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A relic of black basalt rounded at the top, two by four feet, across it being an inscription of thirty-four lines in the letters of the Hebrew-Phenician alphabet, discovered in the ruins of ancient Dibon, by Doctor Klein, a German missionary, in 1869, and nov preserved in Paris at the Louvre. A record of Mesha, King of Moab, who (Second Kings iii, 5) after Ahab's death, "rebelled against the King of Israel." Chemosh was the national god of the Moabites. The covenant name of the God of Israel occurs in the inscription, showing that the name was not then unpronounceable, or unknown to the neighboring nations. The described wars date in the tenth century before Christ.
The Hebrew word . He whom the Junior Warden represents in the Fourteenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, as the tried and trusty friend of Hiram the Builder (see Genesis xix, 36). This word is in some of the advanced Degrees according to the French Ritual, where it is explained as expressing "Praised be God that the crime and the criminal are punished" (Les plus secrets des hauls grades, etc., page 33).
A name given, says Noorthouck, to the unfaithful Brethren and profanes who, in 1747, got up a procession in ridicule of that made at the Grand Feast (Constitutions, 1784, page 252; see also Scald Miserables).
The French title is Rite Moderne (see French Rite).
The Irish Freemasons who formed a rival Grand Lodge in London in 1751, called the supporters of the original Grand Lodge established in 1717 Moderns, while for themselves they assumed the title of Antients (see Antients).
Initiates, pilgrims, those entering upon an important undertaking.
MOIRA, FRANCIS RAWDON, BARON.
Born 1754, died 1826. A distingtushed statesman and Freemason. He was Acting Grand Master of England from 1790 to 1812. Also Grand Master of Scotland in 1806. AB a Freemason he was always energetic. Doctor Oliver says, "To no person had Freemasonry for many years been more indebted than to the Earl of Moira, now Marquess Hastings." He died while Governor of Malta.
Anderson (Constitutions, 1738, page 74) writes: "Nay, even during this King's— Henry VI—Minority, there was a good Lodge under Grand Master Chicheley held at Canterbury, as appears from the Latin Register of William Molart, entitled Liberatio generalis Domini Gulielmi Prioris Ecclesiae Christi Cantuariensis erga Festum Natalis Domini 1429, Prior of Canterbury, in Manuscript, in which are named Thomas Stapylton the Master, and John Morris Custos de la Lodge Lathomorum or Warden of the Lodge of Masons, with fifteen Fellow Crafts, and three Enter'd Prentices all named there."
Of this interesting person, Prior of Christ Church, Canterbury, England, William Preston also tells us in his Illustrations of Masonry (London, 1812, 12th edition, page 163) that the Latin Register of William Molart, Prior of Canterbury, page 88, in manuscript, entitled Liberatio generalis Domini Gulielmi "Pnoris Ecclesiae Christi Centuanensis, erya Festum Natalis Domini, I429," says that during the minority of this prince, in 1429, a Lodge was held under the patronage of Henry Chicheley, the Archbishop, at Canterbury.
There were present Thomas Stapylton, the Master; John Morris, Warden; fifteen Fellow Crafts and three Entered Apprentiees, each of whom is named. This name, Molart, is sometimes given as ,'Molash. Brother E. L. Hawkins comments as follows upon these claims: What appears to be the Register alluded to by Anderson is among the Tanner Manuscripts (165) in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and proves to be merely a list kept by William Molassh or Molessh, the name occurs in both forms, but not as Molart, the Prior, of persons connected with the Priory and receiving livery from it. On page 133 there is a list of persons for 1429, which contains "Magr Thom Mapylton Mgr Lathamorum, Morys custos de la loygge Lathamorum" and a list headed "Lathami" with sixteen names including Maplyton and below "Apprenticii idem" followed by three names. Similar lists are given for subsequent years, and thus it is plain that there was an organized Body of Operative Masons attached to the Priorv at that time.
MOLAY, JACQUES OR JAMES DE.
The twenty-second and last Grand Master of the Templars at the destruction of the Order in the fourteenth century. He was born about the year 1240, at Besancon, in Burgundy, being descended from a noble family. He mas received into the Order of Knights Templar in 1265, by Imbert de Peraudo, Preceptor of France, in the Chapel of the Temple at Beaune. He immediately proceeded to Palestine, and greatly distinguished himself in the wars against the infidels, under the Grand Mastership of William de Beaujeu. In 1295, while absent from the Holy Land, he was unanimously elected Grand Master upon the death of Theobald Gaudinius. In 130a, he was summoned to France by Pope Clement A, upon the pretense of a desire, on the part of the Pontiff, to effect a coalition between the Templars and the Hospitalers. He was received b.v Philip the Fair, the treacherous King of France, with the most distinguished honors, and even selected by him as the godfather of one of his children.
In April, I307, he repaired, accompanied by three of his knights, to Poitiers, u here the Pope was then residing, and as he supposed satisfactorily exculpated the Order from the charges which had been preferred against it. But both Pope and King were guilty of the most infamous deceit. On September 12,1307, the order was issued for the arrest of the Templars, and De Molar endured an imprisonment for five years and a half, during which period he was subjected to the utmost indignities and sufferings for the purpose of extorting from him a confession of the guilt of his order. But he was firm and loyal, and on March 11, 1314, he was publicly burnt in front of the Cathedral of Notre Dame, in Paris. When about to die, he solemnly affirmed the innocence of the Order, and, it is said, summoned Pope Clement to appear before the judgoment-seat of God in forty days and the Icing of France within a year, and both, it is well known, died within the periods specified (see Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, volume xx).
This word is very common in the Old Constitutions, where it is forbidden that a Freemason should give a mold to a Rough Mason, whereby, of course, he would be imparting to him the secrets of the Craft. Thus, in the Harleian Manuscript, No. 2054: "Alsoe that noe Mason make moulds, square or rule to any rough layers. Also, that no Mason set noe laves w ithin a lodge or without to haue Mould Stones with one Mould of his workeing."
We also find the word in Piers Ploughman's Vision; If eny Mason there do makede a molde With alle here wyse castes.
Parker (Architectural Glossary, page 313) thus defines it: "The model or pattern used by workmen, especially by Masons, as a guide in working moldings and ornaments. It consists of a thin board or plate of metal, cut to represent the exact section of the moldings to be worked from it."
In the Cooke Marluscript the word Maters is used, which is evidently a corruption of the Latin Matrix.
In the quotation from the Harleian Manuscript in the preceding artiele, the expression would stones occurs, as it does in other Constitutions and in many old contracts. It means, probably large and peaked stones for those parts of the building which were to have moldings cut upon them, as window and door jambs.
Hebrew, Molech, king. The chief god of the Phenicians, and a god of the Ammonites. Human sacrifices were offered at his shrine, and it was chiefly in the valley of Tophet, to the east of Jerusalem, that this brutal idolatry was perpetrated. Solomon built a temple to Moloch upon the Mount of Olives, and Manas6eh, long after, imitated his impiety by making his son pass through the fire kindled in honor of this deity. Wierus calls Moloch, Prinee of the Realm of Tears. First Moloch, horrid king, besmeared with blood
Of human sacrifice and parents' tears
Though for the noise of drums and timbrels loud,
Their children's cries unheard, that passed through fire
To his grim idol.... Nor content with such
Audacious neighborhood, the wisest heart
Of Solomon he led, by fraud, to build
His temple right against the temple of God,
On that opprobrious hill; and made his grove
The pleasant valley of Hinnom, Tophet thence
And black Gehenna called, the type of Hell.
—Paradise Lost, John Milton, Book 1.
The Monad in the Pythagorean svstem of numbers was unity or the Number One (see A umbers and One) .
Those Manuals published for the convenience of Lodges, and containing the Charges, General Regulations, emblems, and account of the public ceremonies of the Order, are called Monitors. The amount of ritualistic information contained in these works has gradually increased: thus the monitorial instructions in Preston's Illustrations, the earliest Monitor in the English language, are far more scanty than those contained in Monitors of the present day. As a general rule, it may be said that American sorks of this class give more instruction than English ones, but that the French and German manuals are more communicative than either. Of the English and American manuals published for monitorial instruction, the first was by Preston, in 1772 This has been succeeded by the works of the following authors: Webb, 1797; Dalcho, 1807; Cole, 1817; Hardie, 1818; Cross, 1819; Tannehill, 1821; Parmeles 1825; Charles B. Moorer 1846; Cornelius Moorer 1846; Dove, 1847; Davis, 1849; Stewart, 1851; Mackey, 1852; Macoy, 1853; Sickels, 1866.
The instruction contained in tile Monitors is called monitorial, to distinguish it from esoteric instruction, which is not permitted to be written, and ean be obtained only in the precincts of the Lodge.
A sign given in the English system, but not recognized in the United States of America. Oliver says of it that it "reminds us of the weakness of human nature, unable of itself to resist the pover of Darkness, unless aided by that Light which is from above."
See Secret Monitor.
An abbreviation of a name by means of a cipher composed of two or more letters intertwined with each other. The Constantinian monogram of Christ, Chi Rho, two Greek letters, is often used by Knights Templar. The Triple Tau, or Royal Arch badge, is also a monogram; although there is a difference of opinion as to its real meaning, some supposing that it is a monogram of Templum Hierosolymae or the Temple of Jerusalem, others of Hiram of Tyre, and others, again, bestowing on it different significations.
MONTAGUE, DUKE OF.
John, second Duke of Montague, was elected, 1721, as successor to Brother George Payne, Grand Masters This first Grand Master of the nobility was installed June 24, 1721. He held office until January 17, 1723, when Philip, Duke of Wharton, was elected. The Duke of Montaque died in 1749.
The Freemasons in Montana held no formal meeting until, at William H. Bell's dying request, a Masonic funeral was arranged. The meeting was held at Brother C. J. Miller's cabin in Yankee Flat. A Dispensation for a Lodge at Bannock City, then in Idaho Territory, was issued by the Grand Master of Nebraska, but the Lodge never met as the Brethren had dispersed when the Dispensation arrived.
On November 17, 1863, a Dispensation was issued by the Grand Master of Nebraska to Idaho Lodge at Nevada City. The first meeting was on January 9, 1864, and the first Freemason to be initiated within the boundaries of the present State of Montana was made a member of the Craft on April 23, 1864. llelegates from Virginia City, No. 43; Montana, No. 9, and Helena City, No. 10, met in Virginia City and organized the Grand Lodge between January 24 and 29, 1866. The Dispensation of the first Chapter in Montana, dated July 14, 1866, was issued to Virginia City, No.1. A Charter was granted on December 18, 1868. On June 95, 1891, the Grand Chapter of Montana was organized. A Convention was called for that purpose by authority of a Warrant issued by the General Grand High Priest, Commander David F. Day. The wsubordinate Chapters were nine, namely, Virginia City, Helena, Deer Lodge, Valley, Yellow Stone, Billings, Livingstone, Dillon, and Great Falls, numbered 1 to 9 respectively.
Helena Council, No. 1, was organized under a Dispensation. dated April 4, 1868, from the Grand Council of California. It was numbered 9 in the jurisdiction of that State and the Charter was dated October 91, 1868. This Council joined with two others, Butte, No. 2, and Tyrean. No. 3, to organize on March °9, 1910, the Grand Couneil of Montana as a constituent member of the General Grand Council.
A Dispensation was issued on August 97, 1866, to Virginia City Commandery, No. 1, at Virginia City, and it was granted a Charter on September ''3, 1868. The Grand Commandery of Montana was organized on ^NIay 14. 1888, with four Constituent Commanderies, namely, Virginia City, STo. 1; Helena, No. ''; Montana, No. 3, and Damascus, No. 4.
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, was first introduced at Livingston where Khurum Lodge of Perfection, No. 2, was chartered February 11, 1889; Livingston Chapter of Rose Croix, No. 1, November 10, 1889; Livingston Council of Kadosh, No. 1, May 1, 1890, and Eastern Montana Consistory, No. 1, July 8, 1890.
MONTFAUÇON. PRIOR OF.
One of the two traitors on whose false accusations was based the persecution of the Templars (see Squin de Flexian, also Molay).
MONTFORT, COLONEL JOSEPH.
Member of Royal White Hart Lodge, Halifax, North Carolina, where he died, March 26, 1776, aged fifty-two. Treasurer of the upper half of the Province of North Carolina, a donor to the fund of the Masonic Hall at London (see Minutes of the Grand Lodge, "held at the Crown and Anchor in the Strand," Februarv 6. 1771) he received, by a patent dated January 14 1771, an appointment from the Grand Lodge oi England that has aroused some speculation.
The words "Provincial Grand Master of and for America" recurs as late as 1775 in Charters issued under Montfort's authority. But the belief is expressed that in his original patent the phrase making his Jurisdietion for the whole of the eountry was a mistake of the seribe extended to "Atnerica" instead of reading "North Carolina." The Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England for February is, 1771, show that Joseph Montfort paid ten pounds ten shillings or ten guineas for his deputation, diploma, as "P. G. M. for No. Ca." This reference is relied upon to further support the surmise that the words "Provincial Grand Master of and for America" were unwritten in error. But they appear to have been understood literally, word for word, and in Charters issued by Montfort and his Deputy they are repeated. That they were clearly understood precisely as they read is seen by the Minutes of Royal White Hart Lodge at Halifax, March 13, 1772, recording that Brother Joseph Montfort visited there on that date and produced the deputation which "appointed him Provincial Grand Master of America."
In further testimony Brother James M. Clift, Grand Secretary, also advises that there are similarly written documents possessed by the Grand Lodge of Virginia, alluding to Montfort as "Provincial Grand Master of and for America" and in fact his Deputy, Cornelius Hartnett, attaches his official initials to Charters still in existence as "D. G. M. A." which appear to mean "Deputy Grand Master, America." Brother Montfort's Deputy was Cornelius Hartnett, a member of the Continental Congress at Philadelphia which adopted the Articles of Confederation on July 9, 1778 (see Forrnation of the Union, 1927, page 37). Past Grand Master A. B. Andrews in a letter to us alludes to the Masonic Lodges as foci or centers of patriotism prior to the American Revolution and that as the citizenry of Cabin Point in Surrey County, Virginia, were largely Tories, Cornelius Hartnett may have athought a Masonic Lodge among their membership would advance the cause of the patriots and there fore the establishment of the Lodge would appeal to him in a double way. At anv rate a Charter to Cabin Point Royal Arch Lodge was issued by him on April 13, 1775 and bears the names of Joseph Montfort and Cornelius Harnett with their official titles, the former in full as "of and for America."
Royal White Hart Lodge No. 2, Halifas, North Carolina, has met in an old frame building erected in 1769 and since used exclusively and continuously for Lodge purposes. On the wall is a chart of 1772, the Master's chair has three steps built in it, the Bible and Minute Book of the olden time are preserved, the ballotbox and candlesticks are very old, the Secretary's desk has two crude contrivances to hold candles, and in the yard an old bell on a tall post continues to be used for assembling the Craft. In that yard is buried Joseph Montfort. On the slab covering the grave is this inscription "The Right Worshipful Joseph Montfort, born in England, A.D.
1724, died at Halifax, N. C., March 25, A.D. 1776. Appointed Provincial Grand Master of and for America on January 14, A.L. 5771, A.D. 1771, by the Duke of Beaufort, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England, A. F. & A. BI. First Clerk of Court of Halifax County, Treasurer of the Province of North Carolina, Colonel of Colonial Troops, Member of Provincial Congress, Orator, Statesman, Patriot, Soldier, the highest Masonie official ever reigning on this continent, the First, the Last, the Only Grand Master of America" (see New Age, John H. Cowles, May, 1928, page 307).
To all and Every our Right Worshipful Worshipful and Loving Brethren. WE Henry Somerset DUKE of BEAUFORT, Marquis and Earl of Worcester, Earl of Glamorgan, Viscount Grosmont, Baron Herbert, Lord of Ragland, Chepstow & Gower, Baron Beaufort of Caldecot Castle, GRAND MASTER of the most Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons. Greeting.
KNOW YE that WE of the great Trust and Confidence reposed in our Right Worshipful and well beloved Brother JOSEPH MONTFORT Esquire of Halifax in the Provinee of North Carolina in AMERICA Do hereby Constitute and appoint him the Said JOSEPH MONTFORT Provincial Grand Master of and for AMERICA with full power and Authority in due form to make Masons &; Constitute and Regulate Lodges as Occasion may Require. And also to do and Execute ad and every such other Acts and things appertaining to the said Office as usually have been and ought to be done and Executed by other Provincial Grand Masters he the said JOSEPH MONTFORT taking special care that ad and every the Members of every Lodge he shad Constitute have been Regularly made Masons and that they do observe perform and keep ad and every the Rules Orders and Regulations contained in the Book of Constitutions Except such as have been or may be Repealed at any Quarterly Communication, or other General Meeting together also with an such other Rules Orders Regulations and Instruetions as shad from time to time be transmitted by us or by the Honourable CHARLES DILLON our Deputy or by any of our Successors Grand Masters or their Deputys for the time being- AND we hereby Will and Require you Our said Provincial Grand Master to Cause four Quarterly Communications to be held Yearly one whereof to be upon or as near the Feast Day of Saint JOHN the Baptist as conveniently may be and that you promote on those and all other occasions whatever may be for the honour and Advantage of Masonry and the Benefit of the Grand Charity and that You Yearly send to us or Our Sueeessors Grand Masters an Account in Writing of the Proccedings therein and also of what Lodges You Constitute and when and where held with a List of the Members thereof & Copies of ad such Rules Orders & Regulations as shall be made for the good Government of the same with whatever else You shad do by Virtue of these presents And that you at the same time remit to the Treasurer of the Society for the time being at London Three pounds three shillings sterling for every Lodge You shall Constitute for the use of the Grand Charity and other necessary purposes
GIVEN at London under Our IIand and Seal of Masonry this 14th day of
January AL 5771 AD 1771
By the Grand Master's Command
Chas Dillon D.G.M.
Jas. Heseltine G.S.
(Famous Warrant issued in 1771 to Joseph Montfort of North Carolina)
Freemasons of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite use in their documents the Hebrew months of the civil year. Hebrew months commence with the full moon; and as the civil year began about the time of the autumnal equnox, the first Hebrew month must have begun with the new moon in September, which is also used by Freemasons of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite as the beginning of their year. Annexed is a table of the Hebrew months, and their correspondence with our own calendar.
Sehebet January- February
Elul August-September As the Jews computed time by the appearance of the moon, it is evident that there soon would be a confusion as to the keeping of these feasts, if some method had not been taken to correct it; since the lunar vear is only 354 days, 8 hours, and 48 minutes, and the solar year is 365 days, 6 hours, 15 minutes, and 20 seconds. Accordingly, they intercalated a month after their twelfth month, Adar, whenever they found that the 15th day of the following month, Abib, would fall before the vernal equinox. This intercalated month was named nnsl, Ve-adar, or the second Adar, and was inserted every second or third year, as they saw occasion; so that the difference between the lunar and solar year could never, in this way, be more than a month.
In the French Rite the old calendar is retained, and the year begins with the month of March, the months being designated numerically and not by their usual names. Thus we find in French Masonic documents such dates as this: Le 10me jour du 3me mois Maçonnique, that is, the tenth day of the third Masonic month, or the tenth of May.
MONTPELLIER, HERMETIC RITE OF.
The Hermetic Rite of Pernetty, which had been established at Avignon in 1770, was in 1778 transported to Montpellier, in France, by a Past Master, and some of the members of the lodge of Persecuted Virtue in the former place, who laid the foundations of the Academy of True Masons, which see. Hence the Degrees given in that Academy constituted what is known as the Herrnetic Rite of Montpellier.
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