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It is impossible to say exactly at what period the idea of a monument in the Third Degree was first introduced into the svmbolism of Freemasonry. The early expositions of the eighteenth century, although they refer to a funeral, make no allusion to a monument. The monument adopted in the American system, consists of a weeping virgin, holding in one hand a sprig of acacia and in the other an urn; before her is a broken column! on which rests a copy of the Book of Constitutions, while Time behind her is attempting to disentangle the ringlets of her hair. The explanation of these symbols will be found in their proper places in this work. Oliver, in his Landmarks (ii, 146), cites this monument without any reference to its American origin.

Early in the eighteenth century the Master's monument was introduced into the French system, but its form was entirely different from the one adopted in the linited States of America. It is described as an obelisk, on which is inscribed a golden triangle, in the center of which the Tetragrammaton is engraved.
On the top of the obelisk is sometimes seen an urn pierced by a sword. In the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite an entire Degree has been consecrated to the subject of the Hiramic monument.
Altogether, the monument is simply the svmbolie expression of the idea that veneration should always be paid to the memory of departed worth.
This emblem has usually been considered as an invention of Brother Jeremy L. Cross and doubtless he is largely responsible for its present form in our standard work- Brother Robert B. Folger (in the Masonic Newspaper, New York Cityw May 10, 1779, see also Stellar Theology, Robert H. Brown, page 65) giving Cross's account of its introduction into the work says:

The causes which led him first to devise the plan of such work were as follows: He was passionately fond of Masonry, studied under Thomas Smith Webb, Gleason, and others, became perfect under them in the letters and work, and then started through the country as a lecturer in the year 1810. He was a man of excellent appearance in early life, very fluent in language, and, withal, a very fine singer. As a matter of course, he became very popular, the business of lecturing flowed in upon him very fast, and he had as much to engage his mind in that line as he could well attend to. Wishing to take advantage of all the business that offered, he found the work slow of accomplishment by reason of delays caused by imperfect memories. He wanted something of an objeetive kind, which would have the effect of bringing to mind the various subjects of his lectures, and so fixing the details in the mind, as, with the sets of objects presented to the sight, the lectures in detail would be complete.

There was not at that time any guide for Lodges except the so-called Master's Carpet and the works of Preston and Webb. The Master's Carpet was deficient, being without many of the most important emblems, and those which it displayed were very much "mixed up." The work of Preston did not agree with the "adopted work." That of Webb agreed perfectly, but still was wanting in its most important part. namely, the hieroglyphics, by which the work is plainly and uniformly presented to the learner, rendering it es sy of aequirement, and imprinting it upon the mind in such a manner that it will not readily be forgotten.
He considered the matter for many months, and finally attempted to draw various plans, taking Webb's Monitor for a guide. Part of the work he accomplished satisfactorily to himself. This included the First and Second Degrees, and although there was but little really original in the emblems which he produced, yet the classification and arrangement were his own. He went on with the Third Degree very well, as far as the Monitor of Webb goes, when he came to a pause.

There was a deficiency in the Third Degree which had to be filled in order to effect his purposes, and he became wearied in thinking over the subject. He finally consulted a Brother, formerly a Mayor of New Haven, who at the time was one of his most intimate friends, and they, after working together for a week or more, could not hit upon any symbol which would be sufficiently simple and yet answer the purpose. Whereupon the copper-plate engraver, also a Brother, who was doing his work was called in. They went at the business with renewed courage, and the number of hieroglyphics which had by this time accumulated was immense. Some were too large, some too small, some too complicated, requiring too much explanation, and many not at all adapted to the subject. Finally, the copper-plate printer said, "Brother Cross, when great men die, they generally have a monument." "That's right," said Cross; " I never thought of that," and away he went.
He was missing from the company, and was found lol ering around the burying-ground in New Haven in a maze. He had surveyed all that was there, but did not seem satisfied. At last he got an idea, whereupon tbe eouneil came together again, and he then told them hat he had got the foundation of what he wantedóthat while sojourning in New York City he had seen a monument erected over Commodore Lawrence in the southwest corner of Trinity Churchyard; that it was a glorious monument to the memory of a great man who fell in battle. It was a large marble pillar, broken off. The part broken off was taken away, but they had left the capital lying at the base. He would have that pillar for the foundation of his new emblem. but would bring the other part of the pillar in, leaving it resting against the base. Then one could know what it all meant. The other part of the pillar should be there. This was assented to but more was wanted. They needed some inscription describing the merits of the dead. They found no place on the column. and after a lengthy discussion they hit upon an open book, placed upon the broken pillar. But there should. in the order ol things, be some reader ol the book, so they selected the emblem of innocence in a beautiful virgin who should weep over the memory of the deceased while she read of his heroic deeds.

It would be proper to state that the monument erected to the memory of Commodore Lawrence was put up in the southwest corner of Trinity Churehyard in the year 1813, after the fight between the frigates Chesapeake and Shannon. in which battle Lawrence fell. It was a beautiful marble pillar, broken off, and a part of the capital laid at its base. The monument remained there until 1844-5, at which time Trinity Church had been taken down and rebuilt as it now stands. When finished, all the debris was cleaned away, the burial grounds trimmed and fancifully decorated, and the corporation of the church took away the old and dilapidated monument of Lawrence from that spot and erected a new one of a different form placing it in the front of the yard on Broadway, at the lower entrance of the church, where it now stands. Brother Cross and myself visited the new monument together, and he expressed great disappointment at the change, saying -it was not half as good as the one they had taken away!"

The claim of Cross to having originated the emblem is, however, disputed. Oliver speaks of the monument but does not assign to it an American origin and the idea itself is very old. In the Barney ritual of 181,, formerly in the possession of Samuel Willson of Vermont, which was the work adopted by the Grand Lodge of Iowa in 1860, there is the marble eolumn, the beautiful virgin weeping, the open book, the Sprig of Acacia, the urn, and Time standing behind. The only part lacking is the Broken Column and the words referring to this were added later. Samuel Willson says: "Previous to 1826, but the date or circumstances of their getting in I cannot recall." Thus it would seem that everything in the present emblem except the reference to the Broken Column was in use prior to the publication of Cross's work and in fact the emblem in somewhat different form is frequently found in ancient symbolism (see Quarterly Bulletin, Iowa Masonic Library, July, 1921, page 82, C. C. Hunt, to whom we are greatly indebted for information on this Subject).

The monument to Captain James Lawrenee was formerly in the rear of the churchyard but in Deeember 1846, the Vestry directed that it be moved from the old site to a place near to and southeast of the south porch, left of the entrance, of Trinity Church on Broadway, New York City. There the condition of the memorial aroused some criticism and plans were made for a new one which, as might be expected, failed to satisfy all concerned, one good Brother describing it as a mere reproduction in stone of an inverted bathtub. In May 1864, the Vestry had the two tablets formerly on the monument framed and with the marble column entrusted to the custody of the New York Historical Society. The two tablets commemorate the heroic patnotism of Captun James Lawrence, killed on June 1, 1813, in action between the frigates Chesapeake and Shannon, and vwhose dying words were, "Don't give up the ship." For data regarding the first monument and its destination we are indebted to Robert H. Kelby, New York Historical Society, and to W. F. L. Aigeltinger, Corporation of Trinity Church.
With the Jews the column symbolized the princes, rulers or nobles, and a broken column denoted that a pillar of the state had fallen In Egyptian mythology Isis is sometimes pictured weeping over the broken column which conceals the body of her husband, Osiris, while behind her stands Horus or Time pouring ambrosia on her hair. In Hastiness Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Isis is said to be sometimes represented standing her right hand is a sistrum, in her left a small ewer and on her forehead is a lotus, emblem of resurrection. In the Dionysiac Mysteries, Dionysius is represented as slain; Rhea goes in search of the body. she finds it and causes it to be buried in due forms She is sometimes represented as standing by a column holding in her hand a sprig of wheat, wemblem of immortality, since though it ice placed in the ground and die it springs up again into newness of life she was the wife of Isoronus or Time, who may fittingly be represented as standing behind her.
In the Grand Lodge Library at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, there is a book entitled A Brief History of Freemasonry by Thomas Johnson, who at the time of writing the book was Grand Tyler of the Grand Lodge of England, and Janitor to the Grand Rosal Arch Chapter of England. He states that the book is published by permission of the officers of the Grand Lodge of England, who have honored it by their subscriptions.
This books we understand, was first published in 1782.
The copy in the Library is the second edition, published in 1784. In his introduction he states: I have also taken the Liberty to introduce a Design for a Monument, in Honour of a Great Artist; and although I am well aware that we have no account of any such having been erected over his Grave, yet we have many precedents both Ancient and Modern of sumptuous Piles being reared to preserve in Memory and perpetuate the Merits of the Worthy and Ingenious of all Orders and Descriptions, though their Bodies may have been buried in distant Countries. nay or perhaps in the depth of the Sea. I have therefore under so respectable a Sanction, designed this Monument to adorn as it richly deserves the Memory of a great Man, amidst the thousands of other Struetures in hIonour of his craft; .
As part of the historic connected with the Monument, he says:
The Cape-stone was finished with great Joy: hich however, was soon interrupted by the sudden Death of the Great Artist and worthy Tyrian Deputy Grand Master under King Solomon After some time being allowed the Craft to vent their sorrow he was buried with great Solemnity near the Temple: whose Memory an elegant Monument is designed to perpetuate.
His description of the Monument is as follows:
The Father of the Man, whose memory this Tomb is designed to perpetuate, dying. he was left to the care of his Mother, his Name, Profession, the manner of his Death and many other circumstances concerning hint are well known to all good Masons.
Who e'er besides would this grand Secret trace,
Must seek it only in its proper place.

The holy Bible, Square and Compasses, are figurative of the three greatest moral Blessings, which Man can be endowed with in his warfare through this World. They are entwined with a Laurel Branch, as an Emblem of Honour to all those, who by applying them to their proper uses, will certainly attain the end for which they were designed.

They weapons prove, which if you rightly wield,
Will greater Victories gain, than Sword or Shield
Vanquish your foes, restrain all dissipation,
And bless the Day when you became a Mason!

The Insignia, on the Top of the Urn emblematically point out where the Deceased was when living; whiel; together with the Sun and Moon, are likewise typical of three Things,

Which, tho' of lesser Note than those before,
A Mason you must be, if you'd know more.

The three Figures in Chains, when attentively considered, will be recollected by every good Mason who is Master of his Profession; not only whom they represent but likewise why they are so depicted in so seen ingly disgraceful a situation: as to all Strangers I would advise them

To take due warning how they vauntingly,
Decry the mystic powers of Masonry
Nor seek to learn by any other Rules
Than those propos'd in just Masonick Schools:
There from Foundation to the Top, you'll raise
Yet fail in Words, to speak a Mason's praise.

The seat of one of the Figures is Typical, as well as its Centract, which stands beside it. A near Relation of the Deceased is there unperceived by all but Masons. There are other Emblems which the Craft alone can best elucidate:

Especially the well-known Letter G
Which plainly pointeth outó"What Mote Ytt Be?"

The monument shows an urn on the top and above the urn is a square and compass. Below the urn is the Holy Bible, square and compass, intertwined with a laurel branch. On the urn is a letter G. On one side of the monument is a sun, on the other a moon. The inscription reads, "In memory of a Great Artist. Born is. x. 2995. Etat 47." This shows that the idea of a monument to mark the grave of the Temple Architect was introduced into Freemasonry at least as early as 1782, and it is quite possible that various Brethren at different times made changes in the form of the monument until the broken column was added by Brother Cross. The general sale of the Masonic Chart published by Cross seems to have fixed this forms so that there has been no change since. While, therefore, it may be true that Cross gave to the emblem its present form, it cannot be said that he gave expression to an entirely new idea. The greater part of it is an adaptation rather than an invention, an old idea prompted anew in a receptive mind by the memorial to Lawrenee.
The adoption of the moon in the Masonie svstem as a symbol is analogous to, but could hardier be derived from, the employment of the same symbol in the Ancient religions. In Egypt, Osiris was the sun, and Isis the moon; in Syria, Adonis was the sun, and Ashtoroth the moon; the Greeks adored her as Diana, and Hecate; in the mysteries of Ceres, while the hierophant or chief priest represented the Creator, and the torch-bearer the sun, the F as, or officer nearest the altar, represented the moon. In short, moon-worship was as widely disseminated as sun-worship.
Freemasons retain her image in their Rites, because the Lodge is a representation of the universe, where, as the sun rules over the day, the moon presides over the night; as the one regulates the year, so does the other the months, and as the former is the king of the starry hosts of heaven, so is the latter their queen; but both deriving their heat, and light, and power from Him, who, as the Greatest Light, the Master of heaven and earth, controls them both.
A distinguished Masonic journalists born in Boston, Massachusetts, March 29, 1801. His own account of his initiation into Freemasonry is in the following words:
In February, 1822, I was proposed for the Degrees of Freemasonry in Massachusetts Lodge, then as now, one of the three oldest in Boston, and but for the intervention of business engagements, I should have been rev eeived into Freemasonry on the evening of my eomin6 of age. Before that evening arrived, however, I was called temporarily to the State of Maine, where, in May following, I vnas admitted into Kennebee Lodge, at Hallowell with the eonsent and approbation of the Lodge in which I had been originally proposed. I received the Third Degree on the evening of the 12th of June.

On October 10, 1822, he affiliated with the Lodge of Saint Andrew. In October,1872, that Lodge celebrated his semieentennial membership by a Festival. In 1825 he took the Capitular Degrees in Saint Andrew's Chapter, and was elected High Priest in 1840, and subsequently Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter. He was made a Knight Templar in Boston Eneampment about the year 1830, and was Eminent Commander in 1837. In 1841 he was elected Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, which office he held for three years. In 1832 he received the Royal and Select Degrees in Boston Council, over which he presided for twelve years. He was elected General Grand Captain-General of the Grand Encampment of the United States in 1847, and General Grand Generalissimo in 1850. In 1844 he was received into the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, and in the same year was elected Secretary-General of the Holy Empire in the Supreme Council for the Northern Jurisdiction of the United States, an office which he held until his resignation in 1862.

"When he was elected Recording Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge in 1834," says Brother John T. Heard, in his Historical Account of ColumZnan Lodge (page 472), "it was the moment when the anti-Mason ic excitement was raging with its greatest violence in this State, and his first official act was to attest the memorial written by him, surrendering to Legislature the Aet of Incorporation of the Grand Lodge." The Grand Lodge surrendered its Charter and its corporate powers, says Brother C. T. McClenachan, that it might escape the persecution of an anti-Masonic Legislature. The memorial, however, boldly stated that "by divesting itself of its corporate powers, the Grand Lodge has relinquished none of its Masonic attributes or prerogatives."
In Masonic authorship, Brother Moore is principally distinguished as a journalist. In 1825 he established the Masonic Mirror, which was merged in 1834 in the Bunker HiU Aurora, a paper with whose Masonic department he was associated. In 1841 he commenced the publication of the Freemasons Monthly Magazine, which he published for thirty-three years; in fact, until his death. In 1828 and 1829 he published the Amaranth, or Masonic Garland, and in 1843 the Masonic Trestle-Board Brother Moore died at Boston, Massachusetts, of pneumonia, on December 12, 1873.
Born November 23, 1806, in Hunterdon County, New Jersey. From his sixteenth to twenty-first year he continued his school studies so diligently that, although working all this time at the blacksmith trade, he became a most proficient teacher. Moving to Zanesville, Ohio, in 1832 he studied law and was admitted to the bar. In 1845, at Cincinnati, Ohio, he began the publication of the Masonic Review, which he continued to edit until 1876. Brother Moore was initiated in Lafavette Lodge, No. 79, Zanesville. Ohio, in March, 1836 He served his Lodge four years as Master and in 1838 he received the Capitular Degrees in Zanesville Roval Arch Chapter, No. 9. He received the Cryptic Degrees in 1846 and was admitted to the Orders of Knighthood in Reed Commandery No. 6, Dayton, Ohio, the same year, subsequently passing through all the grades of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite including the Thirty-second.
Brother Moore published several Masonic books in addition to his exceedingly fine and helpful journal but he was unfortunately reduced to very straitened circumstances during the war, 1861-5. While Brother Moore was abroad touring the Continent, Ireland, Scotland and England, the Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, conferred upon him the honorary degree of Master of Arts in 1859. Cornelius Moore died in Windsor, Canada, on June 3, 1883. His Masonic contributions outside of the Masonic Review were Outlines of the Temple; Ancient Charges with a Commentary Thereon; Leaflets of Masonic Biography or Sketches of Eminent Freemasons; The Craftsman; The Templars Tewt Book, and some other smaller works (see Masonic Review, volume 59, page 339, July, 1883).
James Moore was, in 1808. the Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, and in conjunction with Carey L. Clarke compiled, by order of that Body, the Masonic Constitutions or Illustrations of Masonry, Lexington, 1808 (191 pages, duodecimo, say about 4a/2 by 7h inches This was the first Masonic work published in the Western States. With the exception of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge, it is little more than a compilation taken from Anderson, Preston, and Webb. It was adopted by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky as its official Book of Constitutions.
In 1738 Pope Clement XII issued a Bull, condemning and forbidding the practice of the Rites of Freemasonry. Several Brethren in the Catholic States of Germany, unwilling to renounce the Order, and yet fearful of offending the ecclesiastical authority, formed at Vienna, September 22, 1738, under the name of Mopses, what was pretended to be a new association, but which was in truth nothing else than an imitation of Freemasonry under a less offensive appellation. It was patronized by the most illustrious persons of Germany, and many Princes of the Empire were its Grand Masters; the Duke of Bavaria especially took it under his protection. The title is derived from the Gerrnan word mops, signifying a pugdog, and was indicative of the mutual fidelity and attachment of the Brethren, these virtues being characteristic of that animal. The alarm made for entrance was to imitate the barking of a dog. The Mopses were an androgynous, both sexes, Order, and admitted females to all the offices, except that of Grand Master, which was held for life. There was, however, a Grand Mistress, and the male and female heads of the Order alternately assumed, for six months each, the supreme authority. With the revival of the spirit of Freemasonry, which had been in some degree paralyzed by the attacks of the Church, the Society of Mopses ceased to exist.
In the American system it is one of the three precious jewels of a Master Mason.
No one who reads our ancient Charges can fail to see that Freemasonry is a strictly moral Institution, and that the principles which it inculcates inevitably tend to make the Brother who obeys their dictates a more virtuous man. Hence the English Lectures very properly define Freemasonry to be "a system of morality."
"A Mason," say the old Charges of 1722, "is obliged by his tenure to obey the moral law." Now, this moral law is not to be considered as confined to the Deealogue of Moses, the ten commandments, within which narrow limits the ecclesiastical writers technically restrain it, but rather as alluding to what is called the lez naturce, or the law of nature. This law of nature has been defined, by anable but not recent writer on this subject, to be "the will of God, relating to human actions, grounded on the moral differences of things; and because discover able by natural light, obligatory upon all mankind" (Grove, System of Moral Philosophy, volume in, page 122, London, 1749). This is the "moral law," to which the old Charge already cited refers, and which it declares to be the law of Freemasonry. And this was wisely done, for it is evident that no law less universal could have been appropriately selected for the government of an Institution whose prominent characteristic is its universality.
The Bohemian goddess of winter and death, Maryana of Scandinavia.
The religious sect of Moravian Brethren, which was founded in Upper Lusatia, about 1722, by Count Zinzendorf, is said at one time to have formed a society of religious Freemasons. For an account of which, see Mustard Seed, Order of.
First recorded initiate in England, the details are in the Minutes of the Lodge of Edinburgh, Mary's Chapel. Brother Moray was Quarter Master General in 1641 of the "Armie of Scotland" occupying Newcastle-on-Tyne, in the North of England. Some members of the Lodge of Edinburgh also serving in the army, initiated him there on Mall 20, 1641. When the army returned to Scotland, the record was written in the Minutes of the Lodge and signed by Brothers A. Hamilton, James Hamilton, John Tyller, and R. Moray, the latter's mark is a Pentalpha, five straight lines form ing a five-pointed star.
Born, August 7, 1774, in Virginia, Culpeper County, U. S. A. Lived at Lexington, Kentucky, and Richmond, Virginia, working as a stonemason, going to Canada in 1821 and employed near Toronto, but in 1823 was at Rochester, New York. taking up his residence in Batavia, New York, in 1826. lIe had nsited Lodges before goming to Batavia though there is no evidence to show whether Morgan was ever initiated. He was denied admission to the local Lodge and Chapter at Batavia and there is usually some good reason for this refusal. But he is credited with receiving the Royal Arch Degree at Le Roy, New York, on May 31, 1825. When a new Chapter was proposed in his own town Batavia, his name was upon the petition, but objection was made and a new one was prepared without his signature. Resenting this action Morgan became bitter and sought revenge. A local newspaper, The Republican Adsocate, was conducted by David C. Miller, who is said to have received the Entered Apprentice Degree at Albany, New York. The two vindictive men concocted a scheme to publish a malicious book on Freemasonry. This purpose on discovery aroused great resentment in the village. Miller's printshop was visited, fire was set to the building, but no serious damage was done. Miller, himself, was arrested on an insignificant charge and as a result of this sort of hotheadedness four Freemasons were indicted for "riot, assault, and false imprisonment," and three others were sent to the County Jail. The contract between Morgan and Miller was made in March, 1826.

Morgan was arrested in July for a debt and again, on August 19, he had a similar experience. This was undoubtedly done to separate Miller and Morgan, but the former gave bail and the latter was released two days later.
However, on September 11, 1826, Morgan was arrested for petit larceny at Batavia and put into jail at Canandaigua. This was for stealing a shirt and cravat. On his examination he was discharged by the magistrate. He was at once rearrested on a claim that he owed $2.68 to the keeper of a tavern. He admitted this debt and offered to leave his coat as security. This was refused and he was again sent to jail. The next day a man named Lotos Lawson came to the jail and asked for Morgan's release. During the day the amount of the execution was paid and Morgan set free. As to what then happened there are two different stories. One is that Morgan was forcibly seized and compelled to enter a coach and was then driven across the country to the mouth of the Niagara River and into Canada. But the other story is that he went voluntarily and that he there received $500 for leaving Miller.
This was paid and he left his guides, and went into Canada. There was a stay at Fort Niagara until the arrangements were completed and then the known movements of Morgan come to an end. But the theory that Morgan was taken away by force and given a violent death by drowning gave rise to the Anti-Masonic Party in the United States. As earls as 1832 there were 141 Anti-Masonic newspapers in the United States. The election of 1828 gave Solomon Southwick, the Anti-Masonic candidate for Governor of New York, 33,335 votes. Martin Xan Buren, a Freemason, had 136,783 votes, but in 1830 the Anti-Masonic candidate ran behind the leader bsonly 8,531 votes, 120,361 against 128,892.

On the abduction charge alone several persons were tried. Cheseboro, Master of the Lodge at the Counts City was sentenced to imprisonment for one year, Lawson two years, Bruce, Sheriff of Niagara County, two years and four months, Sheldon three months, and Sawyer, one month. A badly decayed human body was, on October 7, 1827, found on the beach 40 miles From Fort Niagara. This at once incited susI picions that the body might be that of Morgan. The remains were claimed as those of him but on later enquiry identification was made by a Mrs. Monroe that they were those of her husband and were, therefore, turned over to her. This was done on October 29, 1827. But the foes of Freemasonry did not believe that fact, nor do they believe it now. Then there were the curious persons subject to mental disorders and who asserted conflicting stories of guilt.
Of these were Hill, Valance, and Whitney, though there is a serious doubt whether the latter has been accurately reported. We need not go into the stories of those who claim to have seen Morgan in other lands. The subject has been discussed freely by Brothers E. T. Schultz and Ben Perley Poore.

The Grand Lodge of New York in 1826 had 500 Lodges, but in 1846 there were only 65 Lodges. Of the number of Lodges represented in the Annual Grand Lodge Communicationsin 1827, there were 228; in 1828, 130; in 1829, 87; in 1830, 77; 1831, 71; 1832, 52, 1833, 56; 1834, 53; and in 1835, 49. The decline w and recovery in membership was as follows: 1820, 295 Lodges and 15,000 members; 1895, 480 Lodges and 20,000 members; 1830, 82 Lodges and 3,000 members; 1840, 70 Lodges and 5,000 members; 1850, 172 Lodges and 12,000 members; 1860, 432 Lodges and 25,000 members. From that time the returning pace was rapid, the growth permanent. Other states had similar experiences.
While the Order promptly disavowed any sympathy with those who within its own rank might be disposed to punish Morgan for wrong doing, yet those various resolutions by responsible Masonic Bodies did little for the time to check the enmity against the Fraternity. Charters were stolen and Lodge-rooms and equipment defiled. Publicly and privately the resentment grew, separating families, disrupting churches, and poisoning all these sources of fellovvship in the community. Father was arrayed against son, brother against his own flesh and bloodóboth in politics and business, home and market place, the venom of the ulcer spread far and deep. Public disvowal of any further connection with Freemasonry was made by thousands. Among them was that of one member who for fifteen years had been Senior Grand Warden of New York State.

See Doctor Mackey's revised History of Freemasonry, volume vii; Story of Freemasonry, Brother W. G. Sibley; Freemasonry at Batavia, Brother David Seaver; History of Freemasonry in the State of New York, Brother Ossian Lang; History of Freemasonry in Canada, Brother John Ross Robertson, chapter vii, volume ii; An American Masonic Crisis, Brother J. H. Tatsch; Transactions, volume xxxiv, page 196, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, London; Builder, St. Louis, Miggouri, has had several articles, notably The Morgan Affair, September, 1928, by Brothers J. II. Tatsch and E. M. Erikson, the latter also contributing papers of similar type to the Grand Lodge Bulletin, Iowa, 1926; History of Freemasonry in Maryland, Brother E. T. Schultz, 1887, volume in, pages S38; William Morgan, or Political Anti-Masonry, Brother Rob Morris, 1883; Masonic Light, Brother P C. Huntington, 1886; The Anti-Masonic Party, a monograph by Professor Charles McCarthy, awarded the Justin Winsor prize by the American Historical Society, Annual Report, 1902, volume i, pages 365574 and separately printed in 1903; Miscellany of the Masonic Historical Society, New York, Brother Peter Ross, 1902, pages 5-35. These last two works contain many additional references to articles of interest.

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