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Guardians of the Sixty-seventh Degree of the Modern Rite of Memphis.
A triple cord whose strands are of different colors; it is used in several Rites as an instructive symbol (see Seneclar). A striking allusion to the strength of a triple cord is found in Eeelesiastes (iv, 12) "And if one prevail against him, two shall withstand him; and a threefold cord is not quickly broken." Yet we must remernber, as Whittier says in the Moral Warfare of the cause at heart, So let it be in God's own might We gird us for the coming fight And, strong in Him whose cause is ours In conflict with unholy powers, We grasp the weapons He has given,— The Light, and Truth, and Love of Heaven.
THREE GLOBES, RITE OF THE GRAND LODGE OF THE.
On September 13, 1740, the Lodge of the Three Globes. zu den drei Wellkugeln, was established in the City of Berlin, Prussia. In 1744 it assumed the rank and title of a Grand Mother Lodge. At first it worked, like all the other Lodges of Germany, in the English system of three Degrees, and adopted the English Book of Constitutions as its law. But it subsequently became infected with the advanced Degrees, which were at one time so popular in Germany, and especially with the Striet Observance system of Von Hund, which it accepted in 1766. At the extinction of that system the Grand Lodge adopted one of its own, in doing which it was assisted by the labors of Dr. I. F. Zollner, the Grand Master. Its Rite became one of seven higher Degrees added to the three primitive. The latter were under the control of the Grand Lodge; but the seven higher ones were governed by an Internal or Inner Supreme Orient, whose members were, however, elected by the Grand Lodge.
THREE GRAND OFFERINGS.
See Ground Floor of the Lodge.
Three points in a triangular form (.°.) are placed after letters in a Masonic document to indicate that such letters are the initials of a Masonic title or of a technical word in Freemasonry, as G.-. M.. for Grand Master, or G.°. L.°. for Grand Lodge. It is not a symbol, but simply a mark of abbreviation. The attempt, therefore, to trace it to the Hebrew three yods, a Cabalistic sign of the Tetragrammaton, or any other ancient symbol, is futile. It is an abbreviation, and nothing more; although it is probable that the idea was suggested by the sacred character of the number three as a Masonic number, and these tree dots might refer to the position of the three officers in a French Lodge. Ragon says (Orthodoxie Maçonnique, page 71) that the mark was first used by the Grand Orient of France in a circular issued August 12, 1774, in which we read "G.. O.. de France." A common expression of anti-Masonic writers in France when referring to the Brethren of the Craft is Fréres Trois Points, Three Point Brothers, a term cultivated in their mischief survives in honor because reminding the brotherhood of cherished association and symbols. The abbreviation is now constantly used in Freneh documents, and, although not aeeel)ted by the English Freemasons, has been very generally adopted in other countries. In the United States, the use of this abbreviation is gradually extending.
THREE SACRED UTENSILS.
These were the vessels of the Tabernacle as to which the Rev. W Joseph Barclay, LL.D., makes the following quotation: "Rabbi José, son of Rabbi Judah, said a fiery Ark, and a fiery Table, and a fiery Candlestick descended from heaven. And Moses saw them, and made according to their similitude"; and thus comments: "They also think that the Ark of the Covenant is concealed in a chamber under the Temple Enclosure, and that it and all the holy vessels will be found at the coming of the Messiah."
The Apocrypha, however, informs us that Jeremiah laid the Tabernacle, and the Ark, and the Altar of Incense in a "hollow cave, in the mountain, where Moses climbed up and saw the heritage of God. And the place shall be unknown until the time that God gather his people again together, and receive them into Mercy" (Second Maccabees ii, 7).
The sacred vessels, which were taken to Rome after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D., and are now seen Sculptured on the Arch of Titus, were carried off to Africa by the Vandals under Genseric. Belisarius took them to Constantinople in 520 A D. They were afterward sent back to Jerusalem, and thence they are supposed to have been carried to Persia, When Chosroes plundered the Holy City, in June, 614 A.D.
Of the five human senses, the three which are the most important in Masonie symbolism are Seeing, Hearing, and Feeling, because of their respective reference to certain modes of recognition, and because, by their use, Freemasons are enabled to practise that universal language the possession of which is the boast of the Order.
See Steps on the Master's Carpet.
among the Hebrews, circular spots of hard ground were used, as now, for the purpose of threshing corn. After they were properly prepared for the purpose, they became permanent possessions. One of these, the property of Ornan the Jehusite, was on Mount Moriah (First Chronieles xxi, 15 28). It was purchased by David, for a place of sacrifice, for six hundred shekeLs of gold, and on it the Temple was afterward built. Hence it is sometimes used as a symbolic name for the Temple of Solomon or for a Master's Lodge. Thus it is said in the instructions that the Freemason comes "from the lofty tower of Babel, where language was confounded and Masonry lost" and that he is traveling "to the threshing-floor of Ornan the Jebusite, where language was restored and Masonry found."
The interpretation of this rather abstruse symbolic expression is that on his initiation the Freemason comes out of the profane world, where there is ignorance and darkness and Confusion as there was at Babel, and that he is approaching the Masonic world, where, as at the Temple built on Ornan's threshingfloor, there is knowledge and light and order.
The seat occupied by the Grand Master in the Grand Lodge of England is called the throne, in allusion, probably, to the throne of Solornon. In American Grand Lodges it is styled the Oriental Chair of King Solomon, a title which is also given to the seat of the Master of a subordinate Lodge.
In ecclesiology, the seat in a Cathedral occupied by a Bishop is called a throne; and in the Middle Ages, according to Du Cange, the same title was not only applied to the seats of Bishops, but often also to those of Abbots, or even Priests who were in possession of titles or churches.
A Hindu Association that offered human sacrifices to their divinity Kali. It was dreaded for its violence and the fierceness of its members, who were termed either Stranglers or Aspirants.
See Urim and Thummim.
From Thur, or Thus meaning frankincentse, and ible which has here the same significance as the English suffix able, as in serviceable, the word Thurible, is in Latin Thuribulum. A metallic censer for burning incense. It is of various forms, but generally in that of an ornamental cup suspended bv chains, whereby the Thurlfer or center bearer keeps the incense burning and diffuses the perfume.
The bearer of the thurible, or center, prepared with frankincense, and used by the Roman Catholic Church at Mass and other ceremonials; ats also in the Philosophic Degrees of Freemasonry.
The fifth dav of the week. So called from its being originally consecrated to Thor, or the Icelandic Thorr, the god of thunder, answering to the Jove of the Romans.
The first clause in the Covenant of Freemasonry which refers to the preservation of the secrets is technically called the tie. It is substantially the same in the Covenant of each Degree, from the lowest to the highest.
See Mystic Tie.
TIERCE, DE LA.
He was the first translator of Anderson's Constitutions into French, the manuscript of which he says that he prepared during his residence in London. He afterward published it at Frankfort, in 1743, with the title of Histoire, Obligations et Statuts de la tres venerable Confraternite des Francs-Maçons, tires de leurs archives et conformis auz traditions les pluts anciennes, etc., History, Obligations and Statutes of the very venerable Confraternity of the Freemasons, taken from their archives and agreeable to the most ancient traditions, etc. His work contains a translation into French of the Old Charges —the General Regulations—and manner of constituting a new Lodge, as given by Anderson in 1723. De la Tierce is said to have been, while in London, an intimate friend of Anderson, the first edition of whose Constitutions he used when he compiled his manuscript in 1725. But he improved on Anderson's work by dividing the history in epochs. This course Anderson pursued in his second edition; which circumstance has led Schneider, in the Neuen Journale zur Freimaurerei, to suppose that in writing that second edition, Anderson was aided by the previous labors of De la Tierce, of whose work he was most probably in possession.
A Lodge is said to be tiled when the necessary precautions have been taken to prevent the approach of unauthorized persons; and it is said to be the first duty of every Freemason to see that this is done before the Lodge is opened. The words to tile are sometimes used in the same sense as to examine, as when it is said that a visitor has been tiled, that is, has been examined. But the expression is not in general use, and does not seem to be a correct employment of the term. The English expression close tyled means that a Lodge is formally secluded against all persons not fully qualified and authorized to enter.
An officer of a Symbolic Lodge, whose duty is to guard the door of the Lodge, and to permit no one to pass in who is not duly qualified, and who has not the permission of the Master. A necessary qualification of a Tiler is, therefore, that he should be a Master Mason. Although the Lodge may be opened in an inferior Degree, no one who has not advanced to the Third Degree can legally discharge the functions of Tiler.
As the Tiler is always compensated for his services, he is considered, in some sense, as the servant of the Lodge. It is, therefore, his duty to prepare the Lodge for its meetings, to arrange the furniture in its proper place, and to make all other arrangements for the convenience of the Lodge. The Tiler need not be a member of the Lodge which he tiles; and in fact, in large cities, one Brother very often performs the duties of Tiler of several Lodges.
This is a very important office, and, like that of the Master and Wardens, owes its existence, not to any conventional regulations, but to the very landmarks of the order; for, from the peculiar nature of our Institution, it is evident that there never could have been a meeting of Freemasons for Masonic purposes, unless a Tiler had been present to guard the Lodge from intrusion. The title is derived from the Operative Art; for as in Operative MasGnry the Tiler, when the edifice is erected, finishes and covers it with the roof of tiles, so in Speeulative Masonry, when the Lodge is duly organized, the Tiler closes the door and covers the sacred preeinets from all intrusion.
See Oath, Tiler's.
TILER'S SWORD, BREAKING.
See Sword, Tiler's.
TILLY DE GRASSE.
See Grasse, Tilly de
The sacred impress made upon the forehead of the Brahman, like unto the Tau to the Hebrew, or the Cross to the Christian.
The French Freemasons so call a stamp, consisting of the initials or monogram of the Lodge, which is impressed in black or red ink upon every official document emanating from the Lodge. When such a document has the seal also attached, it is said to be timbrée et scene that is, stamped tend sealed. The timbre, which differs from the seal, is not used in English or American Lodges.
The image of Tizee, under the conventional figure of a winged old man with the customary scythe and hour-glass, has been adopted as one of the modern symbols in the Third Degree. He is represented as attempting to disentangle the ringlets of a weeping virgin who stands before him. This, which is apparently a never-ending task, but one which Time undertakes to perform, is intended to teach the Freemasons that time, patience and perseverance will enable him to accomplish the great object of a Freemason's labor, and at last to obtain the true Word which is the symbol of Divine Truth. Time, therefore, is in this connection the symbol of well-directed perseverance in the performance of duty.
This symbol with the broken column, so familiar to all Freemasons in the United States is probably an American innovation (see Aroken Column, also Monument, and Weeping Virgin).
TIME AND CIRCUMSTANCES.
The answer to the question "Has he made suitable proficiency?" has been sometimes made, "Such as time and circumstances would permit." This is an error, and may be a mischievous one, as leading to a careless preparation of the candidate for qualification to advancement. The correct answer is "Ele has" (see Advancement, Hurried) .
The title given to the Persian governors of Judea. It was borne by Zerubbabel and Nehemiah. It is supposed to be derived from the Persian borsch, meaning austere or severe, and is therefore, says Gesenius, equivalent to Your Seventy. It is in the modern ritual of the Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States the title of the presiding officer of a Couneil of Prinees of Jerusalem. It is also the title of the presiding officer of the Royal Order of Heredom of Kilwinning.
The Hebrew word . The first month of the Hebrew civil year, and corresponding to the month of September and October, beginning with the new moon of the forrner.
TITAN OF THE CAUCASUS.
The fifty-third Degree of the Memphis Rite.
The titles conferred in the rituals of Freemasonry upon various officers are often apparently grandiloquent, lofty, and have given occasion to some, who have not fully understood their true meaning, to call them absurd and bombastic. On this subject Brother Albert Pike has, in the following remarks, given a just significance to Masonic titles:
Some of these titles we retain, but they have with us meanings entirely consistent with the spirit of equality, which is the foundation and peremptory law of its being, of all Freemasonry. The Knight, with us, is he who devotes his hand, his heart, his brain to the service of freemasonry, and professes himself the sworn soldier of truth: the Prince is he who aims to be chief, Princeps. first, leader among his equals, in virtue and good deeds: the Sovereian is he who, one of an Order whose members are all sovereigns, is supreme only because the law and Constitutions are so which he administers, and by which he like every other Brother, is governed. The titles Puissant, Potent, Wise, and Venerable indicate that power of virtue, intelligence, and wisdom which those ought to strive to attain who are placed in high offices by the suffrages of their Brethren, and all our other titles and designations have an esoteric meaning consistent with modesty and equality and which those who receive them should fully understand.
(See also Sermons, Masonic.)
A further welcome consideration of the subject is by Canon J. W. Horsley, who compares Masonic titles with those of the Episcopal Church, particularly the Church of England. Brother Horsley writes in Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 1910 (part 2, volume X.Yiii, page 98) that it may be obvious to the observing, but all people do not observe, that many of the names and titles used in Freemasonry and its organization have been borrowed directly and in their proper order from the Church of England. He invited an examination of the following illustrations.
1. The Church of England has at its head the two Primates of Canterbury and of York, and their official title is The Most Reverend. Masonry therefore has The Most Worshipful Grand Master, and Pro-Grand Master.
2. Under them in the hierarchy come the Right Reverend the Bishops. So Masonry puts next to its heads The Right Worshipful the Deputy Grand Master, The Right Worshipful Provincial Grand Masters, and The Right Worshipful Grand Wardens.
3. The next title of honor or office in the Church is that of Very Reverend applied to Deans or Heads of Cathedral Chapters. Hence Very Worshipful as designating Grand Chaplain, Grand Treasurers, Registrar, Secretary, Director of Ceremonies, and President of the Board of Benevolence.
4. The unit of the Parish brings us to the parallel of The Reverend Parish Priests and The Worshipful the Master of a Lodge. Each is assisted by two Wardens and the association for many legal and administrative purposes of Rector and Church Wardens is as real and close as that of Master and Wardens.
5. One might here note the resemblance between the ceremony of the induction of the Priest into the benefice or care of a Parish and that of the installation of a Mason as Master of a Lodge. In the case of the more formal appointing of a Canon the resemblance is more marked by the ecclesiastical use of the word "installation" and moreover by the character of the physical act whereby the Bishop puts the new Canon into his Stall with a ritual that comes with no novelty to one who has previously been installed as the Master of a Lodge.
6. Reverting to the fact that of the two Primates the Archbishop of Canterbury is termed Primate of All England and the Archbishop of York the Primate of England, we may recall the time when in the early part of the 18th century there was a Grand Lodge of All England and a Grand Lodge of England.
7. Why certain groupings of Lodges are called Provinces may have puzzled some. Not so, however, those who as Churchmen were familiar with the division of lingland into the Province of Canterbury and the Province of York.
TITLES OF GRAND LODGES.
The title of the Grand Lodge of England is "The United Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. " That of Ireland is "The Grand Masonic Lodge. " Of Scotland, "The Grand Lodge of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons." Those of France are "The Grand Lodge of France," "The National Independent and Regular Grand Lodge of France and the French Colonies," and "The Grand Orient." The same title is taken by the Grand Lodges or Supreme Masonic authorities of Portugal, Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Greece, and also by the Grand Lodges of all the South American States. Of the German Grand Lodged the only three that have distinctive titles are "The Grand National Mother Lodge of the Three Globes," "The Grand National Lodge of Germany," and "The Grand Lodge Royal York of Friendship." In Sweden and Denmark they are simply called "Grand Lodges." In the English possessions of North America they are also called "Grand Lodges."
In the United States the title of the Grand Lodge of Maine, of Massschusetts, of Rhode Island, of Alabama, of Illinois, of Iowa, of Wisconsin, of Minnesota, of Worth Carolina, and of Oregon, is the "Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons"; of Pennsylvania, "The Right Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fratelnity of Free and Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania, and Masonic Jurisdiction Thereunto Belonging"; of Ohio, "The Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons"; of New Hampshire, of Vermont, of New York, of New Jersey, of Arkansas, and of Indiana, it is "The Grand Lodge of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons"; of Maryland, of the District of Columbia, of Florida, of Michigan, of Missouri, and of California, is "Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons"; of South Carolina is "Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Ancient Free Masons"; of all the other States the title is simply the "Grand Lodge."
A significant word in the advanced Degrees. The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite rituals give the name of Tito, Prince Harodim, to him who they say was the first who was appointed by Solomon a Provost and Judge. This person appears to be altogether mythical; the word is not found in the Hebrew language, nor has any meaning been given to it. He is represented as having been a favorite of the King of Israel.
He is said to have ruled over the Lodge of the Intendants of the Building, and to have been one of the twelve illustrious knights who were set over the Twelve Tribes, that of Naphtali being placed under his care. The whole of this legend is, of course, connected with the symbolic signification of those Degrees.
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