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The Hebrew phrase, meaning it is just to reward labor. An expression found in the Thirteenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
German, Society of Virtue. See Concordists.
The air of the song written by Matthew Birkhcad, and published in the Book of Constitutions of 1723, with the title of the Entered Prentice's Song, is familiarly and distinctively known as the Freemasons' Tune. William Chappell, in a work entitled Populur Music of the Olden Time, gives the following interesting account of it:

This tune was very popular at the time of the ballad operas, and I am informed that the same words are still sung to it at Masonic meetings. The air wat introduced in The Village Opera The Chambermaid, The Lottery The Grub-Street O pera and The Lover his own Rival. It is contained in the third volume of The Dancing Master, and of Walsh's New Country Dancing Master. Words and music are included in Watt's Musical Miscellany (iii, page ~2)l and in British Melody or The Musical Magazine (folio 1739). They were also printed on broadsides.

In the Gentlemen s Magazine for October, 1731, the first stanza is printed as ad Health, by Mr. Birkhead.' It seems to be there quoted from the Constitutions of the freemasons, by the Rev. James Anderson, A.M., one of the Worshipful Masters.
There are several versions of the tune. one in Pills to Purge Melancholy (1719, ii, page 230), has a second part but that being almost a repetition of the first taken an octave higher, is out of the compass of ordinary voices, and has therefore been generally rejected.
In A Complete Collection of Old and New English and Scotch Songs (1735 ii, page 172) the name is given as Ye Commoners and Peers; but Leveridge composed another tune to these words. In Tile Musical Mason, or Freemasons' Pocket Companion, being a collection of songs used in all Lodges, to which are added the Freemasons' March and Ode (1791), this is entitled The Entered Apprentice's Song. Many stanzas have been added from time to time, and others have been altered.
See Birkhead, Matthew; Entered Prentice's Song, and Songs of Freemasonry
In Northern Afriea, between Algeria and Tripoli, on theshore of the Mediterranean Sea. Several Lodges have been constituted in Tunis and on July 17, 1879, a Grand Lodge was formed. In 1917 its Grand Master was Gustavus Daemons and it controlled about six Lodges.
One of the three historical divisions of religion—the other two being the Aryan and the Semitic—and embraces the two sacred codes of China, namely, those of Confucius and Lao-tse.
The usual head-dress worn in Eastern nations, consisting of a quilted cap, without rim, and a sash or scarf of cotton or linen wound about the cap. In Royal Arch Chapters, the turban, of a purple color, constitutes the head-dress of the Scribe, because that officer represents the Jewish prophet Haggai.
The third dignity in the Order of Knights Hospitaler of Saint John, or Knights of Malta. It took its name from the Turcopoles, a sort of light horse mentioned in the history of the Christian wars in Palestine. The office of Turcopolier was held by the Conventional Bailiff, or Head of the Langue, the national division, of England. He had the command of the Cavalry of the Order.
A writer in the Freemasons Quarterly Review (1844, page 21), says that there was a Masonic meeting in Constantinople, at which some Turks were initiated, but that the government prohibited the w future meetings. This must have been an irregular Lodge. Many and various authorities have founded Lodges in Turkey. Mention of Lodges at Smyrna and Aleppo occurred in a London newspaper as early as 1738. Oriental Lodge under the Grand Lodge of England has been active since 1856 at Constantinople.
A Grand Lodge of Turkey formed by Ionic, Anatolia, and Benzenzia Lodges was declared illegal in 1859 by the Grand Lodge of England.
A District Grand Lodge was established in 1861 with Sir Henry Bulwer, British Ambassador, as District Grand Master. A Supreme Council was opened in 1869 and a Grand Orient of Turkey in 1908.
Since 1894 the Grand Lodge of Hamburg has had a Lodge working in German, Die Leuchte am goldenen Horn, meaning Liszt at theGolden Horn, these last two words referring to the crescent-shaped strait, the Bosporus, on which Constantinople is situated. The Grand Orient of Italy has three Lodges, the Grand Orient of France one, all at Constantinople.

The Grand Orient of France has two Lodges at Smyrna, Homere from 1909 and Meles from 1913; Barkai from 1905 at Jaffa, and Moriah Lodge at Jerusalem since 1913. The Grand Orient has also had a Lodge at Beyrouth in Syria, Le Liban from 1858; and at Zahle, also in Syria, Etoile du Liban, meaning in French Star of the Laban, since 1913. The Grand Orient of Italy has Lodges at Adana and Angora, two at Smyrna, one at Syrian Tripoli, and another at Rodi.
In these Lodges many native Mohammedans have been initiated. The Turks, however, have always had secret societies of their own, which has led some writers to suppose, erroneously, that Freemasonry existed long before the date of its actual introduction. Thus, the Begtaschi form a secret society in Turkey, numbering many thousands of Mussulmans in its ranks, and none but a true Moslem can be admitted to the Brotherhood. It is a religious Order, and was founded in the year 1328 by the Hadji Begtaseh, a famous dervish, from whom it derives its name. The Begtaschi have certain signs and passwords by which they are enabled to recognize the "true Brethren," and by which they are protected from vagabond impostors.
A writer in Notes and Queries says, in allusion to this Society, that "One day, during the summer of 1855, an English merchant captain, while walking through the streets of a Turkish quarter of Constantinople, encountered a Turk, who made use of various signs of Freemasonry, some of which, the captain being a Mason, he understood and others he did not." It is, however, probable in this instances considering the date, that the Turk was really a Freemason, and possessed some higher Degrees, which had not been attained by the English captain. There is also another equally celebrated Order in Turkey, the Melewi, who have secret modes of recognition.
Oliver says (Landmarks ii, page 521) that the first stone in the third row of the High Priest's Breastplate "was a figure, hyacinth, or turquoise." The stone was a figure; but Doetor Oliver is incorrect in supposing that it is a synonym of either a hyacinth or a turquoise, which are stones of a very different nature (see Breast plate) .
The simplest of the five Orders of Architecture, as its columns are never fluted, and it does not allow the introduction of any kind of ornament. It is one of the two modern Orders, not being found in any ancient example. Hence it is of no value in Masonic symbolism.
Twelve being composed of the mystical numbers 7+5 or of 3X4, the triad multiplied by the quaternion, was a number of considerable value in ancient systems. Thus there were twelve signs of the zodiac, twelve months in the year, twelve Tribes of Israel, twelve stones in the pectoral, and twelve oxen supporting the molten sea in the Temple. There were twelve apostles in the new law, and the New Jerusalem has twelve gates, twelve foundations, is twelve thousand furlongs square, and the number of the sealed is twelve times twelve thousand. Even the Pagans respected this number, for there were in their mythology twelve superior and twelve inferior gods.
See Companions, The Twelve.
The Eleventh Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite; more correctly Sublime Knight Elected, which see.
The Jews had among their Divine names, besides the Tetragrammaton, a two-lettered name, which was Jah, as well as a twelve-lettered and a forty-two-lettered name. None of these, however, were so sacred and unutterable as the Tetragrammaton. Maimonides says of the twelve-lettered name, that it was formerly used in stead of Adonai, as being more emphatic, in place of the Tetragrammaton, whenever they came to that sacred name in reading. It v-as not, however, like the Tetragrammaton, eommunicated only to their disciples, but was imparted to any that desired its knowledge. But after the death of Simeon the Just, the Tetragrammaton ceasing to be used at all, the twelve lettered name was substituted in blessing the people; and then it became a secret name, and was communicated only to the most pious of the Priests. What was the twelve-lettered name is uncertain, though all agree that it was not a name, but a sentence composed of twelve letters. Rabbi Bechai says it was formed by a triple combination and permutation of the four letters of the Tctragrammaton; and there are other explanations equally unsatisfactory.
There was also a forty-two-lettered name, composed, says Bechai, of the first forty-two letters of the Book of Genesis. Another and a better explanation has been propounded by Franek, that it is formed out of the names of the ten Sephiroth, which with the l, vau, or and, amount exactly to forty-two letters. There was another name of seventy-two letters, which is still more inexplicable. Of all these names, Maimonides (more Nebuhim I, Ixii) says that, as they could not possibly constitute one word, they must have been composed of several words, and he adds:

There is no doubt that these wards Conveyed certain ideas, which w ere designed to bring man nearer to the true conception of the Divine Essence, through the process we have already described. These words, composed of numerous letters, have been designated as a single name, because, like all accidental proper names, they indicate one single object: and to make the object more intelligible several words are employed, as many words are sometimes used to express one single thing. This must be well understood, that they taught the ideas indicated by these names, and not the simple pronunciation of the meaningless letters.
The old English lectures, which were abrogated by the United Grand Lodge of England in 1813, when it adopted the system of Hemming, contained the following passage: "There are in Freemasonry twelve original points, which form the basis of the system, and comprehend the whole ceremony of initiation. Without the existence of these points, no man ever was, or can be, legally and essentially received into the Order.
Every person who is made a Mason must go through these twelve forms and ceremonies, not only in the first degree, but in every subsequent one " Hence, it will be seen that our ancient Brethren deemed these Tweltse Original Points of Freemasonry, as they were called, of the highest importance to the ceremony of initiation, and they consequently took much pains, and exercised much ingenuity, in giving them a symbolical explanation. But as, by the decree of the Grand Lodge, they no longer constitute a part of the English lectures, and were never introduced into the United States of America, there can be no impropriety in presenting a brief explanation of them, for which we are indebted to the industry of Doctor Oliver, who has treated of them at great length in the eleventh lecture of his historical Landmarks.
The ceremony of initiation, when these points constituted a portion of the ritual, u as divided into twelve parts, in allusion to the twelve Tribes of Israel, to each of which one of the points was referred, as follows:

1. The opening of the Lodge was symbolized by the Tribe of Reuben, because Reuben was the first-born of his father Jacob, who called him "the beginning of his strength." He was, therefore, appropriately adopted as the emblem of that ceremony which is essentially the beginning of every initiation.

2. The preparation of the candidate was symbolized by the Tribe of Simeon, because Simeon prepared the instruments for the slaughter of the Shechemites, and that part of the ceremony which relates to offensive weapons, was used as a token of our abhorrence for the cruelty exercised on that occasion

3. The report of the Senior Deacon referred to the Tribe of Levi, because, in the slaughter of the Shechemites Levi was supposed to have made a signal or report to Simeon his brother, with whom he was engaged in attacking these unhappy people while unprepared for defense.

4. The entrance of the candidate into the Lodge was symbolized by the Tribe of Judah, because they were the first to cross the Jordan and enter the promised land coming from the darkness and servitude, as it were, of the wilderness into the light and liberty of Canaan.

5. Tile prayer was symbolized by the Tribe of Zebulun because the blessing and prayer of Jacob were given to Zebulun, in preference to his brother Issachar.

6. The Circumambulation referred to the Tribe of Issaehar, beeause, as a thriftless and indolent Tribe, they required a leader to advanee them to an equal elevation with the other tribes.

7. Advancing to the altar was symbolized by the Tribe of Dan, to teach us, by contrast, that we should advance to truth and holiness as rapidly as that bribe advanced to idolatry, among whon1 the golden serpent was first set up to receive adoration.

8. The obligation referred to the Tribe of Gad, in allusion to the solemn vow which was made by Jephthah, Judge of Israel, who was of that Tribe.

9. The entrusting of the candidate with the mysteries was symbolized by the Tribe of Asher, because he was then presented with the rich fruits of Masonic knowledge. as Asher was said to be the inheritor of fatness and royal dainties.

10. The investiture of the lambskin, by which the candidate is declared free, referred to the Tribe of Naphtali, which was invested by Moses with a peculiar freedom when he said, "O Naphtali, satisfied with favor, and full with the blessing of the Lord, possess thou the West and the South."

11. The ceremony of the northeast corner of the Lodge referred to Joseph, because, as this ceremony reminds us of the most superficial part of Freemasonry, so the two half Tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, of which the Tribe of Joseph was composed, were accounted to be more superficial than the rest as they were descendants of the grandsons only of Jacot.

12. The closing of the Lodge was symbolized by the Tribe of Benjamin, who was the youngest of the sons of Jacob, and thus closed his father's strength.

Such were the celebrated twelve original points of freemasonry of the ancient English lectures. Whey were never introduced into the United States of America, and they are now disused in England. But it will be seen that, while some of the allusions are perhaps abstruse, many of them are ingenious and appropriate. It will not, perhaps, be regretted that they have become obsolete; yet it cannot be denied that they added something to the symbolism and to the religious reference of Freemasonry. At all events, they are matters of Masonic antiquity, and, as such, are not unworthy of attention.
A rule two feet long, which is divided by marks into twenty-four parts each one inch in length. The Operative Mason uses it to take the necessary dimensions of the stone that he is about to prepare. It has been adopted as one of the working-tools of the Entered Apprentice in Speculative Freemasonry, where its divisions are supposed to represent hours. Hence its symbolic use is to teach him to measure his time so that, of the twenty-four hours of the day, he may devote eight hours to the service of God and a worthy distressed Brother, eight hours to his usual vocation, and eight to refreshment and sleep. In the twenty-four-inch gage is a symbol of time well employed, following as best we can the example of the lines told to us by Longfellow in the Psalm of Life,
Lives of great men all remind us
We can make our lives sublime,
And departing leave behind us
Footprints on the sands of time.
The Masonic essence of the lesson is ability, preparedness and readiness, recalling the suggestion of William Shakespeare to the workman in Julius Caesar (act I, scene i, line 5), Where is thy leather apron and thy rule? What dost thou with thy best apparel on?
A number of mystical import, partly because it is the produet of 3 and 7, the most sacred of the odd numbers, but especially because it is the sulr. of the numerical value of the letters of the Divine Name,Eheyeil, thus:
5+ 10+ 5+ 1 = 21.
It is little valued in Freemasonry, but is deemed of great importance in the Cabala and in Alchemy; in the latter, because it refers to the twenty-one days of distillation necessary for the conversion of the grosser metals into silver (see Numbers and Numeration by Letters).
Although the number twentyseven is found in the Degree of Select Master and in some of the other advanced Degrees, it can scarcely be called in itself a sacred number. It derives its importance from the fact that it is produced by the multiplication of the square of three by three, thus: 3 X 3 X 3 = 27 (see Three).

This is considered by the Cabalists as the most sacred of mystical nurnbers, beeause it is equal to the numerical value of the letters of the Tetragrammaton, thus: 5+6+5+10=26.
The title given by the Talmudists to the name of God, the Hebrew word, Jah, which see.
Tyle and Tyler are the old and now obsolete spelling of Tile and Tiler, which see.
In the science of symbology it is the picture or model of something of which it is considered as a symbol. Hence the words type and symbol are in this sense synonymous. Thus the Tabernacle was a type of the Tempel as the Thempel is a type of the Lodge
The brother and slayer of Osiris, in the Egyptian mythology. As Osiris was a type or symbol of the sun, Typhon was the symbol of winter, when the vigor, heat, and, as it were, life of the sun are destroyed, and of darkness as opposed to light.
An ancient city of Phenicia, which in the time of King Solomon was celebrated as the residence of King Hiram, to whom that monarch and his father David were indebted for great assistance in the construction of the Temple at Jerusalem. Tyre was distant from Jerusalem about one hundred and twenty miles by sea, and was thirty miles nearer by land. An intercourse between the two eities and their respective monarchs was, therefore, eaXsily cultivated The inhabitants of Tyre were distinguished for their skill as artificers, especially as workers in brass and other metals; and it is said to have been a principal seat of that skilful body of architects known as the Dionysiac Fraternity.
The City of Sidon, which was under the Tyrian governtnent, was but twenty miles froln Tyre, and situated in the forest of Leballon. The Sidonians were, therefore, naturally wood-cutters, and were engaged in felling the trees, which were afterward sent on floats by sea from Tyre to Joppa, and thence carried by land to Jerusalem, to be employed in the Temple building. Doctor Morris, who visited Tyre in 1868, describes it in his Freemasonry in the Holy Land (page 91) as a city under ground, lying, like Jerusalem, twenty to fifty feet beneath the debris or rubbish of many centuries. It consists, to use the language of a writer he has cited, of "prostrate and broken columns, dilapidated temples, and mounds of buried fragments."
It is an error of Doctor Oliver, and some other writers, to suppose that the stones of the Temple of Jerusalem were furnished from the Quarries of Tyre. If there were such quarries, they were not used for that purpose, as the stones were taken from the immediate vicinity of the edifice (see Quarries) .
Those who sustain the hypothesis that Freemasonry originated at the Temple of Solomon have advanced the theory that the Tyrian Freemasons were the members of the Society of Dionysian Artificers, who at the time of the building of Solomon's Temple flourished at Tyre. Many of them were sent to Jerusalenl by Hiram, King of Tyre, to assist King Solomon in the construction of his Temple. There, uniting with the Jews, who had only a knowledge of the speculative principles of Freemasonry, which had been transmitted to them from Noah, through the patriarchs, the Tyrian Freemasons organized that combined system of Operative and Speculative Masonry which continued for many centuries, until the beginning of the eighteenths to characterize the Institution. This hypothesis is maintained with great ingenuity by Lawrie in his History of Freemasonry, or by Doctor Brewster, if he was really the author of that work, and until recently it has been the most popular theory respecting the origin of Freemasonry. Out as it is wanting he the support of historical evidence, it has yielded to the more plausible speculations of recent writers.

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