto. Offieers were: President, Senator Dr.Magalhaes Lima of Lisbon, Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Portugal; Secretary, Doctor Uhlmann of Zihlschlacht, Switzerland, and Treasurer, Doctor Hederich, Kassel, Germany. More recently the Secretary has been Carl Barthel, Frankfort a/M, Germany.Meetings are usually held annually during the sessions of the International Congresses of the Esperantists (see Lange, Universal).
A Society of a Masonic bearing, founded by Retif de la Bretonne, in Paris, about 1841, and having but one Degree.
The boast of the Emperor Charles V, that the sun never set on his vast Empire, may be applied with equal truth to the Order of Freemasonry. From East to West, and from North to South, over the whole habitable globe, are our Lodges disseminated. Wherever the wandering steps of civilized man have left their footprints, there have our Temples been established. The lessons of Masonic love have penetrated into the wilderness of the West, and the Red Man of our soil has shared with his more enlightened Brother the mysteries of our science; while the arid sands of the African desert have more than once been the scene of a Masonic greeting. Freemasonry is not a fountain, giving health and beauty to some single hamlet, and slaking the thirst of those only who dwell upon its humble banks; but it is a mighty stream, penetrating through every hill and mountain, and gliding through every field and valley of the earth, bearing in its beneficent bosom the abundant waters of love and charity for the poor, the widow, and the orphan of every land.
The document semanating from any of the Bodies of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite commence with the following epigraph: Universi Terrarum Orbis Architectonisper Cloriam Ingentis, meaning By the Glory of the Grand Architect of the Universe. This is the correct formas first published, in 1802, by the Mother Council at Charleston in its Circular of that year, and used in all its Charters and Patents.
One of the mystical and theosophic works written by SaintMartin, the founder of the Rite of Martinism, was entitled Le Philosophe Inconnu, or The Unknown Philosopher, whence the appellation was of ten given by his disciples to theauthor. A Degree of his Rite also received the same name.
When the Baron Von Hund established his system or Rite of Strict Olinservance, he declared that the Order was directed by certain Freemasons of superior rank, whose names as well as their designs were to be kept secret from all the Brethren of the lower Degrees; although there was an insinuation that they were to be found or to be heard of in Scotland. To these secret dignitaries he gave the title of Superiores Incogniti , or Unknown Superiors. Many Masonic writers, suspecting that Jesuitism was at the bottom of all the Freemasonry of that day, asserted that S.I., the initials of Superiores Incogniti, meant really Societas Jesu, that is, the Society of Jesus or the Jesuits. It is scarcely necessary now to say that the whole story of the Unknown Superiors was probablya myth.

However, the reader will find much interest in an old book or two of 1788, as Les Jesuites chassés de la Maçonnerie et leur Poignard brisé par les Masons, or The Jesuits driven fom Masonry and their dagger broken by the Masons. Another one, presumably a continuation of the above essay, is the Memeté des Quatre Voeux de la Compagnie de S.Ignace et des Quatres Grades de la Maçonnerie de S.Jean, that is the Identity of the four Vows of the Company of Saint Ignace (Ignatius Loyola, 1491-1556, soldier-priest, a Spaniard who founded the Order of the Jesuits or Society of Jesus) and the Masonry of Saint John. Both are of the same date and the title page might indicate by Orient de Londres, East of London, that they were published in that city but they were printed at Paris and probably by Nicholas de Bonneville. Brother Bernard Beyer, Bibliographie der Freimaurerischen Literature, 1926, lists over a dozen works dealing with the Jesuits, from this standpoint, amongst the many discussing matters pertaining to the Roman Catholic Church.

As to this question generally Brother Dudley Wrigt has discussed it help fully in Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry, London, 1922, and there is a lecture in pamphlet form by Brother R.J.Lemert, Catholicism and Freemasonry, Helena, Montana, examining the causes of the hostility displayed by the Roman Catholic hierarchy against the Masonic Institution, and a treatise, The Principles of Freemasonry, 374 pages, 1918, by Brother Melville R. Grant, S.G.I.G. is an informing and convincing contribution to the subject from the Truth Publishing Compally, Meridian, Mississippi.
See Incommunicable.
A work thus entitled and edited by the late brother Hughan, was published in 1871, forming part of the book called Masonic Sketches and Reprints and containing many manuscripts of value, theretofore unknown to the general Masonic public. Many others have since been traeed, and the work of Masonic progress has a large field in the near future which will be productive of great historic good.
In the lecture used in the United States in the early part of the nineteenth century, and in some parts of the Country almost as recently as the middle of the century, the Apprentices at the Temple were said to wear their Aprons in the peculiar manner characteristic of that class that they might preserve their garments from being defiled by untempered mortar. This is mortar which has not been properly mixed foruse, and it thus became a symbol of passions and appetites not duly restrained. Hence the Speculative Apprentice was made to wear his Apron in that peculiar manner to teach him that he should not allow his soul to be defiled by the "untempered mortar of unruly passions."
The Tetragrammaton, or Divine Name, which is more commonly called the lneffable Name The two words are precisely synonymous.
That there are men in our Order whose lives and characters reflect no credit on the Institution, whose ears turn coldly from its beautiful lessons of morality, whose hearts are untouched by its soothing influences of brotherly kindness, whose hands are not opened to aid in its deeds of charity is a fact which we cannot deny, although we may be permitted to express our grief while we acknowledge its truth. But these men, though in the Temple, are not of the Temple; they are among us , but are not with us; they belong to our household, but they are not of our faith; they are of Israel, but they are not Israel. We have sought to teach them, but they would not be instructed; seeing, they have not perceived; and hearing they have not understood the symbolic language in which our lessons of wisdom are communicated. The fault is not with us, that we have not given, but with them, that they have not received.
And, indeed, hard and unjust would it be to censure the Masonic Institution, because, partaking of thein firmity and weakness of human wisdom and human means, it has been unable to give strength and perfection to all who come within its pale. The denial of a Peter, the doubting of a Thomas, or even the betrayal of a. Judas, could cast no reproach on that holy band of Apostles of which each formed a constituent part.

"Is Freemasonry answerable," says Doctor Oliver (Landmarks ,page148),"for the misdeeds of an individual Brother. Barnomeans. He has had the advantage of Masonic instruction, and has failed to profit by it. He has enjoyed Masonic privileges, but has not possessed Masonic virtue."
Such a man it is our duty to reform, or to dismiss; but the world should not condem us, if we fail in our attempt at reformation. God alone can change the heart. Freemasonry furnishes precepts and obligations of duty which, if obeyed, must make its memhers wiser, better, happier men; but it claims no power of regeneration. Condemn when our instruction is evil, but not when our pupils are dull, and deaf to our lessons; for, in so doing, you condemn the holy religion which you profess. Freemasonry prescribes no principles that are opposed to the sacred teachings of the Divine Lawgiver, and sanctions no acts that are not consistent with the sternest morality and the most faithful obedience to government and the laws; and while this continues to be its character it cannot, without the most atrocious injustice, be made responsible for the acts of its unworthy members.

Of all human socicties, Freemasonry is undoubtedly under all circumstances, the fittest to form the truly goodman. But however well conceived may be its laws, they cannot completely change the natural disposition of those who ought to observe them. Intruth, they serve as lights and guides; but as they can only direct men byre straining the impetuosity of their passions these last too often become dominant and the Institution is forgotten.
Minor Sanskrit works regarded as appendices to the four Canonical Vedas, and comprising the Ayureveda on medicine, the Dhanurueda, on archery, the Gândharvaveda, on music, and the Silpasâstra, or Arthasastras, on mechanics and other practical subjects. These were looked upon as inspired works and so classed by Hindu scholars among the treasures of the ancient literary language of India (see Puranas).
A Sanskrit word meaning Mystic. A name given to certain Sanskrit works, of which about one hundred and fifty are known, and founded upon the Brahmana portion of the Vedas, containing the "mysterious doctrine" of the process of creation, nature of a Supreme Being, and its due relation to the human soul. The older Upanishads are placed among the Sruti, or writings supposed to be inspired (see Sruti).
The practice of holding Masonic Lodges in the upper rooms of houses is so universal that, in all his experience, Doctor Mackey had no knowledge of a single instance in which a Lodge has been held in a room on the first floor of a building. Brother Clegg has been presentat a country Lodge held in a one-story building which of course was carefully tiled.
The most apparent reason for the use of an upper floor room is, that security from being overseen or overheard may be thus obtained, and hence Doctor Oliver says, in his Book of the Lodge (page44), that "a Masonic hall should be isolated, and, if possible, surrounded with lofty walls ....As, however, such a situation in large towns, where Freemasonry is usually practised, canseld om be obtained with convenience to the Brethren, the Lodge should be formed in an upperstory. "This, as a practical reason, will be perhaps sufficient to Freemasons in general. But to those who are more curious, it may be well to say, that for this custom there is also a mystical reason of great antiquity.
Gregory, in his book, Notes and Observations on some Passages of Scripture (1671, page 17), states:"The upper rooms in Scripture were places in that part of the house which was highest from the ground, set apart by the Jews for their private orisons and devotions, to be addressed towards Salornon's Temple. "This room received, in the Hebrew language, the appellation of Alijah, which has been translated by the Greek huperoon, and improperly by the Latin ceneculum. The Hebrew and the Greek both have the signification of an upperroom, while the Latin appellative would give the idea of adining-room or place fore aeting, thus taking a way the sacred character of the apartment. The Alijah was really a secret chamber or recess in the upper part of the house, devoted to religious uses. Hence the wise men or Rabbis of Israel are called by the Talmudists beni Alijah, or "the sons of the upperor secret room."

And so (in Psalm civ,2 and 3), the Psalmist speaks of God as stretching out the heavens like a curtain, and laying the beams of his chambers in the waters, where, in the original, the word here translated "chambers" is the plural of Alijah, and should more properly be rendered "his secret chambers": an allusion, as Doctor Clarke thinks, to the Holy of Holies of theTaberrtacle. Again, in Second Chronicles (ix,3 and 4), it is said that when the Queen of Sheba had seen the wisdom of Solomon and the house that he had built — his provisions, servants, and cupbearers, "and his ascent by which he went up in to the house of the Lord— there was no more spirit in her. "The word which our translators have rendered "his ascent, "is again this word Alijah, and the passage should be rendered "his secret chamber," or" upperroom"; the one by which, through a private way, he was enabled to pass in to the Temple.

On the advent of Christianity, this Jewish custom of worshiping privately in an upperroom was adopted by the apostles and disciples, and the New Testament contains man vinstances of the practice, the word Alijah being, as we have already remarked, translated by the Greek huperoon, which hasa similar meaning. Thus in Acts (i,13), we find the apostle spraying in an upperroom; and again, in the twentieth chapter, the disciples are represented as having met at Ephesus in an upperroom, where Peter preached to them. But it is unnecessary to multiply instances of this usage. The evidence is complete that the Jews, and after them the primitive Christians, performed their devotions in upperrooms. And the care with which Alijah, huperoon, or upperchamber, is always used to designate the place of devotion, abundantly indicates that any other place would have been considered improper.

Hence we may trace the practise of holding Lodges in upperrooms to this ancient custom; and that, again, has perhaps some connection with the sacred character always given by the ancients to "highplaces," so that it is said, in the Masonic lectures, that our aneient Brethren met on high hills and low valets. There ason there assigned by implication is that the meeting may be secret; that is, the lectures place the Lodge on a high hill, a vale, or other secret place. And this reason is more definitely stated in the modern lectures, which say that they somet "to observe the approach of cowans and eayesdroppers, and to guard against surprise. "Probably the ancient symbolism of the sanctity of a high place was referred to as well as that more practical idea of secrecy and safety.
And given it strictly in charge ever to walk and act as such before God and Man Admonition in the Apprentice Degree. The definition of Man is interwoven with the Triangleor Pyramid, hence true and upright. In S.P.Andrew's Radical Etymology, or theorigin of language and languages, we find the following: "Throughout the Indo-European family of languages, the syllable ma—changeable to me, mi, mo, mu— means great, and na —change able to ne, ni, no, nu —means small, as their primal sense. Hence mana, penal menu, etc., mean great- small and thence ratio or proportion, allied with tapering, the cone, pyramid, or triangle. The Latin men-sa is a' surveyor's triangular measuring board'; me(n)ta,' anything conical'; mon-s,' a mountain'; men-s, 'the mind,' that is,' ratio'; Sanskrit, ma; Latin, mensum; English, measure; hence, Sanskrit, mana, manu meaning to think''(see Man).
The upright posture of the Apprentice in the Northeast Corner, as a symbol of upright conduct, was emphasized in the ritual by Preston, who taught in his lectures that the candidate then represented "ajust and upright man and Mason. "The same symbol is mis referred to by Hutchinson, who says that "as the builder raises his column by the plane and perpendicular, so should the Masone arry himself toward the world. "Indeed, the application of the Corner-stone, or the Square Stone, as a symbol of uprightness of conduct, which is precisely the Masonic symbolism of the candidate in the Northeast, was familiar to the ancients; for Plato says that he who valiantly sustains the shocks of adverse fortune demeaning himself uprightly, is truly good and of a square posture.
Hebrew, meaning Are. Masonically alludes to fire, lights or spirit

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