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The north is Masonically called a Place of Darkness. The sun in his progress through the ecliptic never reaches farther than 23°28' north of the equator. A wall being erected on any part of the earth farther north than that, will therefore, at meridian, receive the rays of the sun only on its south side, while the north will be entirely in shadow at the hour of meridian. The use of the north as a symbol of darkness is found, with the present interpretation, in the early instructions of the eighteenth century. It is a potrion of the old sun worship of which we find so many relics in Gnosticism, in Hermetic philosophy, and in Freemasonry. The east was the place of the sun's daily birth, and hence highly revered; the north the place of his annual death, to which he approached only to lose his vivific heat, and to clothe the earth in darkness of long nights and dreariness of winter.
However, this point of the compass, or place of Masonic darkness, must not be construed as implying that in the Temple of Solomon no light or ventilation was had from this direction. The Talmud, and as well Josephus, allude to an extensive opening toward the North, framed with costly magnificence, and known as the great Golden Window. There were as many openings in the outer wall on the north as on the south side. There were three entrances through the "Chel" on the north and six on the south (see Temple). While once within the walls and Chel of the Temple all advances were made from east to west, yet the north side was mainly used for stabling, slaughtering, cleansing, etc., and contained the chambers of broken knives, defiled stones of the House of Burning, and of sheep. The Masonic symbolism of the entrance of an initiate from the north, or more practically from the northwest, and advancing toward the position occupied by the Corner-stone in the north-east, forcibly calls to mind the triplet of Homer:
Two marble doors unfold on either sideSacred the South by which the gods descend; But mortals enter on the Northern end.
So in the Mysteries of Dionysos, the gate of entrance for the aspirant was from the north; but when purged from his corruptions, he was termed indifferently new-born or immortal, and the sacred south door was thence accessible to his steps.
In the Middle Ages, below and to the right of the judges stood the accuser, facing north; to the left was the defendant, in the north facing south. Brother George F. Fort, in his Antiquities of Frerrwonry (page 292), says:
In the centre of the court, directly before the judge stood an altar piece or shrine, upon which an open Bible was displayed. The south to the right of the justiciaries was deemed honorable and worthy for a plaintiff- but the north was typical of a frightful and diabolical sombreness.
Thus, when a solemn oath of purgation was taken in grievous criminal accusations, the accused turned toward the north.
The judicial headsman, in executing the extreme penalty of outraged justice, turned the eonviet's face northward, or towards the place whenee emanated the earliest dismal shades of night. When Earl Hakon bowed a tremulous knee before the deadlv powers of Paganism and sacrificed his seven-year-old child, he gazed out upon the far-off, gloomy north.
In Nastrond, or shores of death, stood a revolting hall, whose portals opened toward the north—the regions of night. North, bv the Jutes was denominated black or sombre; the Frisians called it fear corner. The gallows faced the north, and from these hyperborean shores everything base and terrible proceeded. In consequence of this belief, it was ordered that, in the adjudication of a crime, the accused should be on the north side of the court enclosure. And in harmony with the Seandinavian superstition, no Lodge of Masons illumines the darkened north with a symbolic light, whose brightness would be unable to dissipate the gloom of that cardinal point with whieh waa aFoeiated alS that was sinstrous and direful.
So many of our Masonic customs hinge Upon the connection with old church practices that we are inclined to add to the above summary a few additional particulars. The book entitled Curious Church Customs, edited by William Andrews, 1898, has on page 136 the following item:
Tradition authorizes the expectation that our Lord still appear in the east; therefore all the faithful dead are buried with their feet towards the east to meet Him. Hence in Wales the east wind is called " The wind of the dead men's feet." The eastern portion of a churchyard is always looked on as the most honoured next the south then the west, and last of all the north from the belief that in this order the dead will rise curious instance of this belief is furnished by an epitaphon a tombstone, dated 1807, on the north side of Epworth Churchyard, Lineolnshire, the last two lines of which run as follows:
And that I might longer undisturbed abide I choosed to be laid on this northern side.
Felons, and notorious bad eharaeters, were frequently buried on the north side of the church. In Suffolk most of the churches have both a north and south door, and where old customs are observed, the bodes is brought in at the south door, put down at the west end of the aisle and carried out by the north door. In Lineolashire the north is generally reserved entirelv for funerals, the south and west doors being reserved for christenings and weddings.
William Andrews, in a companion volume dealing with Ecclesiastical Curzosities, 1899, has some references to churchyard superstitions, and gives considerable space to inquiries made regarding the old prejudices against being buried on the north side of the church. This prejudice is proven in several parts of England by the scarcity of graves on the north side of churches. The Reverend Theodore Johnson, writing upon this subject, tells of taking charge of a parish in Norfoll; and on being called upon to select a suitable place for a funeral suggested that as there svere no graves on the north side of the church a place could be assigned there.
This aroused vigorous objection but no particular explanation beyond that of a desided dislike. Further inquiry obtained the information that in some cases the north part of the churchyard was left unconsecrated for burial of those for whom no religious service was considered necessary. At last the clergyman found light in visiting an old member of his flock during his last hours on earth. He was a widower, and in speaking of his place of burial he particularly emphasized the words "On the south side, sir, near by the wife." The clergyman in quired why there was such a strong objection to burial on the north side of the church, and the prompt and reproachful answer was at once made: "The left side of Christ, sir: we don't like to be counted among the goats." The author continues:
Here was the best answer to the mystery, pointing with no uncertain words to the glorious Resurrection Day, this aged, earthly shepherd at the end of his years of toil recognized his Great Master, Jesus. as the True Shepherd of mankind, meeting His floek as they arose from their long sleep of death, with their faces turned eastward, awaiting His appearing.
Then when all had been called and recognized He turned to lead them onward, still their True Shepherd and Guide, vvith the sheep on His right hand, and the goats on His left hand, so wonderfully foretold in the Gospel story: "When the Son of Man shall come in His glory, and all the hole angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory; land before Him shall be gathered all nations and He shall separate them one from another as a Shepherd divideth ads sheep from the goats: and he shall set the sheep on His right hand, but the goats on the left." Matthew xxv, 31-3.
Surely, the above simple illustration explains much that is difficult and mysterious to us in the wax of religious superstition. Undoubtedly, we have here a good example of how superstitions have arisen, probable from a good souree, it may be the words of some teacher long since passed away. The circumstance has long been for gotten, yet the lesson remains, and being handed down by oral tradition only, every vestige of its religions nature disappears and but the feeling remains, which, b in the minds of the ignorant populace, increases in mysterys and enfolds itself in superstitious awe, without any desire from them to discover the origin, or Source, of such a strange custom, or event.
So much of our ceremonies and instruction in the Craft is bound up intimately with the practises of the Church that the foregoing details and the comments made upon them are well worth notice and reflection. We need not in any enthusiasm for the prehistoric and the religious customs of the older nations in the ehildhood of their faith when the Mysteries of Greeee and Rome were flourishing, overlook the equally good claims for attention presented by the more recent traditions that survive and thrive even unto our own times.
NORTH AMERICAN MASONIC CONGRESS.
Zee General Grand Lodge.
The Grand Lodge of England warranted a Lodge in North Carolina at Wilmington in March, 1754 or 1755. This was afterwards known as Saint John's, No. 1. A Grand Lodge s of North Carolina was organized in 1771 which met at New Bern and Edenton, but its early history is obscure owing to the supposed destruction of the records by the English during the War of the Revolution. Representatives of seven Lodges, Unanimity, Saint John's, Royal Edwin, Royal White Hart, Royal William, Union and Blandford-Bute, met on December 9, 1787, to reorganize the Grand Lodge. In 1856 Saint John's College was established at Oxford, but during the war of 1861-5, when it was vacated by the students, it was converted into one of the best orphan homes in the country. In charity as in everything else this Grand Lodge has al vays achieved success.
The first mention of Capitular Freemasonry in North Carolina occurs in the Proceedings of the fourth Convocation of the General Grand Chapter where it appears that a Charter was to have been issued to Concord Chapter at Wilmington, May 4, 1815, by the General Grand King. He also granted one to Phoenix Chapter at Fayetteville, September 1, 1815.
fit the thirteenth Convocation of the General Grand Chapter held on September 14, 1847, at Columbus, Ohio, the General Grand Secretary reported that a Grand Chapter of North Carolina had once existed but had ceased work twenty years before; that according to information just received it had latelv been reorganized. An Assembly of representatives of three Chapters had duly adopted a Constitution and elected X ieers on June 98, 1847. On September 16, 1847, the Grand Chapter of North Carolina was, after the alteration of one or two articles in its Constitution, granted legal authority by the General Grand Chapter of the United States.
Five Councils had been chartered in North Carolina before the organization of the Grand Council. In each ease the document was signed by the Supreme Couneil of the Southern Jurisdiction. All five were represented at a Convention for the organization of the Grand Council at Fayetteville, June 21, 1822. In 1859 the Grand Chapter resisted an attempt to incorporate the Degrees with the Chapter by a declaration to the effect that it desired to exercise no such control. A Grand Council was organized June 6, 1860, but owing to the Civil War no meeting was held until 1866, and in 1883 it was dissolved altogether. The Degrees then came under the control of the Grand Chapter until 1887 when the Grand Council was again established.
The first official mention of Templarism in North Carolina appeared in the Proceedings of the Grand Encampment of the United States for September 19, 1826. The issue of a Charter to Fayetteville Encampment among others on December 21, 1821, was the item in question. This Encampment ceased work at an early date and the details about an attempt made in 1845 to start another are not known. On September 16, 1850, it was resolved bv the General Grand Encampment of the United States to grant renewed authority to Fayetteville and Wilmington. On iNIay 10, 1881, the Grand Commandery of North Carolina was established.
On November 91, 1892, Asheville Lodge of Perfection, No. 1, at Asheville, was granted a Charter. Charters were issued to a Chapter of Rose Croix, a Council of Kadosh, and a Consistory, all located at Charlotte, namely, Mecklenburg, No. 1, October 5, 1901; Charlotte, No. 1, October 23, 1907; Carolina, No. 1, December 18, 1907, respectively, under the Southern Jurisdiction of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
When the Territory of Dakota was divided into North and South Dakota in 1889 the question arose of the necessity for a Grand Lodge in each of the two districts. It was decided that there must be a division of Grand Lodges to correspond with the political division. A Convention was held on June 12, 1889, at Mitchell which resolved that a Grand Lodge for North Dakota should be organized. The following Lodges were represented: Shiloh, No. 8; Pembina, STo. 10; Casselton, No. 12; Acacia, No. 15; Bismarek, No. 16; Jamestown, No. 19; Valley City, No. 21; NIandan, No. 23; Cereal, No. 29; Hillsboro, No. 32; Crescent, No. 36; Cheyenne Valley, No. 41; Ellendale, No. 49; Sanborn, No. 51; Wahpeton, No. 58; North Star, No. 59; Minto, No. 60; Mackey, No. 63; Goose River, No. 64; Hiram, No. 74; Minnewaukan, Bio. 75; Tongue River, No. 78; Bathgate, No. 80; Euelid, No. 84; Anchor, No. 88; Golden Valley, No. 90; Occidental, No. 99. A Constitution and By-laws were adopted, Grand Officers duly elected, and the first session held the following day.
A similar problem occurred with regard to the Grand Chapter of North Dakota. The Chapters in South Dakota had organized their Grand Chapter on January 6, 1890. Thereupon the representatives of Missouri, No. 6; Casselton, No. 7; Cheyenne, No. 9; Keystone, No. 11; Jamestown, No. 13, and Lisbon, No. 29, organized on January 9 the Grand Chapter of North Dakota. The first Annual Convocation was held at Grand Forks, nine days later.
The first Council in North Dakota, Fargo, No. 1, was granted a Dispensation on February 12, 1889, while the Territory was still undivided. It was chartered, however, five monttis after the division took place, on November 19, 1889. At a Convention held on March 20, 1916, members of Fargo Couneil, No. 1; Lebanon, No. 2, and Adoniram, No. 3, organized the Grand Council of North Dakota as a constituent member of the General Grand Council.
The Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of the United States issued a Dispensation to form the Commandery of North Dakota on June 4, 1890. Thereupon Tancred, No. 4; Fargo, No. 5; Grand Forks, No. 8, and Wi-ha-ha, No. 12, Commanderies on June 16, 1890, organized the Grand Commandery of North Dakota.
With regard to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, Dakota Consistory, No. 1, was chartered on May 26, 1886; Fargo Council of Kadosh, No.1, on December 8,1883; Pelican Chapter of Rose Croix, No. 1, on June 19, 1883, and Enoch Lodge of Perfection, No. 1, on June 7, 1883.
In the Institutes of Menu, the sacred book of the Brahmans, it is said: "If any one has an incurable disease, let him advance in a straight path towards the invincible northeast point, feeding on water and air till his mortal frame totally decays, and his soul becomes united with the supreme."
It is at the same northeast point that those first instructions begin in Freemasonry which enable the true Freemason to commence the erection of that spiritual temple in which, after the decay of his mortal frame, "his soul becomes united with the supreme. "
In the important ceremony which refers to the Northeast Corner of the Lodge, the Candidate becomes as one who is, to all outward appearance, a perfect and upright 7nan and Mason, the representative of a spiritual Corner-stone, on which he is to erect his future moral and Masonic edifice. This symbolic reference of the Corner-stone of a material edifice to a Freemason when, at his first initiation, he commences the moral and intellectual task of erecting a spiritual temple in his heart, is beautifully sustained when we look at all the qualities that are required to constitute a "well-tried, true, and trusty" Corner-stone. The squareness of its surface, emblematic of morality its cubical form, emblematic of firmness and stability of character and the peculiar finish and fineness of the material, emblematic of virtue and holiness show that the ceremony of the Northeast Corner of the Lodge was undoubtedly intended to portray, in the consecrated language of symbolism, the neeessity of integrity and stabilitv of conduct, of truthfulness and uprightness of character, and of purity and holiness of life, which, just at that time and in that place, the candidate is most impressively charged to maintain.
This star is frequently used as a Masonic symbol, as are the morning star, the day star, the seven stars. Thus, the morning star is the forerunner of the Great Light that is about to break upon the Lodge; or, as in the grade of Grand Master Arehiteet, twelfth of the Seottish Svstem, the initiate is received at the hour "when the day star has risen in the east, and the north star looked down upon the seven stars that circle round him." The symbolism is truth; the North Star is the Pole Star, the Polaris of the mariner, the Cynosura. that guides Freemasons over the stormy seas of time. The seven stars are the symbol of right and justice to the Order and the country.
Freemasonry must be studied in Sweden and Denmark jointly with Norway as politically the three were united for many years and the Swedish Rite has left a permanent impression on all of these countries. As far back as the year 1030 A.D., Danish power controlled Norway. Soon a Swedish King was chosen over Norway, 1036, and then in 1380 a King of Denmark became ruler of the sister nations.
So it continued until 1814 when Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden and this union lasted until June, 190S, when a Swedish Prince was chosen as King Haakon VII. Some few Lodges in Norway erected by Danish authority came under the control of the Grand Lodge of Sweden when the two countries were politically united, this Grand Lodge being formed in 1759.
A separation of the countries, Sweden and Norway, involves a governing division Masonically and there is a Grand Lodge of Norway. From 1796 by Royal Edict all Swedish Princes have been members of the Craft. A Civil Order was also instituted by the King, Charles XIII, Grand Master, to be conferred on the Princess and no more than thirty others of the tenth Degree of the Rite, which is dominantly Christian. The Grand National Lodge of Berlin, uses a like Ritual. A Provincial Grand Lodge operated from May 7, 1793, under the Grand Lodge Zur Sonne, the latter having its headquarters at Bayreuth, Germany. This was constituted as the Grand Lodge Den Norskc Polarstjernen on May 8, 1920.
A significant word in some of the advanced Degrees of the Templar System. It is the anagram of Aumont, who is said to have been the first Grand Master of the Ternplars in Scotland, and the restorer of the Order after the death of De Molay.
A slab of rock discovered in 1827 on Goat Island in the Annapolis Basin was found to be engraved vrith the Square and Compasses and the date 1606, but the history of it remains unknown and nothing can be guessed of its origin. The first Lodge in Nova Scotia was established at Annapolis by authority of the Saint John's Grand Lodge of Massachusetts at some time previous to 1740. Nova Scotia was originally governed by the Provincial Grand Master of New England, whose authority extended over all North America, but on September 24, 1784, Brother John George Pvke was appointed Provincial Grand Master of a Provincial Grand Lodge formed that day and warranted the previous June. On January 16, 1866, all the Scotch Lodges but one called a meeting at which it was decided to summon a Convention on February 20. A Grand Lodge was duly formed and Brother W. H. Davies eleeted Grand Master. In 1869 the remaining Scotch Lodge and the English District Grand Lodge united with the new bodv under the name of The Grand Lodye of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of Nova Scotia.
1. The Second Degree of the Illuminati of Bavaria. 2. The Fifth Decree of the Rite of Strict Observance.
That in French is to say a female Mason who is a Novice. It is the First Degreq of the Moral Order of the Dames of Mount Tabor
The French title is Novice Mythologigue. The First Degree of the Historical Order of the Dames of Mount Tabor.
In French the title is bodice Ecossaise. The First Degree of initiation in the Order of Mount Tabor.
The time of probation, as well as of preparatory training, which, in all Religious Orders, precedes the solemn profession at least one year. By Dispensation only can the period of time be reduced. Novices are immediately subjeet to a superior called Master of .Vovices, and their time must be devoted to prayer and to liturgical training.
The Egyptian equivalent for the expression "I am that I am."
The symbolism which is derived from numbers was common to the Pythagoreans, the Cabalists the Gnosties, and all mystical associations. Of all superstitions. it is the oldest and the most generallY diffused. Allusions are to be found to it in all Systems of religion; the Jewish Scriptures, for instance, abound in it, and the Christian shows a share of its influence- It is not, therefore, surprising that the most predominant of all symbolism in Freemasonry is that of numbers.
The doctrine of numbers as symbols is most familiar to us because it formed the fundamental idea of the philosophy of Pythagoras. Yet it was not original with him, since he brought his theories from Egypt and the East, where this numerical symbolism had always prevailed. Jamblichus tells us (On the Pythagorean Life, 28) that Pythagoras himself admitted that he had received the doctrine of numbers from Orpheus, who taught that numbers were the most provident beginning of all things in heaven, earth, and the intermediate space, and the root of the perpetuity of Divine beings, of the gods and of demons. From the disciples of Pythagoras we learn, for he himself taught only orally, and left no writings, that his theory was that numbers contain the elements of all things, and even of the sciences. Numbers are the invisible covering of beings as the body is the visible one. They are the primary causes upon which the whole system of the universe rests; and he who knows these numbers knows at the same time the laws through which nature exists.
The Pythagoreans, said Aristotle (Metaphysica xii, 5), make all things proceed from numbers. Dacier (Life of Pythagoras), it is true, denies that this was the doctrine of Pythagoras, and contends that it was only a corruption of his disciples. It is an immaterial point. We know that the symbolism of numbers was the basis of what is called the Pythagorean philosophy. But it would be wrong to suppose that from it the Freemasons derived their system, since the two are in some points antagonistic; the Freemasons, for instance, revere the nine as a sacred number of peculiar signifieanee, while the Pythagoreans looked upon it with detestatiorI. In the system of the Pythagoreans, ten was, of all numbers, the most perfect, because it symbolizes the completion of things; but in Masonic symbolism the number ten is unknown. Four is not, in Freemasonry, a number of much representative imporbance; but it was sacredly revered by the Pythagoreans as the Tetractys, or figure derived from the Jewish Tetragrammaton, by which they swore.
Plato also indulged in a theory of symbolic numbers and ealls him happy who understands spiritual numbers and perceives their mighty influences Numbers according to Plato, are the eause of universal harmony and of the production of all things. The Neoplaton ists extended and developed this theory, and from them it passed over to the Gnostics; from them probably to the Rosicrucians, to the Hermetic philosophers and to the Freemasons.
Cornelius Agrippa has descanted at great length in his Occult Philosophy, on the subject of'numbers. "That there lies," he says, "wonderful efncacy and virtue in numbers, as well for good as for evil, not only the most eminent philosophers teach, but also the Catholic Doctors." And he quotes Saint Hilary as saying that the seventy Elders brought the Psalms into order by the efficacy of numbers.
Of the prevalence of what are called representative numbers in the Old and New Testament, there is abundant evidence. "However we may explain it," says Doctor Utahan (Palmoni, page 67), "certain numerals in the Scriptures occur so often in connection with certain classes of ideas, that we are naturally led to associate the one with the other. This is more or less admitted with regard to the numbers Seven, Twelve, Forty, Seventy, and it may be a few more. The Fathers were disposed to admit it with regard to many others, and to see in it the marlss of a supernatural design." Among the Greeks and the Romans there was a superstitious veneration for certain numbers. The same practise is found among all the Eastern nationsit entered more or less into all the ancient systems of philosophy; constituted a part of all the old religions; was accepted to a great extent by the early Christian Fathers; constituted an important part of the Cabala; was adopted by the Gnostics, the Rosicrucians, and all the mystical societies of the Middle Ages; and finally has carried its influence into Freemasonry.
The respect paid by Freemasons to certain numbers all of which are odd. is founded not on the belief of any magical virtue but because they are assumed to be the type or representatives of certain ideas. That is to say, a number is in Freemasonry a symbol, and no more. It is venerated, not because it has any supernatural efficacy, as thought the Pythagoreans and others, but because it has concealed within some allusion to a sacred object or holy thought, which it symbolizes. The number three, for instance, like the triangle, is a symbol; the number nine, like the triple trzangle, another. The Masonic doctrine of sacred numbers must not, therefore, be confounded with the doctrine of numbers which prevailed in other systems. The most important symbolic or sacred numbers in Freemasonry are three, five, seven, nine, twenty-seven and eighty-one. Their interpretation will be found under their respective titles (see Odd Numbers)
The subject is also discussed in Doctor Mackey's revised History of Freemasonry; Numbers, their Occttlt Power and Mystic Virtues, W. Wynn Westcott, Supreme Magus, Rosicrucian Society of England; Numbers, their Meaning and Magic, Isidore Kozminsky, and Rabala of Numbers, Sepharial.
Numerology is to arithmetic what astrology is to astronomy. It is a form of occultism in which magical properties are attributed to the natural numbers; and it is probable that it has been more or less experimented with in Europe since the Thirteenth Century Kabbalists introduced it into some of their most obscure pages it is reported that at the present time the Kabbala and numerology are virtually synonymous among Jewish Kabbalists in the Near East, of whom there are a few but who carry little weight. It was the fashion for generations to father numerology on Pythagoras; and in the small scraps of information about him available in the periods before modern archeology there appeared to be ground for that doctrine; but the theory is now abandoned; it is believed that what Pythagoras discovered (as in harmonics) was the fact that numbers are not mere words, mere subjective devices of men's minds, but are true objectively, and describe properties which belong inherently to material things.
There is no evidence of any infiltration of numerology into Freemasonry. The builders of the cathedrals were too sound and intelligent in their knowledge of geometry, made too much practical use of it, to give countenance to fuzzy, unreal, heterodox oecultisms about numbers and geometrical figures poF sessing magical powers. They believed in no form of fortune-telling. Nor is there anywhere evidence that Speculative Masons believed in it. The Monitorial Lectures of the Second Degree in which the numbers 3, 5, 7 occur were either written or adopted by William Preston, an orthodox Christian of the latter half of the Eighteenth Century to whom any form of occultism would have been abhorrent. . so would it have been to his predecessors, Drs. Desaguliers and James Anderson. (See article in this Supplement on WAITE, ARTHUR EDWARD; he wrote much on the subs ject, and out of a very wide knowledge.)
NUMERATION BY LETTERS.
There is a Cabalistical process especially used in the Hebrew language, but sometimes applied to other languages, for instance, to the Greek, by which a mystical meaning of a word is deduced from the numerical value of the words of which it is composed, each letter of the alphabet being equivalent to a number. Thus in Hebrew the name of God, Jah, is equivalent to 15, because ' = 10 and n = 5, and 15 thus becomes a sacred number. In Greek, the Cabalistic word Abraxas, is made to symbolize the solar year of 365 days, because the sum of the value of the letters of the word is 365; thus, a=1 ß=2, p=100, a=1, t=60, a=1, and s=200. To facilitate these Cabalistic operations, which are sometimes used in the advanced Degrees and especially the Hermetical Freemasonry, the numerical value of the Hebrew and Greek letters is here given
The word Gematrta means to calculate by letters as well as numbers. While this was a late development there are traces of it in the Old Testarnent in the opinion of W. H. Bennett (Hasting's Dictionary of tile Bible). He says (page 660):
It consisted in the indicating of a word by means of the number which would be obtained bs adding together the numerical values of the consonants of the word. Thus in Genesis xiv, 14, Abraham has 318 trained servants, 318 is the sum of the consonants of the name of Abraham's Steward, Eliezer, in its original Hebrew form The number is apparently constructed front the name. The Apocalyptie number of the Beast is often explained by Gematria, and 666 has been discovered to be the sum of the numerical values of the letters of some form or other of a large number of names written either in Hebrew, or Greek, or Latin. Thus the Beast has been identified with hundreds of persons, e.2. Mohammed Luther, the Pope, Napoleon I, Napoleon III, ete., each of -whom was specially obnoxious to the ingenious identifier. Probably by a little careful manipulation any name in some form or other, in Hebrew, Greek, or Greek letters is here given.Latin could be made by Gematria to yield 666. The two favorite explanations are Lateinos=Latinus, the Roman Empire or Emperor, and Nero Caesar. The latter has the special advantage that it recounts not only for 666, but also for the variant reading, 616, mentioned above; as Neron Caesar it gives 666, and as Nero Caesar, 616.
Much interesting reading on the Number of the Beast is in the two volumes of a Budget of Paradozes Augustus de Morgan. Both Bennett and Morgan agree, the latter being even less impressed by the claims made by various compilers of these numerical values. Brother Frank C. Higgins has devoted considerable study to the subject and discussed it freely by articles in the New Age, American Freemason, etc., as well as in such books as the Cross of the Magi, 1912.
The Hebrew word, meaning abash, in Syrian an inkhorn. The Chaldaic and hieroglyphie form of this Hebrew word or letter was like Figure 1, and the Egyptian like Figure 2, signifying fishes in any of these forms. Joshua was the son of Nun, or a fish, the deliverer of Israel. As narrated of the Noah in the Hindu account of the Deluge, whereby the forewarning of a fish caused the construction of an ark and the salvation of one family of the human race from the flood of waters (see Beginnings of History, by Lenormant) .
Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet and so used in the ll9th Psalm to mean the fourteenth part, every verse beginning with this letter.
A Portuguese founder of an imitation of Knights Templar, termed the Order of Christ, at Paris, 1807.
The first of the three classes into which Weishaupt divided his Order of Illuminati, comprising three Degrees (see Illuminati).
In this country of Central Afriea, there have been two Lodges, one at Blantyre and one at Zomba. Both were chartered by the Grand Lodge of Scotland.
The name of the second of the three great systems of ancient Hindu philosophy.
An ancient sect who praised God by dav but rested in quiet and presumed security during the night.
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