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The sixteenth letter of the English and Greek alphabets, and the seventeenth of the Hebrew, in which last-mentioned language its numerical value is 80, is formed thus 9, signifying a mouth in the Phenician. The sacred name of God associated with this letter is in Hebrew , Phodeh or Redeemer.
The Peruvian name for the Creator and Ruler of the universe.
Founder of the Venezuelan Republic, was born of Indian parentage near Acarigua, June 13, 1790, prominent in the struggle for independence against Spain from 1810 to 1823 and in 1829 effected the secession of Venezuela from the Republic of Colombia and became its first president, 1830 to 1834, serving again in 1839 to 1843, dictator in 1846. Headed a revolution and was imprisoned but released in 1858 and in 1860 was Minister to the United States. General Paez was also first Grand Master of Venezuela and on May 1, - 1840, he became the first Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, of his country. He died in New York, May 6, 1873. In 1925 the representative at Washington of the Venezuelan Department of State presented the sword of Brother Paez to General John J. Pershing, also a member of the Craft and Commander of the American Arrny during the World War.
The Latinized form of the name of Hugh de Payens, the first Grand Master of the Templars (see Payens).
A general appellation for the religious worship of the whole human race, except of that portion which has embraced Christianity, Judaism, or Mohammedanism. Its interest to the Masonic student arises from the fact that its principal development was the ancient mythology, in whose traditions and mysteries are to be found many interesting analogies with the Masonic system (see Dispensations of Religion).
A political writer of eminence during the Revolutionary War in America. He greatly injured his reputation by his attacks on the Christian religion. He was not a Freemason, but wrote An Essay on the Origin of Freemasonry, with no other knowledge of the Institution than that derived from the writings of Smith and Dodd, and the very questionable authority of Prichard's Masonry Dissected. He sought to trace Freemasonry to the Celtic Druids. For one so little acquainted with his subject, he has treated it with considerable ingenuity. Paine was born in England in 1737, and died in New York, in 1809. Paine's acquaintance with prominent Freemasons on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean has doubtless had much to do with the claim often made for his membership in the Craft.
A meeting with Brother Franklin in London obtained for him introductions to the leaders in the Colonies and he sailed there in 1774 where he became editor of the Penn Sylvania Gazette. He published, 1776, Common Sense, an argument for a republic. Then he served on the staff of General Greene and wrote pamphlets entitled the Crisis, his opening words, "These are the times that try men's souls" sounding powerfully then and later in days of turmoil.
In England after the war he was indicted for treason, escaping to France, and there narrowly escaped the guillotine, spending ten months in prison. Then he attacked Washington bitterly, came to the United States, but while his services to the country were gratefully remembered, his blunt discourtesy to the President and other old friends could not be forgotten. He was buried at New Rochelle, hut in 1819 William Cobbett took his body to England. Moncure D. Conway wrote a biography of him which says that the preface to his essay on Freemasonrv was probably written by his devoted friend, Colonel John Fellows.
called also the Holy Land on account of the sacred character of the events that have occurred there, is situated on the coast of the Mediterranean, stretching from Lebanon south to the borders of Egypt, and from the thirty-fourth to the thirty-ninth degrees of longitude. It was conquered from the Canaanites by the Hebrews under Joshua 1450 years B.C. They divided it into twelve Confederate States according to the Tribes. Saul united it into one kingdom, and David enlarged its territories. In 975 B.C., it was divided into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judea, the latter consisting of the Tribes of Judah and Benjamin, and the former of the rest of the Tribes. About 740 B.C., both kingdoms were subdued by the Persians and Babylonians, and after the captivity only the two Tribes of Judah and Benjamin returned to rebuild the Temple. With Palestine, or the Holy Land, the mythical, if not the authentic, history of Freemasonry has been closely connected.

There stood, at one time, the Temple of Solomon, to which some writers have traced the origin of the Masonic Order; there fought the Crusaders, among whom other writers have sought, with equal boldness, to find the cradle of the Fraternity; there certainly the Order of the Templars was instituted, whose subsequent history has been closely mingled with that of Freemasonry; and there occurred nearly all the events of sacred history that, with the places where they were enacted, have been adopted as important Masonic symbols.
The desire to obtain an accurate knowledge of the archeology of Palestine, gave rise in 1866 to an association, which was permanently organized in London, as the Palestine Ezploration Fund, with the Queen as the chief patron, and a long list of the nobility and the most distinguished gentlemen in the kingdom, added to which followed the Grand Lodge of England and forty-two subordinate and provincial Grand Lodges and Chapters- Early in the year 1867 the Committee began the work of examination, by mining in and about the various points which had been determined upon by a former survey as essential to a proper understanding of the ancient city, which had been covered up by débris from age to age, so that the present profiles of the ground, in every direction, were totally different from what they were in the days of David and Solomon, or even in the time of Christ- Lieutenant Charles Warren, R. E., as he then was, later Lieut.-General Sir Charles Warren, G.M.C.M, K.C.B, F.R.S., was sent out with authority to act as circumstances might demand, and as the delicacy and the importance of the enterprise required.

He arrived in Jerusalem February 17, 1867, and continued his labors of excavating in many parts of the eitv, with some interruptions, until 1871, when he returned to England. During his operations, he kept the Soeiety in London constantly informed of the progress of the work in which he and his assoeiates were so zealously engaged, in a majority of eases at the imminent risk of their lives and always that of their health.

The result of these labors has been a vast aeeumulation of facts in relation to the topography of the holy city which throw much light on its areheology. A branch of the Society has been established in the United States of America, and continued in successful operation.
See Knight of Palestine.
See Knight of Saint John of Palestine.
See Marconis, also Memphis, Rite of.
Mentioned by Baron de Tschoudy, and said to have been the fountain whence the Chevalier Ramsay obtained the information for the regulation of his system.
An altar-cloth, also a canopy borne over the head of royalty in Oriental lands.
Such reference books as are most often consuited in public libraries say little more about Andrea Palladio than that he was an Italian architect, of Venice, born in 1518, died in 1580, that he was one of the creators of the Italian, or neo-Classical style, that he wrote treatises on his art, and that he seas called "the modern Vitruvius." That would be a pitiably weak description of Palladio in the eyes of any English Mason who had read The First & Chie; Groundes of Architecture, the first book printed in England on architecture, by John Shute, who had gone to Venice in the 1540's and there for two or three years had studied "the glories of the new Italian architecture" at first hand; or after Inigo Jones, about 1600, eame back to his King after a similar journey of study, and introduced the new style into England; for Palladio became a vast enthusiasm there, almost a cult, and hundreds of small clubs of amateur architects met to study the art of i this great modern Master, who in due time was to be Sir Christopher Wren's guiding inspiration when after the London fire in 1666 he designed not only St.Paul's but more than a hundred other buildings, a few of them in America.
That ferment of interest in the Italian, or, as it was popularly called, Classical style, may well have helped to prepare the way for the renaissance of Speculative Freemasonry, and Palladio nas the original source of that interest.

Dr. James Anderson "wrote" the 1723 and 1738 editions of the Book of Constitutions for the Mother Grand Lodge of 1717 but it is impossible to discover who vwas responsible for the materials in either; perhaps many Brethren were; whoever it was he (or they) makes it clear in the 1738 edition that Freemasonry mas in the Craft's mind, twenty-one years after the formation of Grand Lodge, still identified closely with arehitectures for he goes out of his way to remark that, "In the last Reign sundry of the 50 new Churches in the Suburbs of London were built in a fine Stile upon the Parliamentary Fund, particularly the b beautiful St. Mary be Strand." The "fine stile" was the Palladian; and in another connection it is made clear that the Freemasons at the time not only did not guess that the old Operatives had been builders of Gothic, but even dismissed Gothic as a barbarous thing.
This enthusiasm for the art of Palladio extended even into the Lodges, a representative instance being given in the records of that remarkable Lodge, The Old Kings' Arms Lodge, I\'o. 28, which was warranted in 1725; in a Minute for August 1, 1737, it is recorded: "Passed that a part of the Palladio's Architecture be read instead of the Laws or Constitutions." In the Inventory of the same Lodge is an entry dated in 1737: " 1st book of Palladio's Architecture, in English"; in 1739: "Three remaining books of Palladio's Architecture. "
The title given to the Order of the Seven Sages and the Order of the Palladium (see Palladium, Order of the).
See Companions of Penelope.
An androgynous society, both sexes, of Masonic adoption, established, says Ragon, at Paris in 1737. It made great pretensions to high antiquity, claiming that it had its origin in the instructions brought by Pythagoras from Egypt into Greece, and having fallen into decay after the decline of the Roman Empire, it was revived in 1637 by Fenelon, Arehbishop of Canbray; all of which is altogether mythical. Fenelon was not born until 1651. It was a very moral society, eonsisting of two Degrees: 1. Adelph;
2. Companion of Ulysses.
When a female took the Second Degree, she was called a Companion of Penelope.
The object of the Masonic Holy Land League, in whose membership the Pilgrim Knights of the Palm and Shell were enrolled, was to encourage researches commenced in 1863 under the leadership of Brother Rob Morris in the Holy Land. These investigations into the traditions and praetises of the ancient Craft in the East, were supported in 1867 by contributions amounting to $10,000 and an organization was effected of Master Masons. A ritual was prepared to include various signs, words and ceremonies, obtained by Doctor Morris from Eastern Freemasons.
The instruction was divided into the following parts: Preliminary, Covenanting, Drama, Means of Recognition, and a funeral ceremony for Pilgrim Knights. Rev. Henry R. Coleman, of Kentucky, became Supreme Chancellor of the Order and in 1906 he published at Louisville, for the Soeiety, a guide to the ceremonies and lectures entitled the Pilgrim Enight. Among other items of interest he describes the formation of a Lodge, the Royal Solomon, at Jerusalem, conditionally promoted by Doctor Morris in 1868, but actually by a Warrant from the Grand Lodge of Canada, William Mercer Wilson, Grand Master, and attested by Thomas White, Jr., Deputy Grand Master, on February 17, 1873; the organizing meeting occurring in the quarries under Jerusalem on May 7, 1873.
Brother Coleman says: "Under this authority, a delegate went from the United States to Jerusalem and calling together a competent number of those named in the Warrant, and others, the Lodge was regularly and constitutionally organized and has had many years of prosperous existence up to the issuance of this volume." The first Degree was conferred at the Mediterranean Hotel, afterwards a Lodge-room was established near the Joppa Gate.
From the Latin word palmifer, meaning a palm-bearer. A name given in the time of the Crusades to a pilgrim, who, coming back from the holy war after having accomplished his vow of pilgrimage, exhibited upon his return home a branch of palm bound round his staff in token of it.
Born at Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvanias October 18, 1819, and died at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, May 7, 1909. Served as Representative and Senator in Wisconsin Legislature, was President of School Board, City Attorney, also County Judge of Probate for several years and resigned to become President of the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company of Milwaukee. Raised in Evening Star Lodge, No. 75, at West Troy, New York, in 1841, he affiliated with Tracy Lodge, now Wisconsin Lodge, No. 13, Milwaukee, in 1849, elected Worshipful Master in 1851, serving for four years, and was again chosen as Worshipful Master for 1865 and in 1867.
He officiated as Grand Master in 1852-3, and 1871-2. In 1846 he was exalted in Apollo Chapter, No. 48, at Troy, New York, and was a charter member of Wisconsin Chapter, No. 7, Royal Arch Masons, serving as High Priest for several years, and in 1858-9 was Grand High Priest of Wisconsin. Master of Wisconsin Council of Royal and Select Masters for some years, he was in 1863-4 Grand Master of the Grand Council. In Apollo Commandery, No. 15, at Troy, New York, he was knighted in 1847 and in 1850 assisted in organizing Wisconsin Commandery, No. 1, becoming Eminent Commander in 1853 and served nine sAccessive years; then for seven successive years beginning with 1859 he was Grand Commander of Wisconsin: and at Columbus, Ohio, in September, 1865, he was elected and served for the constitutional term as Grand Master of the Grand Encampment. Receiving the Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in 1863, including the honorary thirty-third grade on August 3, at the introduction of the Rite into Wisconsin, he was on October 20, 1864, elected and crowned an Active Member of the Supreme Council of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction and in 1879 was chosen as the Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Commander, resigning shortly before his death, and was succeeded by Brother Samuel C. Lawrence.
Thomas Palser, Surrey Side, Westminster Bridge, London, England, published a set of seven engravings, 1809-12, featuring Masonic ceremonies. These imitated a set issued in France, 1745.
The pentalpha of Pythagoras is so called in the symbolism of High Magic and the Hermetic Philosophy (see Pentalpha).
A speculative system, which, spiritually considered, identifies the universe with God, and, in the material form, God with the universe. Material Pantheism is subject to the criticism, if not to the accusation of being atheistic. Pantheism is as aged as religion and was the system of worship in India, as it was in Greece. Giordano Brunc was burned for his pantheistic opinions at Rome in 1600.
Described by John Toland, in his Pantheisticon, as having a strong resemblance to Freemasonry. The Soeratic Lodge in Germany, based on the Brotherhood, was of short duration.
See Toland, John.
A manuscript in the possession of Wyatt Papworth, of London, who purchased it from a bookseller of that city in 1860. As some of the watermarks of the paper on which it is written bear the initials G. R., with a crown as a watermark, it is evident that the manuscript cannot be older than 1714, that being the year in which the first of the Georges ascended the throne. It is most probably of a still more recent date, perhaps 1720.

The Rev. A. F. A. Woodford has thus described its appearance: "The scroll was written originally on pages of foolscap size, which were then joined into a continuous roll, and afterwards, probably for greater convenience, the pages were again separated by Cutting them, and it now forms a book, containing twenty-four folios, selved together in a light-brown paper cover. The text is of a bold character, but written so irregularly that there are few consecutive pages which have the same number of lines, the average being about seventeen to the page." The manuscript is not complete, three or four of the concluding charges being omitted, although some one has written, in a hand different from that of the text, the word Finis at the bottom of the last page. The manuscript appears to have been simply a copy, in a little less antiquated language, of some older Constitution. It has been published by Brother Hughan (1872) in his Old Charges of the British Free masons.
"The papyrus leaf," says J. W. Simons, in his Egyptian Symbols, "is that plant Which formed tablets and books, and forms the first letter of the name of the only eternal and all-powerful god of Egypt, Amen, who in the beginning of things created the world," whose name signified occult or hidden The Hebrew word, owe, which signifies a leaf, and to inscribe on tablets forms, olm, meaning the antique origin of things, obscure time, hidden eternity. The Turin Funeral Papyrus is a book published by Doctor lepsius in original character, but translated by Doctor Birch. This Book of the Dead is invaluable as containing the true philosophic belief of the Egyptians respecting the resurrection and immortality. The manuscript has been gathered from portions which it was obligatory to bury with the dead. The excavations of mummies in Egypt have been fruitful in furnishing the entire work.
Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus Paracelsus de Hohenheim, as he styled himself, was born in Germany in 1493, and died in 1541. He devoted his youth to the study and practise of astrology, alchemy, and magic, and passed many years of his life in traveling over Europe and acquiring information in medicine, of which he proclaimed himself to be the monarch. Brother Mackey says that he was, perhaps, the most distinguished charlatan who ever made a figure in the world. Certainly his writings, those accredited to him, at least, show us a puzzling personality, superstitious yet methodical, crude in some respects but lucid of statements, a reformer in the rough. The followers of his school were called Paracelststs, and they continued for more than a century after the death of their master to influence the schools of Germany. Much of the Cabalistic and mystical science of Paracelsus was incorporated into Hermetic Freemasonry by the founders of the advanced Degrees.
A Degree to be found in the manuscript collection of Peuvret.
A republic of South America. A Lodge authorized by the Grand Orient of Brazil was at work in 1881 at Paraguay. In 1893 the Grand Orient of Paraguay was founded and in 1923 it exercised control over ten Lodges. The Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite was founded at Asuncion in 1870 and is quite separate and distinct from the Grand Orient.1 No more information about Masonic development in Paraguay is available. Indeed, Brother Oliver Days Street says in his Report on Correspondence made to the Grand Lodge of Alabama in 1922: "We haves sought in vain to get into communication with these Grand Bodies or with some of their leading members. We are consequently unable to give many particulars."
In every well-regulated Lodge there is found a point within a circle, which circle is imbordered by two perpendicular parallel lines. These lines are representative of Saint John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist, the two great patrons of Freemasonry to whom our Lodges are dedicated, and who are said to have been "perfect parallels in Christianity as well as Freemasonry" In those English Lodges which have adopted the Union System established by the Grand Lodge of England in 1813. and where the dedication is "to God ad his service," the lines parallel represent Moses and Solomon. As a symbol, the parallel lines are not o be found in the earlier instructions of Freemasonry. Ithough Oliver defines the symbol on the authority of what he calls the Old Lectures, it is not to be found , any anterior to Preston, and even he only refers to ne parallelism of the two Saints John.
An occult scientific work of the Brahmans. According to a work my Louis Jacolliot, 1884, the Fakirs produced phelomena at will with superior intervention or else with shrewd charlatanism: processes that were Known to the Egyptians and Jewish Cabalists. The loetrines are those known to the Alexandrian school, ;o the Gauls, and as well to the Christians. In the division of the Cabala, the first treated of the History -' the Genesis or Creation, and taught the science of ature; the second, or Mereaba, of the History of he Chariot, and contained a treatise on theology. ihere were three Degrees of initiation among the Brahmans:
1. According to selection, the candidate became L Grihasta, a Pourohita or Fakir, or in twenty years a Guru.
2. A Sannyassis or Cenobite and Vanaprasthas, find lived in the Temple.
3. A Sannyassis-Nirvany or Naked Cenobite.

Those of the third Degree were visible only once in five years, appearing in a column of light created by themselves, at midnight, and on a stand in the center of a great tank. Strange sounds and terrific shrieks ere heard as they were gazed upon as demigods, surtounded by thousands of Hindus. The government was by a Supreme Council of seventy Brahmans, over seventy years of age, selected from the Nirvany, nd chosen to see enforced the Law of the Lotus. The Supreme Chief, or Brahmatna, was required to be saver eighty years of age, and was looked upon as Immortal by the populace. This Pontiff resided in Bn immense palace surrounded by twenty-one walls.
The primitive holy word composed of the three otters A. U. M., says Brother C. T.
McClenachan, omprises the Vedic trinity, signifying Creation, Preservation, and Transformation, and symbolizes all the initiatory secrets of the occult sciences. By some it has been taught that the Honover, or primordial germ, as defined in the Avesta, existed before all else (also see Manou, Book xi, Sloca 265).
The following unexplained magical words were elways inscribed in two triangles: L'om. L'rhomsh'hrum. Shorim. Ramaya- Nahama. He who possessed the word greater than the A. U. M. was deemed next to Brahma. The word was transmitted in a sealed box.

The Hindu triad, of which in later times Om is the mystic name, represents the union of the three gods, namely, a, Vishnu; u, Siva, m, Brahma. It may also be typical of the three Vedas. Om appears first in the Upanishads as a mystical monosyllable, and is thus set forth as the object of profound meditation. It is usually called pranava, more rarely aksharam. The Buddhists use Om at the beginning of their Vidya Shad-akshari or mystical formulary in six Syllables; namely, Om mani pad me hum (see Pitris Indische Mysterien, also 0m and Aum).
Three important Masonic Congresses have been held in the city of Paris. The first was convened by the Rite of Philalethes in 1785, that by a concourse of intelligent Freemasons of all rites and countries, and by a comparison of oral and written traditions, light might be educed on the most essential subjects of Masonic science, and on the nature, origin, and historic application as well as the actual state of the Institution. Savalette de Lauges was elected President. It closed after a protracted session of three months, without producing any practical result. The second was called in 1787, as a continuation of the former, and closed with precisely the same negative result. The third was assembled in 1855, by Prince Murat, for the purpose of effecting various reforms in the Masonic system. At this Congress, ten propositions, some of them highly important, were introduced, and their adoption recommended to the Grand Lodges of the world. But the influence of this Congress has not been more successful than that of its predecessors.

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