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An island in the Mediterranean Sea, which, although nominally under the government of the Emperor of Constantinople, was in 1308 in the possession of Saracen pirates. In that year, Fulke de Villaret, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitalers, having landed with a large force, drove out the Saracens and took possession of the island, which became the seat of the Order, who removed to it from Cyprus and continued to occupy it until it was retaken by the Saracens in 1522, when the knights were transferred to the Island of Malta. Their residence for over two hundred years at Rhodes caused them sometimes to receive the title of the Knights of Rhodes.
A territory in South Africa. There have been Lodges in this State under the control of the Grand Lodge of Scotland at the following places: Bulawayo, Gwelo, Salisbury, Sinoia, Umtali, Umvuma, and Victoria. Several Lodges have also been constituted by England and one by the Grand Orient of the Netherlands.
See Knight of Rhodes.
The use of a ribbon, with the official jewel suspended and attached to a buttonhole instead of the collar, adapted by sorne Arnerican Lodges, is a violation of the ancient customs of the Order. The collar cut in a triangular shape, with the jewel suspended from the apex, dates from the earliest time of the revival, and is perhaps as old as the apron itself (see Collar).
Richard I (1157 A.D. - 1199 A.D.), King of England, known as Coeur de Lion, was the hero and model of the Crusaders just as Sir Philip Sidney, four centuries later, was to become the hero and model of chivalry. Two men less alike it would be difficult to imagine, and the fact that each was a beau ideal of chivalry shows how much knighthood was altered between the Twelfth Century and the Sixteenth Century. Richard was more French that English, a great, powerful fellow, with red-gold hair to his shoulders, a French beard, with arms of prodigious strength, wild, moody, untamed, and almost completely ignorant. His mother was Eleanor of Guinnee divorced wife of Louis who had abandoned the crusade of 1149 because of her; her second husband was Henry of Anjou, who had been adjudged guilty of the murder of Thomas a Becket. Richard married Berengaria of Navarre, but neglected her as long as he lived. He went off as a crusader to the Holy Land after he became King of England; he had no reason to do so, he had no just right to bankrupt his country to pay the expenses for so harum scarum an adventure, and he betrayed his complete lack of any sense of the realities by leaving his treacherous brother John behind in England. When Richard arrived at Acre where the Crusaders were in the midst of their long siege of the city he was ill in bed, but he had himself carried within sight of the walls; and as soon as he was able to stay on his feet went into the thick of the unmerciful fighting. From then until the evening of the time for the attack on Jerusalem he flashed everywhere like a meteor, of suicidal courage and with miraculous skill, tore into the Moslem lines alone, fought in water to his neck, ambushed a caravan in the night after it had traveled from Egypt and captured the whole of it, tore Acre apart, won impossible battles, and became a hero even to his enemies, including Saladin, who named him Malik Ric. Historians can never agree on Richard because he was a bundle of contradictions—even to himself. He was the world's best warrior yet self-admittedly was a failure as a general. He could face twenty-five Saracens single-handed yet trembled if he lost a goodluck charm. No punctilio of chivalry was too small for him to observe, yet he slaughtered hundreds of civilians peaceably leading their caravan in the dark. On one day he cold-bloodedly massacred hundreds of unarmed prisoners for whose safety he had pledged his word; the next he sent to ask of Saladin a personal favor. He risked his life a hundred times to rescue the Holy Sepulcher, yet proposed to marry off his sister Joanna to a Saracen general. After leading his army to the walls of Jerusalem he abruptly stopped and went back home. On his return voyage he suddenly, and out of whim, decided to go back overland through Hungary; it is believed that he was captured there and was for long held a prisoner, but the facts of the matter have never been discovered, and probably never will be. Not long after his return to England he was killed in a castle brawl. Was he by nature and at bottom a brawler? Did he owe his fame to his large and handsome physique? Scott's picture of the jousting Richard in Ivanhoe is wholly fiction; but a historian cannot help but fear that sny other pieture of this Christianized barbarian may be equally a fiction. He is the complete enigma. (King Richard was called Richard the Lion. In later generations, and possibly by the Freneh in their old tales of chivalry, he was given the nickname of Richard the Lion-Hearted, or Coeur de Lion.)
Born, March 10, 1843, Rutherford County, Tennessee, making his home at Murfreesboro though in Washington, District of Columbia, a large part of a busy career. An enlisted soldier at eighteen, after a year's service he became Adjutant, May 20, 1862, and served throughout the Civil War. Speaker of the Tennessee Legislature, 1871, at twenty-eight years of age; State Senator, 1873; nominated for Congress, August 14, 1884, and served continuously for twenty years, declining further political offiee to give from 1905 his entire energies to the Scottish Rite. Elected Grand Commander of the Southern Jurisdiction four years previously he concluded to make a choice between the two occupations. Raised, October 12, 1867, in Moriah Lodge No. 18, Murfreesboro, Tennessee; served as Master, then Grand Master, 1873-4; exalted, June 23, 1868, Pythagoros Chapter; a mernber of Murfreesboro Council; and knighted in Baldwin Commandery No. 7, Lebanon, Tennessee, June 7, 1869, and was Eminent Commander, Murfreesboro Commandery No. 10. Received the Ineffable Seottish Rite Degrees from General Albert Pike and Deputy Pitkin C. Wright, October 9, 1881; the Rosc Croix on October 11, at Nashville; the Kadosh from Brother Wright at Murfreesboro, October 24, 1881, and from this Brother the Thirty-first and Thirtysecond Degrees were at the same place also communicated on October 27. Elected Knight Commander, Court of Honor, October 23, 1884; coroneted Honorary, December 29, 1884; an Active Member of the Supreme Council, October 23, 1885. Sueeeeded Brother O. S. Long, of West Virginia, as Lieutenant Grand Commander, and in October 1901, elected Grand Commander, following Judge Thomas H. Caswell who died November 13, 1900. He presided at the International Conference of Supreme Councils at Washington, October, 1911; gave liberally of time and energy to the planning and construction of the magnificent House of the Temple, and was also an author of several scholarly historical books. His prompt and continued encouragement of the writer of these lines is a treasured memory and a gladly acknowledged fraternal service. Deputy Provincial Grand Master, Royal Order of Scotland, 1901, he became Provincial Grand Master, 1903. His death occurred on July 24, 1914.
A medal awarded annually by the Grand Lodge of Missouri to the Freemason of that Masonic Jurisdiction who during the preceding twelve months has rendered the most conspicuous constructive service to his Country, State or Community. The award is named in honor of Past Grand Master Thomas Fiveash Riddick who was elected to preside over the Grand Lodge at its organization in 1821, and who contributed notable service to the public school system of Missouri. The reason for so naming the award is because of the service rendered by Brother Riddick who rode overland to Washington, District of Columbia, and returned without fee or reward with the sole idea of securing for the State title to all unclaimed land within the State, which land was turned over to the school fund.
Born at Hamburg, May 25, 1759, and died at Weimar, January 16, 1821. He was an active and learned Freemason, and for many years the Master of the Lodge Amalia at Weimar. In 1817, he published in four volumes an elaborate and valuable work entitled Versuch eines Alphabetischen Verzeichnisses, u. s. w., that is, An essay toward an Alphabetical Catalogue of important nts, for the knowledge and history of Freemasonry and especially for a critical ezamination of the origin and growth of the varwus rituals and systems from 1717-1817.
A right angle is the meeting of two lines in an angle of ninety degrees, or the fourth part of a eirele. Each of its tines is perpendicular to the other; and as the perpendicular line is a symbol of uprightness of conduct, the right angle has been adopted by Freemasons as an emblem of virtue Such was also its signification among the Pythagoreans. The right angle is represented in the Lodges by the square, as the horizontal is by the level, and the perpendicular by the plumb.
An epithet prefixed to the title of the Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of Knights Template of the United States, and to that of the Grand Commander of a State.
The epithet prefixed to the title of all superior officers of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry below the dignity of a Grand High Priest.
The right hand has in all ages been deemed an important symbol to represent the virtue of fidelity. Among the ancients, the right hand and fidelity to an obligation were almost deemed synonymous terms. Thus, among the Romans, the expression faZlere deItram, that is to betray the right hand, also signified to violate faith; and jungere deztras, meaning to join right hands, and thereby to give a mutual pledge. Among the Hebrews, tar, iamin, the right hand, was derived from aman, to be faithful. The practise of the ancients was conformable to these peculiarities of idiom. Among the Jews, to give the right hand was considered as a mark of friendship and fidelity. Thus Saint Paul says (Galatians ii, 9), "when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hunds of fellowship, that we should go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision." The same expression, also, occurs in Maccabees. We meet, indeed, continually in the Scriptures with allusions to the right hand as an emblem of truth and fidelity. Thus in Psalm cxliv, it is said, "their right hand is a right hand of falsehood," that is to say, they lift up their right hand to swear to what is not true. This lifting up of the right hand was in fact, the universal mode adopted among both Jews and Pagans in taking an oath. The custom is certainly as old as the days of Abraham, who said to the King of Salem,"I have lifted up my hand unto the Lord, the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth, that I will not take anything that is thine." Sometimes among the Gentile nations, the right hand, in taking an oath, was laid upon the horns of the altar, and sometimes upon the hand of the person administering the oblization. But in all cases it was deemed necessary, to the validity and solemnity of the attestation, that the right hand should be employed. Since the introduction of Christianity, the use of the right hand in contracting an oath has been continued, but instead of extending it to heaven, or seizing with it a horn of the altar, it is now directed to be placed upon the Holy Scriptures, which is the universal mode at this day in all Christian countries. The antiquity of this usage may be learned from the fact, that in the code of the Emperor Theodosius, adopted about the year 438, the placing of the right hand on the Gospels is alluded to; and in the Code of Justinian (book ii, title 53, law i), whose date is the year 529, the ceremony is distinctly laid down as a necessary part of the formality of the oath, in the words tactis sacrosanctis Evangeliis, meaning the Holy Gospels being touched. This constant use of the right hand in the most sacred attestations and solemn compacts, was either the cause or the consequence of its being deemed an emblem of fidelity. Doctor Potter (Greek Archeology, page 229) thinks it was the cause, and he supposes that the right hand was naturally used instead of the left, because it was more honorable, as being the instrument by which superiors give commands to those below them. Be this as it may, it is well known that the custom existed universally, and that there are abundant allusions in the most ancient writers to the junction of right hands in making compacts. The Romans had a goddess whose name was Fides, or Fidelity, whose temple was first consecrated by Numa. Her symbol was two right hands joined, or sometimes two human figures holding each other by the right hands, whence, in all agreements among the Greeks and Romans, it was usual for the parties to take each other by the right hand, in token of their intention to adhere to the compact. By a strange error for so learned a man, Doctor Oliver mistakes the name of this goddess, and calls her Faith. "The spurious Freemasonry," he remarks, "had a goddess called Faith." No such thing. Fides, or as Horace calls her, incorrupta Fides, or incorruptible Fidelity, is very different from the theological virtue of Faith. The joining of the right hands was esteemed among the Persians and Parthians as conveying a most inviolable obligation of fidelity. Hence, when King Artabanus desired to hold a conference with his revolted subject, Asineus, who was in arms against him, he despatehed a messenger to him with the request, who said to Asineus, "the king hath sent me to give you his right hand and security," that is, a promise of safety in going and coming. And when Asineus sent his brother Asileus to the proposed conference, the king met him and gave him his right hand, upon which Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews, book xviii, chapter ix) remarks: "This is of the greatest force there with all these barbarians, and affords a firm security to those who hold intercourse with them; for none of them will deceive, when once they have given you their right hands, nor will any one doubt of their fidelity, when that is once given, when though they were before suspected of injustice." Stephens (Travels in Yucatan, volume ii, page 474) gives the following account of the use of the right hand as a symbol among the Indian tribes: In the course of many spears' residence on the frontiers including various journeyings among the tribes, I have had frequent occasion to remark the use of the right hand as a symbol, and it is frequently applied to the naked body after its preparation and decoration for sacred or festive dances. And the fact deserves further consideration from these preparations being generally made in the arcanum of the secret Lodge, or some other Private place, and with all the skill of the adept's art. The mode of applying it in these cases is by smearing the hand of the operator with white or colored clay, and impressing it on the breast, the shoulder, or other part of the body. The idea is thus conveyed that a secret influence, a charm, a mystical power is given, arising from his sanctity, or his proficiency in the occult arts. The use of the hand is not confined to a single tribe or people. I have noticed it alike among the Dacotahs, the Winnebagoes, and other Western tribes, as among the numerous branches of the red race still located east of the Mississippi River, above the latitude of 42 degrees, who speak dialects of the Algorlquin language. It is thus apparent that the use of the right hand a token of sincerity and a pledge of fidelity, is as ancient as it is universal; a fact which will account for the important station which it occupies among the symbols of Freemasonry (see North, Hand, and Oath, Corporal, also Obligation).
In addition to the facts drawn from the history of religion which are given in the article beginning at page 856, it is interesting to note that general philology, and etymology in particular, have been contributing new data to a subject which has become as engrossing to psychologists, physiologists, and specialists in education as it always has been to symbologists. The etymology of the oldest words in our language is a tricky and uncertain branch of scholarship, and long has been one in which it is fatal to dogmatize, but the origins of 'right' and 'left' have been worked out with what may be accepted as reliability. To the Latin-speaking Romans the name for 'right' in 'right hand' was dezzer, whence we have 'dexterity'; it in turn was probably derived from the Sanskrit daksh which meant 'to the strong, skilled, able', so that the right hand was believed to be the more skilled of the two. The word 'ambidextrous' therefore means literally 'two right hands' in the sense that one is as skilled as the other. The Latin name for the left hand as sinister. The English word 'left' is derived from a group of Teutonic words with the general meaning of 'weak'. In the French the word describing the left hand was gauche, from which comes our 'gawky,' meaning awkward, and our 'gaucherie' meaning 'awkward and clumsy in manners.' Because Latin-speaking peoples looked upon the left hand as the lower or more awkward, 'sinister' came to denote anything questionable, back-handed, threatening, treacherous; something of that old meaning is preserved in such phrases as 'left-handed compliment,' 'left-handed marriage' (morganatic), etc.; and the opposite is preserved in 'right-hand man,' 'good right arm,' etc. In the Sanskrit rju mas 'straight'; from it came the Latin rectus, as in 'direct,' 'correct,' 'rectitude,' ete., and the German recht, from which last was derived our 'right.' The French droit came from the Latin directus, went back through diestre to deltera, or 'right'; thus in modern French Droit becomes 'the law,' and is so named because law (or government) compels men to do that which is 'right.' In Greek the nord for 'right' was orthos, and is preserved in 'orthodoxy' ('right teaching') and a constellation of words with a similar prefix. In the beginnings of parliamentary government a chief or ruler sat before his council. Those who were favored by him, or u ho supported him against critics, he placed on his right; those who criticized him, or were in opposition, he placed on his left. This old political use of 'right' and 'left' came back into popularity between World Wars I and II during which time socialist, communistic, and radical politicians were 'of the left,' conservatives, defenders of the status quo, and reactionaries, were 'of the right.' In the emblems of the Third Degree clasped hands are the sign of fidelity, but it is nowhere apparent that the ancient ideas associated with the right hand are embodied in it. The symbolism of the 'right' or dexter side is found elsewhere in the Degree, w here the Worshipful Master extends his right hand to the Candidate, and in doing so calls the latter's attention to the fact that it is his right hand; but the symbolism in it does not refer back to the leing and his council, rather, as the language makes plain, it is a sign of fellowship, and there is no suggestion there (or elsewhere) that the membership in a Lodge ever is, or can be, divided into 'right' and 'left'; for where the lying extended his right hand only to his own friends and favorites, the Master extends his to each and every Candidate without exception. Man is by virtue of his anatomy right-handed. Statistics compiled by psychologists appear to prove that about ten percent of children are left-handed 'from birth' but anatomy makes this impossible to believe; it is almost certain that what occurs is that babies begin more to less accidentally to 'favor' the left hand over the right, and continue with the habit in later life. It is not only in his lands that he is righthanded; a man's whole body is so constituted as to make it the normal thing for him to use his right side, right arm and shoulder, and right leg and foot to do that which calls for more skill, although it does not follow that the left is unskilled—it is skilled in a different way, and its function is to support the right side.
Among the Hebrews, as well as e Greeks and Romans, the right side was considered perior to the left; and as the right was the side of ad, so was the left of bad omen. Dexter, or right, signified also propitious, and sinister or left, unlucky. In the Scriptures we find frequent allusions to this supriority of the right. Jacob, for instance, called his youngest and favorite child, Ben-jamin, the son of his right hand, and Bathsheba, as the king's mother, was placed at the right hand of Solomon (see Left Side).
An epithet frequently applied in many Jurisdictions of the United States to all Grand Officers below the dignity of a Grand Master. Pennsylvania is an exception to the general male in this respect. The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania is addressed as Right Worshipf ul and this is also applied to the Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master, Senior Grand Warden, Junior Grand Warden, Grand Treasurer, Grand Secretary, Past Grand Masters and Past Deputy Grand Masters. The Ahiman Rezon, or Book of Constitutions, gives the official title of the Grand Lodge as The Right Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania, and Masonic Jurisdiction Thereunto Belonging.
See academy of Sublime Masters of the Luminous Ring.
The ring, as a symbol of the Covenant entered into with the Order, as the wedding ring is the symbol of the Covenant of Marriage, is worn in some of the higher Degrees of Freemasonry. It is not used in Ancient Craft Masonry. In the Order of the Temple the Ring of Profession, as it is called, is of gold, having on it the cross of the Order and the letters P. D. E. P., being the initials of Pro Deo et Patria, For God and Country. It is worn on the index finger of the right hand. The Inspectors General of the Thirty-third Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite wear a ring. Inside is the motto of the Order, Deus meumque jus, God and my right. In the Fourteenth Degree of the same Rite a ring is worn, which is described as "a plain gold ring," having inside the motto, Virtus junxit, mors non separabit, What virtue joins, death cannot separate. The use of the ring as a symbol of a covenant may be traced very far back into antiquity. In this connection (note, Genesis xli, 42). The Romans had a marriage ring, but according to Swinburne, the great canonist, it was of iron, with a jewel of adamant "to signify the durance and perpetuity of the contract. " In reference to rings worn in the higher Degrees of Freemasonry, it may be said that they partake of the double symbolism of power and affection.. The ring, as a symbol of power and dignity, was worn in ancient times by kings and men of elevated rank and office.. Thus Pharaoh bestowed a ring upon Joseph as a mark or token of the power he had conferred upon him, for which reason the people bowed the knee to him. It is in this light that the ring is worn by the Inspectors of the Ancient and Aeeepted Scottish Freemasonry as representing the Sovereigns of the Rite. But those who receive only the Fourteenth Degree, in the same Rite, wear the ring as a symbol of the Covenant of Affection and Fidelity into which they have entered. Up until and including the 1921 Statutes, the rings in the Southern Masonie Jurisdietion, of both the Fourteenth Degree and the Thirty-third Degree, were worn on the right hand. This was the usage in the Southern Jurisdiction always from early lays. At the 1923 Session of the Supreme Council, a new set of Statutes was adopted, which provided among other things that the Fourteenth Degree ring should be worn on the third finger of the left hand and a Thirty-third degree ring on the little finger of the left hand. In the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, a Fourteenth Degree ring is similarly worn, but the Thirty-third Degree ring is also placed on the third finger of the left hand. While on the subject of the ring as a symbol of Masonic meaning, it will not be irrelevant to refer to the magic ring of King Solomon, of xvhieh both the Jews and the Mohammedans have abundant traditions. The latter, indeed, have a book on magic rings, entitled Scalcuthal, in which they trace the ring of Solomon from Jared, the father of Enoch. It was by means of this ring, as a talisman of wisdom and power, that Solomon was, they say, enabled to perform those wonderful acts anal accomplish those vast enterprises that have made his name so celebrated as the wisest monarch of the earth.
George Frederick Samuel Robin son was born in 1827, son of the first Earl of Ripon He was elected to the House of Commons in 1852 became Secretary of War, Secretary of State for India, Lord President of the Council, Viceroy of India, Lord Privy Seal in Asquith'6 Cabinet. He died in 1908. He was made a Mason in 1853, and from the first became so absorbed in the Craft that he went through the chairs of his Lodge; after working in his Provineial Grand Lodge he was elected Deputy Grand Master Grand Lodge of England, in 1861; and in 1870 mas elected Grand Master. The following year he vas sent by his government to Washington, D. C., to negotiate the American Government's claims against the British Government for damage done by The Alabama, a raider built, fitted, and munitioned bv the British for use by the Confederate States in violation of both treaty and international law. While here, Lord Ripon, the first Grand Master to visit America while in office, u as guest of honor at what until that date was the most brilliant function in American hIa sonry, a reception tendered him by the Grand Lodge, District of Columbia, attented by delegates from every other Grand Lodge, including Southern Grand Lodges. When the Grand Lodge of England met on September 2, 187A, an unusually large throng awaited the Grand Master's appearance; instead of his coming he sent a letter, Mhich left the assembly stunned: "I am sorry to inform you that I find myself unable any longer to discharge the duties of Grand Master... etc." The people of England were as greatly stunned as the Masons when it transpired that Lord Ripon had become a convert to Roman Catholicism, and had retired from the Fraternity upon orders from his priestly adviser. The London Times n as always cautious about mentioning the Craft but in this instance it could not remain quiet; after suggesting some hitherto hidden weakness of character it went on to discuss how un-English Roman Catholicism was. Provincial Grand Master Tew expressed surprise that a Grand Master should leave the Craft "because of a change in his religions opinions." Although Lord Ripon confided in nobody his private reasons for his defections, a guess ean be hazarded: after Cardinal John Henry l! ewman had been guilty of a similar defection from the Church of England, he became a Romanist missionary to the educated and cultured upper classes, and u ith his famous book Apologia Pro l ita Sua had insinuated the Romanist notions into a number of English aristocrats in pages of one of the most beautiful styles of English prose ever written; the course followed by Lord Ripon in his conversion was typically a "Newman conversion." He was followed in the office of Grand Master by the Prince of Wales, afterwards King Edward VII. Two of England's previous Grand Masters had been Roman Catholics, Lords Petre and Montague, but in the Eighteenth Century and before the Roman Church had dared to enforce her rules of excommunication. Lord Ripon's Brethren forgave him, indulged in no recriminations, but thev felt that he should have taken them into his confidence beforehand instead of sending a brusque bolt out of the blue. The Roman Church based its condemnation of the Craft on the ground that Freemasonry is morally corrupt, atheistic, and is conspiring to destroy government; with a convert of stainless moral character on their hands who for four years had been Grand Master and with their own prospective King installed as his successor, the English priests could not help but know how false their own charges were, and yet were helpless to undo in London the folly of excommunication committed by an Italian Pope in Rome; they were in a curious moral dilemma. (See English-Speaking Freemasonry, by Sir Alfred Robbins; consult index. Freemasonry and Reman Catholicism, by H. L. Haywood; Masonic History Co.; Chicago; 1944.) NOTE. Freemasonry had yet another reason to remember the famous ease of the Alabama elaims. In 1848 Michael Flanagan was initiated in Phoenix Lodge No. 94, at Sunderland. He was a sea captain, ran a hardware store and was a very popular gentleman." About every three months he made "a little sail" out into the Atlantic; why nobody could guess. after the Civil War it came out that his "little sail" was into mid-ocean to carry mtlnitions to the Alabama! He had kept them hidden in his hardware store. The Alabama had carried on so devastating a series of raids that the British Government had to settle damages for no less than three million pounds. Lord Ripon was the first English Grand Master to visit America while in office; others had been here before or after their Grand Mastership, the Earl of Loudon among them.
 The rising Sun is represented by the Master, because as the sun by his rising opens and governs the day, so the Master is taught to open and govern his Lodge with equal regularity and precision.

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