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During the Mexican War Freemasonry was brought into the district by military Lodges attached to Regiments stationed there. Among these Lodges were Missouri, No. 86, and Hardin, No. 87, but both were closed with the end of the Mexican War. The Territory was then established and the Grand Lodge of Missouri issued a Charter for Montezuma Lodge, No. 109, the first Lodge to be organized in the new political division. It was duly instituted on August 22, 1851. A Convention was held at Santa Fe, August 6, 1877, for the purpose of making arrangements to establish a Grand Lodge. Simon B. Newcomb presided and A. Z. Huggins acted as Secretary. Representatives of four Lodges, namely, Aztec, No. 108; Chapman, No. 95; Montezuma, No. 109, and Union, No.480, were appointed to be present, but when the meeting took place those from the last named failed to attend. The next day William W. Griffin was elected Grand Master and David J. Miller, Grand Secretary.
The following Chapters were organized under Dispensation and received Charters: Santa Fe, No. 1, Santa Fe, December 11. 1865, September 18, 1868; Silver City, No. 2, Silver City, February 22, 1876, August 24, 1877; Las Vegas, No. 3, Las Vegas, March 10, 1881, August 15, 1883; Rio Grande, No. 4, Albuquerque, January 12, 1882, August 15, 1883; Deming, No. 5, Deming, February 28, 1885, October 1, 1886; Raton, No. 6, Raton, no Dispensation, July 23, 1891; Columbia, No. 7, Roswell, January 24! 1894, August 24, 1894, and Socorru, No. 8, Socorro, October 1, 1896, October 13, 1897. The Grand Chapter was organized October 3, 1898, and W. H. Seamon was elected Grand High Priest and A. A. Keen, Grand Secretary.
Deming Council, No. 1, was granted a Dispensation May 11, 1887, by the General Grand Council. Its Charter was issued November 19, 1889, but was annulled November 4, 1909. Hiram Council, No. 1, at Albuquerque, organized under a Dispensation, January 19, 1920, was granted a Charter from the General Grand Council on September 9, 1924. Zuni Council, at Gallup, was organized by Dispensation, April 3, 1922, and Santa Fe Council at Santa Fe, April 19, 1922, a Council of that name under Dispensation at Santa Fe, May 1, 1895, surrendered its DiF pensation on November 38, 1899.
A Commanlery organized in New Mexico as Santa Fe, No. 1, was granted a Dispensation May 31, 1869.A Charter was issued September 21,1871.
When the Grand Commandery was instituted on August 21, }901, there were six subordinate Commanderies in existence, Santa Fe, No. 1; Las Vegas, No. 2; Pilgrim, No.3; McGrorty, No. 4; Aztec, No. 5, and Rio Hondo, No. 6 on August 29 Malta, No. 7, was established at Silver City. A Lodge of Perfection, the first body of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, to be organized in New Mexico, was granted a Charter as Santa Fe, No. 1, on April 8, 1886. On October 20, 1909, three more bodies of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite were chartered, namely, Aztlan Chapter of prose Croix, No. 1 Coronado Council of Kadosh, No. 1, and New Mexico Consistory, No. 1.
NEW SOUTH WALES.
A state of the Commonwealth of Australia, in the southeast portion of the island continent. Freemasonry owed its introduction to this State to the Social and Military Virtues Lodge, No. 227 (Ireland), which, attached to the 46th Foot in 1752, was at work in Sydney in 1816.
Following on this, other Lodges, with a fixed abode, were opened under Irish Warrants, the first of which was Australian Social Lodge, No. 260, opened in 1820.
The Grand Lodge of England chartered a Lodge en tirely for Australians, Australia, No. 820, in 1828. In 1839 England appointed a Provincial Grand Master and Scotland and Ireland followed suit in 1855 and 1858 respectively.
Representatives of twelve Seottish and Irish Lodges met on December 3, 1877, and organized the Grand Lodge of New South Wales. A body had however existed for some years which had also called itself the Grand Lodge of New South Wales but its proceedings had been highly irregular and when the new Grand Lodge was formed it accepted a Lodge Warrant from the new authority. The latter however was itself refused recognition by the Grand Lodges of the British Isles owing to there being seventy-three other Lodges in the district over which the few had no right to annex authority. On September 1, 1888, a Grand Lodge of West South Wales was opened which was duly sanctioned by other Grand Lodges and the existing dissension was thus ended.
An Order of five Degrees instituted in France in the early part of the nineteenth century. The Degrees were termed—Initiati; Intimi Initiati; Adepti; Orientales Adepti; and Magnae aquilae nigrae sancti Johannes Apostoli Adepti.
NEWTON, SIR ISAAC.
Was Sir Isaac Newton a Mason? The question lies in the same case as that about Samuel Johnson (which see). There is in Cambridge an Isaac Newton Lodge, No. 859, but the fact does not prove Newton a Mason any more than the existence (at various times) of some three Shakespeare Lodges proves that Shakespeare was a Mason. There are, however, presuppositions in favor of his membership. Dr. J. T. Desaguliers was one of Newtons closest friends, so close that Newton stood godfather to Dr. Desaguliers' daughter; and Dr. Desaguliers at the time was the master builder of the new Grand Lodge system of Speculative Freemasonry.
The Royal Society was the apple of Newton's eye;
Newton in turn was the leader, inspiration, and glory of the Royal Society; and the membership of the Royal Society was so wholly Masonic that six or ten of its members were in the same Lodge at the same time; the Society's club shared its rooms with a Lodge; furthermore, a few of the Lodges acted as extension centers for the Society at a time when it was not yet popularly recognized and was the butt of much newspaper ridicule, so that it meant not a little for Royal Society members to be able to deliver scientific lectures (even on mechanics) to Lodges. Newton was therefore in a Masonic circle. Also, one of the few of his papers published posthumously was an attempt to work out the dimensions of Solomon's Temple. He had had his formula for gravitation held up for twenty y ears because he had forgotten that a French mile and an English mile were not the same length. His calculations on the Temple were held up even longer, forever in fact, because he found that four different cubits were in use as units of measure in Solomon's time, and he could nowhere discover which one had been used; nevertheless this interest in Solomon's Temple is sigt nificant. As against these presuppositions in favor of his having been a Mason stand two facts: no record of his membership has been found; Sir Isaac himself w as "not a clubbable man."
The first Provincial Grand Master from 1730, Colonel Daniel Coxe, did not take any active steps towards the exereise of his new office. Captain Richard Riggs, however, who succeeded him on November 15, 1737! arrived in Nseu York on May 21, 1738. The Provincial Grand Lodge was then organized and the first mention of Freemasonry in New York which occurs in the Neun yore Gazette of January 22, 1739, iB thought to refer to this body.
The fourth Provincial Grand Master was the most active in organizing Lodges Temple and Saint Fohn's were both alive in 1758 and the latter, the Charter of which was dated 1751, was probably constituted first. On September 5, 1781, the Atholl Grand Lodge authorized the constitution of a Provincial Grand Lodge of New York with the Rev. William Walter as Provincial Grand Master. Nine Lodges united in its formation, but Lodges constituted by the Moderns were excluded, and some years elapsed before it was thought advisable to allow them to participate. In 1787 the Grand Lodge declared illegal all Lodges in the State not under its own control.
The Royal Arch Degree was probably worked under the Lodge Charters at first. It is thought that Washington Chapter began life with the Provincial Grand Lodge, warranted in 1781, but as its records were destroyed by fire the facts about its early history are unknown. Five Chapters, namely, Hudson, Temple, Horeb, Hibernian and Montgomery, constituted on March 14, 1798, a Deputy Grand Chapter for the State of New York, subordinate to the Grand Chapter of the United States. Companion De Witt Clinton was then elected Deputy Grand High Priest. Brother Clinton also served as Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of New York, Grand Master of Knights Templar of the United States and for fourteen years was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of his State, being furthermore United States Senator, Mayor of New York City, and later was elected Governor of New York. He did not hesitate to publicly defend Freemasonry when many in public office were too fearful to be fair, or were even maliciously antagonistic. As Governor he was prompt, judicial and thorough with the problems raised bv the Morgan mystery, and also wrote these sterling convictions to show his personal Masonic sentiments:
"I know that Free Masonry, properly understood, and faithfully attended to, is friendly to religion, morality, liberty and good government; and I shall never shrink under any state of excitement, or any extent of misapprehension, from bearing testimony in favor of the purity of an Institution which can boast of a Washington and a Franklin and a Lafayette as distinguished members, which inculcates no principles and authorizes no acts that are not in perfect accordance with good morals, civil liberty and entire obedience to the government and the laws." On January 10, 1799, the Grand Chapter to the Northern States assumed the name, as it already had the status, of a General Grand body and the Deputy Grand Chapters omitted the word Deputy from their titles.
Columbia Grand Council, No. 1, was opened at a meeting in Saint John's Hall on September 2, 1810. It was probably a self-constituted body. On Januarv 18, 1823, it was resolved to form a Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters and at a Convention held a week later Companion Lownds was chosen Most Illustrious Royal Grand Master.
In 1860 this Grand Council united with another organized May °7, 1854, by representatives of Washington, Pennell and Oriental Councils. A list of members of Morton's Encampment, probably the first in the State, appeared in 1796. Reference to a procession including Knights Templar in the Independent Journal of New York, December 28, 1785, suggests that the Encampment was at work years before 1796. Of those established about the beginning of the nineteenth century, Temple Commandery, No. 2, seems to be the oldest. A meeting was held on Januarv 2°, 1814, of the leadings Knights Templar in the State Assuming the necessary authority, they chose officers for a Grand Encampment and on June 18, 1814, this body svas established with De Witt Clinton as Grand Master. June 21, 1816, the General Grand Encampment of the United States was organized at New York. Ineffable Lodge of Perfection and Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem were chartered at Albany on December 2O, 1767. Some years elapsed and on August 6, 1806, the Chapter of Rose Croix of New York City and the Consistory of New York City were both constituted.
A dominion consisting of a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean about one thousand miles to the southeast of Australia. Less than 100 vears after the tanding of the first European in this country a Freneh Lodge, Franqaise Primitive .&ntipodienne, the Antipodes meaning the opposite side of the earth, was chartered at Akaroa on August 9, 1843. The second and third were founded by the Grand Lodges of Ireland and England respectively in 1844 and 1845.
After 1862 the progress of the Craft gained impetus and manv more Lodges sprang up. Between 1860 and 1875 fifty-four Lodges in all were warranted. On April 99, 1890, the Grand Lodge of New Zealand was established by those Lodges which desired independence. The others have continued their allegiance to their original Grand Lodges but have always maintained a friendly attitude towards the Grand Lodge of New Zealand.
At the time of the writing of the concise account of Freemasonry in New Zealand on page 707 the oldest know n Lodge record was dated 1843. In Centenmal History of the New Zealand Pacific Lodge, Aro. It by R. C. G. Weston (published by the Lodge in 1942) evidence is given of a Lodge at mork in 1842.
A republic of Central America, between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The Lodge of Regularity, No. 300, was granted a Charter by the Grand Lodge of England at Black River in 1763, but its name was removed from the register at the Union of 1813. Lodges were opened also at Greyto an by authority of the Grand Lodge of Scotland.
About 1762 a Provincial Grand Master, Brother Thomas 51. Perkins, was appointed by Lord Aberdour and this authority was later extended to cover america.
Brother Street states in 1922' report to the Grand Lodge of Alabaman "The Grand Lodge of Nicaragua has its seat at Managua but we have been able to learn nothing of its history or present activities."
From the Danish word, Nikken. The spirit of the waters, an enemy of man, the devil, or in the vulgate, Old Nick.
NICOLAI, CHRlSTOPH FRIEDRICH.
Christopher Frederick Nicolai, author of a very interesting essay on the origin of the Society of Freemasons, was a bookseller of Berlin, and one of the most distinguished of the German savants of that Augustan age of German literature in which he lived. He was born at Berlin on the 18th of March, 1733, and died in the same eity on the 8th of January, 1811. He was the editor of and an industrious contributor to, two German periodicals of high literary character, a learned writer on various subjects of science and philosophy, and the intimate friend of Lessing, whose works he edited, and of the illustrious Mendelssohn. In 1782-3, he published a work with the following title: Versuch über die Beschuldigungen welche dem Tempelherrnorden gemacht worden und über dessen Geheimniss; nebst einem Anhange über das Entstehen der Freimaurergegeselschaft that is, An Essay on the accusations rnade against the Order of Knight.s Templar and their mystery; troth an Appendiz on the origin of the Fraternity of Freemasons. In this work Nicolai advanced his peculiar theory on the origin of Freemasonry, which is substantially as follows:
Lord Bacon, taking certain hints from the writings of Andrea, the founder of Rosicrucianism and his English disciple, Fludd, on the subject of the regeneration of the world, proposed to accomplish the same object,but by a different and entirely opposite method. For, whereas, they explained everything esoterically, Bacon's plan was to abolish all distinction between the esoteric and the exoteric and to demonstrate everything by proofs from nature. This idea he first promulgated in his Instauratio Magna, but afterward more fully developed in his New Atlantis. In this latter world he introduced his beautiful apologue. abounding in Masonic ideas, in which he described the unknown island of Bensalem, where a king had built a large edifice, called after himself, Solomon's House. Charles I, it is said, had been much attracted by this idea, and had intended to found something of the kind upon the plan of Solomon's Temple, but the occurrence of the Civil War prevented the execution of the project.
The idea lay for some time dormant, but was subsequently revived, in 1646, by Wallis, Wilkins, and several other learned men, who established the Royal Society for the purpose of carrying out Bacon's plan of communicating to the world scientific and philosophic eat truths. About the same time another society was formed by other learned men, who sought to arrive at truth by the investigations of alchemy and astrology. To this society such men as Ashmole and Lily were attached, and they resolved to construct a House of Solomon in the island of Bensalem, where they might communicate their instructions by means of secret symbols. To cover their mysterious designs, they got themselves admitted into the Masons Company, and held their meetings at Masons Hall, in Masons Alley, Basinghall Street. As Freemen of London, they took the name of Freernusons, and naturally adopted the Masonic implements as symbols.
Although this association, like the Royal Society, sought, but by a different method, to inculcate the principles of natural science and philosophy, it subsequently took a political direction. Most of its members were strongly opposed to the puritanism of the dominant party and were in favor of the royal eause, and hence their meetings, ostensibly held for the purpose of scientific investigation, were really used to conceal their secret political efforts to restore the exiled house of Stuart. From this society, which subsequently underwent a decadence, sprang the revival in 1717, which culminated in the establishment of the Grand Lodge of England.
Such was the theory of Nicolai. Few will be found at the present day to concur in all his views, yet none can refuse to award to him the praise of independence of opinion, originality of thought, and an entire avoidance of the beaten paths of hearsay testimony and unsupported tradition. His results may be rejected, but his method of attaining them must be commended.
NICOTIATES, ORDER OF,
or the Order of the Priseurs. As smoker, meaning a smoker of tobacco, so priseur means taker-a taker of snuff. A secret Order mentioned by Clavel, teaching the doctrines of Pythagoras From a strictly historical point of view the Society seems to have had its rise about the year 1817, but its traditional history carries one back to the closing years of the fifth century, and the persecution under Emperor Justinian, instigated by his wife, Theodora. In so far as can be gathered, Cachire de Beaurepaire, A. Meallet—Esline and Etienne Francois Bazot seemed to have been the original members or founders of the Society. Brother R. E. Wallace James was of the opinion, derived from various circumstances, although he had as then no actual evidence sufficient to verify the belief, that to Bazot should be contributed this honor.
The Society lasted only for some sixteen years. The last meeting of which we can find any trace was a banquet which was held in June, 1833. During these sixteen years, however, the Priseurs gathered to the membership the bulk of the most famous Masonic characters of the time resident in Paris. Among the first to join was J. M. Ragon, who was admitted a member on June 1, 1817, at which time, though the Society had only been a few months in existence, the membership numbered twenty-five. Andre Joseph Etienne Le Rouge was admitted at the following meeting, held upon January 21, 1818, and on his being appointed Secretary, he became the ruling spirit of the Society. In short, the Priseurs were apparently a very select little coterie of Parisian Masons who met together, over their pipes and cigars, to discuss the various subjects connected more or less with Freemasonry (see Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, volume xxviiu, 1915).
The Grand Lodges in the British Isles are responsible for the introduction of Freemasonry into Nigeria, a territory of West Africa. The English Grand Lodge controls five Lodges at Lagos and one each at Calabar, Ebute Metta, Kaduna, Onitsha, Fort Harcourt, Warri and Zaria; Ireland one at Calabar, and Scotland has two at Lagos and one at Calabar.
Lodges, almost universally, all over the world, meet, except on special occasions, at night. In some large cities, as New York, Chicago, Cleveland, Lodges have been established of Brethren whose oecupations prevent their assemblage at other than the daytime, hence these are usually called Daylight Lodges. In this selection of the hours of night and darkness for initiation, the usual coincidence will be found between the ceremonies of Freemasonry and those of the Ancient Mysteries, showing their derivation from common origin. Justin says that at Eleusis, Triptolemus invented the art of sowing corn, and that, in honor of this invention, the nights were consecrated to initiation. The application is, however, rather abstruse.
In the Bacchae of Euripides (Act in, line 485), that author introduces the god Bacchus, the supposed inventor of the Dionysian Mysteries, as replying to the question of King Pentheus in the following words:
Pentheus. By night or day, these sacred rites perform'st thou?
Bacchus. Mostly by night, for venerable is darkness;
In all the other Myateries the same reason was assigned for nocturnal celebrations, since night and darkness have something solemn and august in them which is disposed to fill the mind with sacred awe. Hence black, as an emblem of darkness and night, was considered as the color appropriate to the mysterica. In the Myateries of Hindustan, the candidate for initiation, having been duly prepared by previous purifications, was led at the dead of night to the gloomy cavern, in which the mystic rites were performed.
The same period of darkness was adopted for the celebration of the Mysteries of Mithras, in Persia Among the Druids of Britain and Gaul, the principal annual initiation commenced at low twelve, or midnight of the eve of May-Day. In short, it is indisputable that the initiations in all the Ancient Mysteries were nocturnal in their character.
The reason given by the ancients for this selection of night as the time for initiation, is equally applicable to the system of Freemasonry. "Darkness," says Brother Oliver, "was an emblem of death, and death was a prelude to resurrection. It will be at once seen, therefore, in what manner the doctrine of the resurrection was inculcated and exemplified in these remarkable institutions." Death and the resurrection were the doctrines taught in the Ancient Mysteries;
and night and darkness were necessary to add to the sacred awe and reverence which these doctrines ought always to inspire in the rational and contemplative mind. The same doctrines form the very groundwork of Freemasonry; and as the Master Mason, to use the language of Hutchinson, "represents a man saved from the grave of iniquity and raised to the faith of salvation," darkness and night are the appropriate accompaniments to the solemn ceremonies which demonstrate this profession.
Japanese, meaning Chronicles of Fisons The companion of the Rojiki; the two works together forming the doctrinal and historic basis of Sintonism. The Japanese adherents of Sinsyn are termed Sintus, or Sintoos, who worship the gods, the chief of which is Ten-sio-dai-yin. The Nihongi was composed about 720 A.D., with the evident design of giving a Chinese coloring to the subject-matter of the Kojiki, upon which it is founded.
There is a tradition in the old Masonic Records that the inundations of the River Nile, in Egypt, continually destroying the perishable landmarks by which one man could disting ush his possessions from those of another, Euclid instructed the people in the art of geometry, by which they might measure their lands; and then taught them to bound them with walls and ditches, BO that after an inundation each man could identify his own boundaries. The tradition is given in the Cooke Manuscript (lines 455-72) thus: "Euclyde was one of the first founders of Geometry, and he gave hit name, for in his tvme there was a water in that lond of Egypt that is called Nilo, and hit florid so ferre into the londe that men myght not dwelle therein. Then this worthi clerke Enclide taught hem to malre grete wallys and diches to holde owt the watyr, and he by Gemetria mesured the londe and departyd hit in divers partys, and made every man to close his owne parte with walles and dishes." This legend of the origin of the art of geometry was borrowed by the old Operative Masons from the Origines of Saint Isidore of Seville, where a similar story is told.
NIL NISI CLAVIS DEEST.
Latin, and meaning Nothing buff the key is wanting A motto or dence often attached to the Double Triangle of Royal Arch Masonry It is inscribed on the Royal Arch badge or jewel of the Grand Chapter of Scotland, the other — devices being a Double Triangle and a Triple Tau.
The Legend of the Craft in the Old Constitutions refers to Nimrod as one of the founders Of Freemasonry. Thus in the York Manuscript. No. 1, we read: 'At ye makeing of ye Toure of Babell there was Masonrie first much esteemed of, and the King of Babilon yt was called Nimrod was A Mason himself and loved well Masons." And the Cooke Manuscript thus repeats the story: 'And this same Nembroth began the towre of babilon and he taught to his werkemen the craft of Masonrie, and he had with him many Masons more than forty thousand. And he loved and cherished them well" (see line 343). The idea no doubt sprang out of the Scriptural teaching that Nimrod was the architect of many cities; a statement not so well expressed in the authorized version, as it is in the improved one of Bochart, which says: "From that land Nimrod went forth to Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and Rehoboth city, and Calah and Resen between Nineveh and Calah, that is the great city."
If the number three was celebrated among the ancient sages, that of three times three had no less celebrity; because, according to them, each of the three elements which constitute our bodies is ternary: the water containing earth and fire; the earth containing igneous and aqueous particles; and the fire being tempered by globules of water and terrestrial corpuscles which serve to feed it. No one of the three elements being entirely separated from the others, all material beings composed of these three elements, whereof each is triple, may be designated by the figurative number of three times three, which has become the symbol of all formations of bodies. Hence the name of ninth envelop given to matter. Every material extension, every circular line, has for its representative sign the number nine among the Pythagoreans, who had observed the property which this number possesses of reproducing itself incessantly and entire in every multiplication; thus offering to the mind a very striking emblem of matter, which is incessantly composed before our eyes, after having undergone a thousand decompositions.
The number nine was consecrated to the Spheres and the Muses. It is the sign of every circumference; because a circle or 360 degrees is equal to nine, that is to say, 3+6+0=9. Nevertheless, the ancients regarded this number with a sort of terror; they considered it a bad presage; as the symbol of versatility, of change, and the emblem of the frailty of human affairs. Wherefore they avoided all numbers where nine appears, and chiefly 81, the produce of nine multiplied by itself, and the addition whereof, 8+1, again presents the number nine. As the figure of the number six was the symbol of the terrestrial globe, animated by a Divine Spirit, the figure of the number nine symbolized the earth, under the influence of the Evil Principle; and thence the terror it inspired. Nevertheless, according to the Cabalists, the character nine symbolizes the generative egg, or the image of a little globular being, from whose lower side seems to flow its spirit of life. The Ennead, signifying an aggregate of nine thongs or persons, is the first square of unequal numbers. Every one is aware of the singular properties of the number nine, which, multiplied by itself or any other number whatever, gives a result whose final sum is always nine, or always divisible by nine. Nine multiplied by each of the ordinary numbers, produces an arithmetical progression, each member whereof, composed of two figures, presents a remarkable fact; for example: 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 10
9 . 18 . 27 . 36 . 45 . 54 . 63 . 72 . 81 . 90
The first line of figures gives the regular series, from 1 to 10. The second reproduces this line doubly; first ascending from the first figure of 18, and then returning from the second figure of 81. In Freemasonry, nine derives its value from its being the product of three multiplied into itself, and consequently in Masonic language the number nine is always denoted by the expression three times three. For a similar reason, 27, which is 3 times 9, and 81, which is 9 times 9, are esteemed ax sacred numbers in the advanced Degrees.
The capital of the ancient Kingdom of Assyria, and built by Nimrod. The traditions of its greatness and the magnificence of its buildings were familiar to the Arabs, the Greeks, and the Romans. The modern discoveries of Rich, of Botta, and other explorers, have thrown much light upon its ancient condition, and have shown that it was the seat of much architectural splendor and of a profoundly symbolical religion, which had something of the characteristics of the Mithraic worship. In the mythical relations of the did Constitutions, which make up the Legend of the Craft, it is spoken of as the ancient birthplace of Freemasonry, where Nimrod, who was its builder, and "was a Mason and loved well the Craft," employed 60,000 Masons to build it, and gave them a charge "that they should be true," and this, says the HarZeian Manuscript, No. 19g, was the first time that any Mason had any change of Craft.
Also known as the Nine Excellent Masters, Freemasons selected fron Brethren. each representing a Lodge in London and Westmmster. Nine Brethren were elected every year by the Grand Chapter to visit the Lodges and report to the Grand Chapter or to the Right Worshipful Deputy Grand Master in order to preserve the uniformity of the work in England. Appointment of the Body occurred in 1792 and it was abolished in 1813. A special medal was used by these nine members, being surrendered to the successors every year The medal, recalled bv the Grand Chapter in 1817 on one side represented Freemasons at work and on the reverse side showed an incident in the Arch legend.
See Nalymus Grecus.
The seventh month of the Hebrew civil year, and corresponding to the months of March and April, commencing with the new moon of the former.
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