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See Workmen at the Temple.
The title of a Knight Templar in French. The expression Chevalier Templier is scarcely ever used by French writers.
Latin for the Temple of Jerusalem. It is supposed by some to be a phrase concealed under the monogram of the Triple Tau, which see.
Ten cannot be considered as a sacred number in Freemasonry. But by the Pythagoreans it was honored as a symbol of the perfection and consummation of all things. It was constituted of the monad and duad, the active and passive principles, the triad or their result, and the quaternior or first square, and hence they referred it to their saered tetractys. They said that ten contained all the relations of numbers and harmony (see Tetractys).
Using, as do the Rabbis, the expression, "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth," as one, we find nine other expressions in the first chapter of Genesis in which "God said"; thus making ten expressions by which the world was created. There were ten generations from Adam to Noah, to show that God was long-suffering before he deluged the earth. For a similar reason, says the Talmud, there were ten generations from Noah to Abraham, until the latter "took the reward of them all." Abraham was proved with ten trials. Ten miracles were wrought for the children of Israel in Egypt, and ten at the Red Sea. Ten plagues afflieted the Egyptians in Egypt, and ten at the Red Sea. And ten miracles were wrought in the Holy Temple (see Ten).
A significant word in the advanced Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The original old French rituals explain it, and say that it and two other words that accompany are formed out of the initials of the words of a particular sentence which has reference to the Sacred Treasure of Freemasonry.
In the year 1829, during the anti- Masonic excitement in America, the Grand Lodge of New York proposed, as a safeguard against "the introduction of impostors among the workmen," a test word to be used in all examinations in addition to the legitimate tests.
But as this was deemed an innovation on the Landmarks, and as it was impossible that it could ever become universal, the Grand Lodges of the United States very properly rejected it, and it was never used.
The Greek word signifies, literally, the number four, and is therefore synonymous with the quaternion; but it has been peculiarly applied to a symbol of the Pythagoreans, which is composed of ten dots arranged in a triangular form of four rows.
This figure was in itself, as a whole, emblematic of the Tetragrammaton, or sacred name of four letters, for tetractys, in Greek, means Jour, and was undoubtedly learned by Pythagoras during his visit to Babylon. But the parts of which it is composed were also pregnant symbols. Thus the one point was a symbol of the Active Principle or Creator, the two points of the Passive Principle or Matter, the three of the world proceeding from their union, and the four of the liberal arts and sciences, which may be said to complete and perfect that world.
This arrangement of the ten points in a triangular form was ealled the tetractys or number four, because each of the sides of the triangle consisted of four points, and the whole number of ten was made up by the summation of the first four figures, 1 + 2 + 3 +4= 10.
Hierocles says, in his Commentaries on the Golden Verses (v, page 47): "But how comes God to be the Tetractys? This thou mayst learn in the sacred book ascribed to Pythagoras, in which God is celebrated as the number of numbers. For if all things exist by His eternal decrees, it is evident that in each species of things the number depends on the cause that produces them.... Now the power of ten is four; for before we come to a complete and perfect decade, we discover all the virtue and perfection of the ten in the four. Thus, in assembling all numbers from one to four inclusive, the whole composition makes ten," etc.

Dacier, in his notes on these Commentaries and on this particular passage, remarks that "Pythagoras, having learned in Egypt the name of the true God, the Mysterious and Ineffable Name Jehovah, and finding that in the original tongue it was composed of four letters, translated it into his own language by the word tetractys, and gave the true explanation of it, saying that it properly signified the source of nature that perpetually rolls along."
So much did the disciples of Pythagoras venerate tetractys, that it is said that they took their most solemn oaths, especially that of initiation, upon it. The exact words of the oath are given in the Golden Verses, and are referred to by Jamblichus in his Life of Pythagoras.

I swear it by Him who has transmitted into our soul the sacred tetractys The source of nature, whose course is eternal.
Jamblichus gives a different phraseology of the oath, but with substantially the same meaning. In the symbols of Freemasonry, we will find the sacred Delta bearing the nearest analogy to the tectractys of the Pythagoreans.
The outline of these points form, it will be perceived, a triangle; and if we draw short lines from point to point, we will have within this great triangle nine smaller ones. Doctor Hemming, in his revision of the English lectures, adopted in 1813, thus explains this symbol:
The great triangle is generally denominated Pythsoorean, because it served as a principal illustration of that philosopher's system. This emblem powerfully elucidates the mystical relation between the numerical and geometrical symbols. It is Composed of ten points so arranged as to form one great equilateral triangle and at the same time to divide it into nine similar triangles of smaller dimensions. The first of these, representing unity, is Called a monad, and answers to what is denominated a point in geometry, each being the principle by the multiplication of which all Combinations of form and number are respectively generated. The next two points are denominated a dead, representing the number two, and answers to the geometrical line which, consisting of length without breadth, is hounded by two extreme points. The three following points are called the triad, representing the number three, and may be considered asks having an indissoluble relation to all superficies which consist of length and breadth, when Contemplated as abstraeted from thickness. Doctor Hemming does not appear to have improved on the Pythagorean symbolization.
Believers in the occult powers of the numeral four, and in a Godhead of four persons in lien of three In this connection, the figure is worthy of examination, it being a star of five points enclosing the three letters of the ineffable Names but forming the Tetragrammaton, the Shem Hamphorash. This figure has been claimed to represent the Godhead.
In Greek, it signifies, a word of four letters. It is the title given by the Talmudists to the name of God, Jehovah, which in the original Hebrew Consists of four letters (see Jehovah) .
The origin of this Order was a humble but a pious one. During the Crusades a wealthy gentleman of Germany, who resided at Jerusalem, commiserating the condition of his countrymen who came there as pilgrims, made his house their receptacle, and afterward built a hospital, to which, by the permission of the Patriarch of Jerusalem, he added an oratory dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
Other Germans coming from Lubeck and Bremen contributed to the extension of this charity, and erected at Acre, during the third Crusade, a sumptuous hospital, and assumed the title of Teutonic Knights, or Brethren of the Hospital of our Lady of the Germans of Jerusalem. They elected Henry Walpott their first Master, and adopted for their government a Rule closely approximating to that both of the Templars and the Hospitalers, with an additional one that none but Germans should be admitted into the Order. Their dress consisted of a white mantle, with a black cross embroidered in gold. Clark says (History of Knighthood ii, page 60) that the original badge, which was assigned to them by the Emperor Henry VI, was a black cross potent; and that form of cross has ever Since been known as a Teutonic Cross. John, King of Jerusalem, added the cross double potent gold, that is, a cross potent of gold on the black cross. The word potent means a staff, the crossed or crutched ends of the cross arms suggesting the head of a walking stick. The Emperor Frederick II gave them the black double-headed eagle, to be borne in an inescutcheon, a small shield borne on another, in the center of the cross; and Saint Louis, of France, added to it, as an augmentation, a blue chief strewn with fleur-de-lis.

During the siege of Acre they did good service to the Christian cause; but on the fall of that city, the main body returned to Europe with Frederick II. For many years they were busily occupied in Crusades against the pagan inhabitants of Prussia and Poland. Ashmole says that in 1340 they built the city of Maryburg, and there established the residence of their Grand Master. They were for a long time engaged in contests with the Kings of Poland on account of the invasion of their territory. They were also excommunicated by Pope John XXII, but relying on their great strength, and the remoteness of their province, they bid defiance to acclesiastical censures and the contest resulted in their receiving Prussia proper as a trust from the Kings of Poland.
In 1511, Albert, Margrave of Brandenburg, was elected their Grand Master. In 1525 he abandoned the vows of his Order; became a Protestant, and exchanged his title of Grand Master for that of Duke of Eastern Prussia; and thus the dominion of the Knights was brought to an end, and the foundation laid of the future Kingdom of Prussia.
The Order, however, still continued its existence, the seat of the Grand Master being at Mergentheim, in Swabia. By the peace of Presburg, in 1805, the Emperor Francis II obtained the Grand Mastership, with all its rights and privileges. In 1809 Napoleon abolished the Order, but it continued a titular existence in Austria.
Attempts have been made to incorporate the Teutonic Knights into Freemasonry, and their cross has been adopted in some of the advanced Degrees. But we fail to find in history the slightest traces of any actual connection between the two Orders.
The first Masonic meeting in Texas was held in a grove at Brazoria where in March, 1835, five Master Masons, John H. Wharton, Asa Brigham, James A. E. Phelps, Alexander Russell and Anson Jones, decided to open a Lodge. A Dispensation was granted by the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, and in spite of the danger attendant upon secret meetings at this time the Lodge was opened as Holland, No. 26, on December 27, 1835. War with Mexico interrupted the work of the Lodge, but it remained in existence until February, 1836.
When Brazoria was captured the records and all the belongings of the Lodge were destroyed and the members scattered. A Charter, however, had been issued and was brought to Texas by John M. Allen, and, in October, 1837, the only Lodge in Texas which existed prior to her separation from Mexico was reopened at Houston. Three Lodges, Milam, No. 40; McFarlane, No. 41, and Holland, No. 36, held a Convention at Houston in the winter of 1837-8 to form a Grand Lodge. The following officers were elected: Grand Master, Anson Jones; Deputy Grand Master, Adolphus Sterne; Senior Grand Warden, Jefferson Wright; Junior Grand Warden, Christopher Dart; Grand Secretary, G. H. Winched; Grand Treasurer, Thomas G. Western. The Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana was adopted and the first Annual Communication arranged for April 1639.

December 9, 1835, on the application of Companions Samuel M. Williams, James H. C. Miller and others the General Grand Chapter decided to issue a Charter to San Filipe de Austin C'hapter, No. 1. It was not established, however, until June 2, 1840, when Texas was no longer part of Mexico, and in the interval Dugald McFarlane had organized Cyrus Chaptcr under the authority of Matagorda Chapter. To consider the organization of a Grand Chapter, delegates from San Filipe de Austin, Cyrus, Lone Star, and Rising Star Chapters met in Austin December 14. 1841. On December 21 a Constitution was adopted. The Grand Lodge of Texas relinquished authority over the Chapters but the General Grand Chapter refused to recognize the new Grand Chapter because it had been instituted without authority. At its organization on December 30, 1850, four Chapters were represented, namely, San Filipe de Austin, No. 1; Washington, No. 2; Brenham, No. 5, and Brazos, No. 8. In 1861 it separated from the General Grand Chapter of the United States.
In the Minutes of Columbian Council, No. 1, of New York City, is mention of three Degrees conferred upon Companions John N. Reed and Ebenezer B. Nichols of Houston Chapter, No. 8. A Warrant, ratified January 31, 1848, was issued to them and William D. Smith, by the Grand Master, for Houston Council, No. 10. Columbia, No. 1; Alabama, No. 12, and Coleman Councils then sent delegates to Huntsville and organized a Grand Council which existed until 1865. William T. Austin of Galveston Council was elected Grand Master but his name was not in the Report of the Committee on Credentials and Galveston Council was not added to the roll until 1859. In 1864 it was arranged to surrender control of the Degrees to the Grand Chapter of Texas. From 1865 until December 3, 1907, they were worked in Council under the authority of a Chapter. In 1907 the Grand Council met again at Waco and resumed control of the Degrees. On November 9, 1909, the Grand Council was recognized, though still retaining its independence, by the General Grand Council.

San Felipe de Austin Cornmandery was chartered December 10, 1835, at Galveston. On December 13, 1853, the General Grand Master issued a Warrant for a Grand Encampment of Texas. Three Commanderies, San Filipe de Austin, No. 1; Ruthven, No. 2, and Palestine, No. 3, took part in its institution on January 18, 1855.
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, began in Texas with the San Felipe, No. 1, Lodge of Perfeetion, chartered at Galveston, May 15, 1867. The Phillip C. Tucker Chapter of Rose Croix, No. 1, was chartered January 31, 1882; the Pike-Tueker Couneil of Kadosh, No. 1, on October 6, 1898, and the Texas Consistory, No. 1, on November 18, 1899.
T. G. A. O. T. U.
The initials of The Grand Architect of the Universe. Often used in this abbreviated form by Masonic writers.
Spelled also Tammuz. A deity worshiped by the apostate Jews in the time of Ezekiel, and supposed by most commentators to be identical with the Syrian god Adonis (see Adonis, Mysteries oh).
It is a usage of French Freemasonry, and in the advanced Degrees of some other Rites, for a candidate, after his initiation and the address of the orator to him, to return thanks to the Lodge for the honor that has been conferred upon him. It is a voluntary and not an obligatory duty, and is not praetised in the Lodges of the York and American Rites.
Theological writers have defined theism as being the belief in the existence of a Deity who, having created the world, directs its government by the constant exercise of His beneficent power, in contradistinction to atheism, which denies the existence of any such Creative and Superintending Being. In this sense, theism is the fundamental religion of Freemasonry, on which is Superimposed the additional and peculiar tenets of each of its disciples
This is a term invented by Dr. G. Oliver to indicate that view of Freemasonry which intimately connects its symbols With the teachings of pure religion, and traces them to the primeval revelations of God to man, so that the philosophy of Freemasonry shall develop the continual government of the Divine Being. Hence he says: "It is the Theocratie Philosophy of Freemasonry that commands our unqualified esteem, and seals in our heart that love for the Institution which will produce an activc religious faith and practise, and lead in the end to 'a building not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.' " He has developed this system in one of his works entitled The Theocratic Pilllosopy of Freemasonry, in twelve lectures on its Speculative, Operative, and Spurious Branches. In this work he enters with great minuteness into an examination of the speculative character of the Institution and of its operative division, which he contends had been practised as an exclusively scientific pursuit from the earliest times in every country in the world. Many of the legendary speculations advanced in this work will be rejected at this day as unsound and untenable, but his views of the true philosophy of Frcemasonry are worthy of profound study.
Under the name of the Cardinal Virtues, because all the other virtues hinged upon them, the ancient Pagans gave the most prominent place in their system of ethics to Temperance, Prudence, Fortitude, and Justiee. But the three virtues taught in the theology of Saint Paul. Faith, Hope, and Charity, as such were unknown to them. To these, as taking a higher place and being more intimately connected with the relations of man to God, Christian writers have given the name of the Theological Virtues. They have been admitted into the system of Freemasonry, and are symbolized in the Theologieal Ladder of Jacob.
Followers of Peter the Fuller, who flourished in the fifth century, and helieved in the crucifixion of all three of the Godhead.
The Second Grade of the First Order of the ,Soeiety of Rosicrucians (see Rosicrucianism). This is also the Twelfth Degree of the Cerman Rose Croix.
There were many theosophists —enthusiasts whom Vaughan calls "noble Specimens of the mystic" but those with whom the history of Freemasonry has most to do lvere the mystical religious thinkers of the eighteenth century, who supposed that they were possessed of a knowledge of the Divinity and His works by supernatural inspiration, or who regarded the foundation of their mystical tenets as resting on a sort of divine intuition. Such were ,Swedenborg, who, if not himself a Masonic reformer, has supplied the materials of many Degrees; the Moravian Brethren, the original object of Whose association is said to have been the propagation of the Gospel under the Masonie veil; Saint Martin, founder of the Philalethans; Pernettv, to whom we owe the Order of the Illuminati at Avignon; and Chastallier. who was the inventor of the Rite of Illuminated Theosophists.
'The object proposed in all these theosophie Degrees was the regeneration of man, and his reintegration into the primitive innocence from which he had fallen by original sin. Theosophic Freemasonry was, in fact, nothing else than an application of the speculative ideas of Jacob Böhme, of Swedenborg, and other mystical philosophers of the same class.
Vaughan, in his Hours with the Mystics (ii, page 46) thus describes the earlier theosophists of the four teenth century "They believed devoutly in the genuineness of the Cabala. They were persuaded that, beneath all the floods of change, this oral tradition had perpetuated its life unharmed from the days of Moses downward—even as Jewish fable taught them that the cedars alone, of all trees, had continued to spread the strength of their invulnerable arms below the waters of the deluge. They rejoiced in the hidden lore of that book as in a treasure rich with the germs of all philosophy. They maintained that from its marvelous leaves man might learn the angelic heraldry of the skies, the mysteries of the Divine Nature the means of converse with the potentates of heaven."
Add to this an equal reverence for the unfathomable mysteries contained in the prophecies of Daniel and the vision of the Evangelist, with a proneness to give to everything Divine a symbolic interpretation, and you hasre the true character of those later theosophists who labored to invent their particular systems of Freemasonry. For more of this subject, see the article on Saint Martin. Nothing now remains of theosophie Freemasonry except the few traces left through the influence of Zinnendorf in the Swedish system, and what we find in the Apocalyptic Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The system of Swedenborg, Pernetty, Paschalis, Saint Martin, and Chastanier have all become obsolete.
An ascetic sect of Jews in the first century after Christ, whom Milman calls the ancestors of the Christian monks and hermits. They resided near Alexandria, in Egypt, and bore a striking resemblance in their doctrines to those of the Essenians. They were, however, much influenced by the mystical school of Alexandria, and, while they borrowed much from the Cabala, partook also in their speculation of Pythagorean and Orphic ideas. Their system pervades some of the advanced Degrees of Freemasonry. The best amount of them is by Philo Judaeus. Name is from Greek meaning healing agents.
The six hundred and thirteen precepts into which the Jews divided the Mosaical law. Thus the Hebrew letters :8nn numerically express 613 (see description of Talith).
From the Greek Theos, meaning God and Ergon, work. The ancients thus called the whole art of magic—magic being understood here as the powers, influences or practises of supposed or pretended supernatural or occult art—because they believed its operations to be the result of an intercourse with the gods. But the moderns have appropriated it to that species of magic which operate by celestial means as opposed to natural magic, which is effected by a knowledge of the occult powers of nature, and necromancy or magic effected by the aid of evil spirits. Attempts have been ma(ie by some speculative authors to apply this high medics as it is also called, to an interpretation of Masonie symbolism. A most prolific writer is Alphonse Louis Constant, who, under the name of Eliphaz Levi, has given to the world numerous works on the dogma and ritual, the history and the interpretation, of this theurgic Freemasonry.
See Master Mason
Has had reference to a couple of organizations. A Parisian society claiming to exercise an occult influence during the First Empire. A society of formerly growing proportions in the United States, intended to confound and uproot superstition, with an indirect reference to King Arthur's Knights of the Round Table and the Judas of infamy at the Last Supper of the twelve Apostles with the Master (Matthew xxvi, 2S5).
See Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret.
In the Pythagorean doctrine of numbers, thirty-six symbolized the male and female powers of nature united, because it is composed of the sum of the four odd numbers, 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 16, added to the sum of the four even numbers, 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 = 20, for 16 + 20 = 36. It has, however, no place among the sacred numbers of Freemasonry.
See Sovereign Grand Inspectorgeneral.
The Hebrew word meaning Strength. An expression known to the Brethren of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in the Twelfth Degree.
Grand Master, Massachusetts, 1803 and 1805 at the same time that Right Worshipful Henry Fowle served the same Grand Lodge as Junior Grand Deacon; an American printer and publisher of several patriotic magazines just previous to the American Revolution. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, January 19, 1749, apprenticed to Zechariah Fowle, a printer, 1755, he owned the Massachusetts Spy advocating the Whig policics and the Government endeavored to suppress the publication. Three days before the Battle of Concord, April 16, 1775, he moved his printing presses to Worcester. He was postmaster for a time and here also he published books, built a paper-mill and bindery, and distributed the Spy until 1802. The paper was discontinued, however, during the stormy interval between 1776 and 1778 and again between 1786 and 1788.
This publication was an ardent supporter of Washington and the Federalists. Brother Thomas published the Royal American Magazine in 1774 which contained from time to time numerous engravings by the famous Paul Revere, afterwards Grand Master. Between 1775 and 1803 Thomas brought out the Neun England Almanac, which his son continued until 1819. In Boston he published monthly from 1789 to 1793 the AIassachusetts Magazine. At Walpole, New Hampshire, he edited the Farmer's Museum. Among the noteworthy deeds of Brother Thomas was the founding of the American Antiquarian Society in 1812. His death occurred in 1831, April 4, at Worcester.
An ancient Christian church in Malabar, said to have been founded by Saint Thomas.
See Clandestine.
contracted from Thonar, and sometimes known as Donar. This deity presided over the mischievous spirits in the elements, and was the son of Odin and Freya. These three were known in mythology as the triune deity—the Father, Son, and Spirit Thor's great weapon of destruction or force was the Miolner, the hammer or mallet, which had the marvelous property of invariably returning to its owner after having been launched upon its mission, and having performed its work of destruction.

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