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ADAMS, JOHN QUINQY,
sixth president and son of John Adams. second president; born July 11, 1767; president, 1825; died February ('3. 1848. A native of Massachusetts, his name has often been mistaken for that of another resident of Boston. Brother John C. Hurll, Acting Secretary, Saint John's Lodge, Boston, August 25, 1919. answering an inquiry of ours, copied the Lodge record of December 5, 1826, thus: " 'Brother John Quincy Adams, a regular candidate for membership, was inquired for and being well recommended, was voted to be balloted for, and on balloting was unanimously admitted a member of Saint John's Lodge.' It would seem from this that he did not receive the Degrees in this Lodge, but what Lodge he svas raised in is not stated. There is no reference to the presidency and I think he was another Adams." Certainly the president was not then at Boston- The Second Session of the Nineteenth Congress opened at Washington the previous day and President Adams himself records that from December 4 to 6, from early morn to late afternoon he had no leisure for reflection or vriting However, there is on record his own emphatic denual of membership (page 345, volume vii, Memoirs, Lippincott), on October 25, 1825, in reply to the plain question, he vrites: "I told Watkins he might answer Tracy that I am not, and never was, a Freemason."
fifteenth president; born April 23, 1791; president, 1857; died, June 1, 1868; received IvIasonie burial from his Brethren of Lodge No. 43, in his native state, Pennsylvania, on June 4, 1868. Brother J. Fred Fisher, Seeretary of Lodge No. 43, furnished on August 16, 1919, the following Masonic record of Brother James Buchanan: "He was made a Mason in Lodge No. 43 on December 11, 1816. Entered by W. M. Brother John Reynolds, and was Passed and Raised by W. M. Brother George Whitaker, January 24, 1817. He was elected Junior Warden, December 13, 1820, and Worshipful Master, December 23, 1822. At the expiration of his term of office, he was appointed the first District Deputy Grand Master of this District. He was elected an honorary member of Lodge No. 43, March 10, 1858. He died on June 1, 1868. He was also a member of Royal Arch Chapter No. 43, F. and A. M., but the only record we have is that he was Exalted on May 90, 1826."
thirteenth president; born February 7, 1800; elected vice-president, 1848, and on death of President Taylor succeeded him July 9, 1850, and died March 8, 1874. Said to have received the Degrees but afterwards recanted during the Anti-Masonic era in which he was active against the Craft (see page 548, Annual Report American Historical Association, volume i, 1902). No evidence of his Masonic affiliation obtained. In his official capacity as president he attended the laying of the eorner-stone of the Capitol extension by the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia, July 4, 1851 (see History, Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington).
GARFIELD, JAMES ABRAM,
twentieth president; born November 19, 1831; president, 1881; died September 19, 1881. Masonic Eclectic, September, 1881 (pages 430-1), published the following: "Initlated, Novernber 19, 1861; Passed, December 3, 1861, in Magnolia Lodge No. 20, Columbus, Ohio, and Raised in Columbus Lodge No. 30, by request of Magnolia Lodge, November 11, 1864. Affiliated vith Garrettsnille Lodge No. 24G, October 10, 1865;1 remaining a member until 1870, and was Chaplain in the years 1868-9. United with Pentalpha Lodge No. 23, Washington, District of Columbia, as a charter member, May 4, 1869, and so remained until death. By special dispensation was admitted to Columbia Royal Arch Chapter No. 1, in Washington, District of Columbia, April 4, 1866, and exalted to the Royal Arcl1 Degree, April 18, 1866; received the Red Cross and Templar Order in Columbia Commanderv No. 9 at Washington, WIav 18, 1866 rthis Commander) acting as escort from Washington to Cleveland faith the remains after Brother Gaffield's death). Received the Select and Most Excellent Architect's Degrees, February 9, 1871; received the bourth and Fifth Degrees, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, in Mithras Lodge of Perfection No. 9, at Washington, May 9, 1871, and the intermediate Degrees to the Thirteenth included during the year (Brother W. L. Bowden, Librarian of the Supreme Couneil records these were communicated by General Albert Pike) and the Fourteenth Degree, January Id 1822, with four other Brethren, three of whom died before him, namelv:
Francello G. Daniels, Robert NI. Johnson, ex-,Senator from Arkansas. and Henry Harrison Bradly, the only survivor of the five being Wm. Pieree Bell, Eso.. lawyer, Washington City." Under date of September 2, 1919, Brother NV. S. Lanfersiel;, Secretary, Magnolia Lodge No. 90, by letter, confirmed the above Lodge references and Past Grand Master Campbell M. Voorhees of Ohio, November 11, 1921, also wrote explaining the division of the Degrees between the two Craft Bodies in his city, "During the Civil War times Columbus Lodge and Magnolia Lodge frequently exchanged courtesies in the conferring of Degrees upon soldiers in the service, and this was done in the conferring of the Degrees upon General Garfield. He received his First and Second Degrees in Magnolia dodge and his Third Degree was conferred by Columbus Lodge for Magnolia."
GRANT, ULISSES SIMPSON,
eighteenth presiclent; born April 27, 1822; president, 1869; died July 93, 1885. A letter in the Blue and Gray, from Major Bryant S. Parker of South Carolina, was freely copied in other journals and convened the impression that General Grant was a Freemason. Major Parker told of being taken to headquarters as a prisoner of war that General Grant asked him if he was a Freemason and that the prisoner soon convinced him of it and thereupon was promptly freed. General John Corson Smith attacked this story in the IZough Ashlar, a Masonic journal of Richmond, Virginia, and his essay was reprinted, November, 1895, in the Masonic Tidings, Milwaukee, Wiseonsin, and other magazines. Briefly, Brother Smith's finding, as in Proceedings, Grand Commandery of Illinois, 1908 (page 165) is that the General was too much of a soldier and not at all a Freemason for any such affair. Jesse R. Grant, Simpson S. Grant, and Orville S. Grant, father and brothers of the General, were all three Freemasons;
Simpson a member of Galena Lodge No. 17, with Brother John Corson Smith, where the father, Jesse, visited on his trips from Covington, Kentucky; and Orville was imtiated in Miners' Lodge No. 273, Galena, Illinois. General, or Captain Grant as he was then known, came to Galena in 1859 and moved his familv there in 1860. The father told General Smith that he knew his son would like to be a Freemason and the subject was discussed between them on an excursion to Dubuque, Iowa, and on other occasions. General Grant was at home when Galena Commandery No. 40, Knights Templar, was instituted in 1871, with Brother Smith as Eminent Commander. In the evening President Grant received the Brethren for a pleasant hour of conversation and then the visitors returned to the Asylum.
At that reception the president's favorable opinion of Freemasonry was expressed and it was agreed that at the first opportunity he would sign a petition to Miner's Lodge No. 273 of which Brother Smith was then Master. During the political campaign of 1872-3 General Grant was again home and Grand Master James A. Hawley agreed to make the president a Freemason "at sight" but affairs of state recalled him unexpectedly to Washington and the subsequent ill-hcalth and removal from Galena of Brother Smitll brought the plans unsuccessfully to an end. The matter does not appear to have ever been recived.
seventh president; born March 15, 1707; president, 18°9; died June 8, 1845. He was elected Grand Master of Tennessee on October , 1829, and re-elected on October 6, 1823, but his Lodge was not named and in the Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Tennessee. 184o, when his Masonic services were affectionately acknove ledged (pages 559-3, 570-1, 57a-80 of Reprint) there is no more information than in the obituary notice prepared by Grand Chaplain Philip P. Neelev, vsho says (page 578), "We have not received information as to the Lodge where he was made a Mason, but learn that he was for some time, during the early part of his life, in connection v,ith one that met at Clover Bot, tom, held under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky." Philanthropic Lodge No. 12 was granted a Charter from Kentucky on September 18, 1805 (see Dozngs of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, 1800-1900, page 25, by H. B. Grant, Grand Secretary). However, the practise prevailed of Lodges reporting their members in full to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky and careful search made for us by the late Grand Secretary Dave Jackson failed to find the name of Andrew Jackson.
Philanthropic Lodge No. 12 ceased to be on the Kentucky roll in 1812. But Jackson was present as a Freemason at the opening of the Lodge at Greenville September 5, 1801, under a Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of North Carolina which possesses the original transcript of the Minutes showing that the Senior Warden named in the Dispensation being absent Andrew Jackson served as "S. W."Pro Tem" of this first meeting of Greenville Lodge No. 43, afterwards No. 3 of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee. Brother Jackson made the motion for the appointment of a Committee on By-laws at this meeting under Dispensation but two others were assigned to that duty and the probability is that he was only a visitor on that occasion.
Another Lodge, at Nashville, chartered on December 17, 1796, No. 29 of North Carolina, Saint Tammany, afterwards Harmony Lodge No. 1 of Tennessee, following the division into the two Grand Lodges, shows that Jackson was a member but the records being incomplete do not determine the date of his initiation but he became a resident of Nashville in 1788 and Brother William L. Boyden, Librarian of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, finds Andrew Jackson a member as early as 1800 because he was present on March 24 of that year at the first meeting of Tennessee Lodge No. 2, formerly No. 41 under North Carolina, held in Knoxville and was then credited as a member of Harmony Lodge No. 1. Past Grand Master Charles Comstock of Tennessee believed him to have received the Royal Arch Degree under authority of a Craft Lodge Warrant and probably did not affiliate with any Chapter though he officiated as Deputy General Grand High Priest at the institution of the Grand Chapter of Tennessee on April 4, 1826, and is recorded later as present in Cumberland Chapter No. 1 at Nashville, assisting at installation of officers.
Andrew Jackson took part in several Masonic functions and at Nashville on May 4, 1825, introduced General Lafayette to the Grand Lodge of Tennessee. The Charter of Harmonv Lodge No. 1 was arrested on December 9, 1808, and this would leave General Jackson a non-affiliate which may account for the appearance of his name in the records as a Past Master without mention of anv Lodge connection. For much interesting information here summarized we are indebted to Past Grand Master A. B. Andrews, Nsortb Carolina; Past Grand High Priest C. H. Smart, and Past Grand Maste} Charles Comstock, Tennessee; W. L. Boyden, Librarian, Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite; Dave Jackson, late Grand Secretary, Kentucky. An article by Brother Andrews on Andrew Jackson the Freemason appeared in the New Agc, Washington, January, 1921.
third president; born April 13, 1743; president, 1801; died July 4, 1829, on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independences of which he was the author. While the assertion has frequently been made that Jefferson was a Freemason and that he attended the Lodge of the Nine Sisters (the Muses) at Paris no further details are given and a letter from the Grand Orient of France under date of September 9, l919, assures us that there is no evidence in existence of any visit to that Lodge by Jefferson, nor does our own search through the history of that Lodge—Une Loge Maf onnique d'.Avant 1X89, by Louis Amiable discover any such allusion. Examination by Brother Julius F. Sachse and W. J. Paterson of the "Tableaux" of this Lodge, the "Reglements" of 1779 and 1806, and the ".~nnuaire" of 1838, preserved in the Library of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, disclose no mention of Thomas Jefferson as a member.
His letter to Madison on secret societies makes no allusion suggesting any personal acquaintance of Freemasonry. Dr. Joseph W. Eggleston, Past Grand Master of Virginia, was most positive that Jefferson was not a Freemason. From correspondence between Charles H. Callahan, also a Past Grand Master of Virginia, and Brother E. E. Dinwiddie, Secretary, Widow's Son's Lodge No. 60, Charlottesville, we find the latter examined carefully the records of his Lodge, but found no evidence of Jefferson's membership. He also ascertained that when General Lafayette visited Jefferson at Monticello in 1824, the Freemasons of Charlottesville, only four miles away, entertained him at an elaborate social function and banquet. At the Lodge meeting held before the banquet, the Marquis was elected an honorary member. Jefferson was then at home but was not present among the Freemasons with his guest but he did attend and participate in the public function of the citizens. Grand Secretary Charles A. Nesbitt of Virginia nrrote us, October 4, 1919, "To the best of my knowledge Thomas Jefferson was not a Mason. According to the records of our Grand Lodge he was not connected with the Craft in this State."
seventeenth president; born December 29, 1808; as vice-president he became president on the death of Lincoln in 1865; died July 31, 1875. Initiated, Passed and Raised in Greeneville Lodge No. 119, now No. 3, Greeneville, Tennessee, sometime in May, 1851. The records of Greeneville Lodge were destroyed during the Civil War. The Grand Lodge files were also partly burned up when the Masonic Temple was gutted by fire in 1856. Past Grand Master Charles Comstock who saw the name on the Lodge roster in the sixties, also added: "I am not sure about the Chapter membership but think he (Johnson) may have been exalted in Washington Chapter No. 21 at Jonesboro. In that event he was probably a charter member of Greeneville Chapter No. 82, chartered October 1, 1868." We note his name on the roster of Nashville Commandery No. 1, the "Date of Knighting" being July 26, 1859 (see Proceedings, first State Conclave, Nashville, 1859, page 27). This book contains a list with Andrew Johnson's name as of Nashville Commandery No. l and among the names of those present at the formation of the Grand Commandery of Tennessee is recorded Andrew J. Johnston.
Each name is not I in both lists and one might assume that these two names refer to the same Brother, the names being slightly misspelled. However, Brother Comstock quotes Knight Templar Registr7y by Brother James D. Richardson, 1883. to show that Johnston was a farmer from Franklin. Scottish Rite Degrees including Prince of the Roval Seeret were eommunicated to the president, June '0, 1S67, at White House, Washington, by Brothers B. B. Freneh and A. T. C. Pierson of the Supreme Couneil, Southern Jurisdietion. Johnson took part publicly in several Masonic functions, laving of eorner-stones, etc., and at his funeral Deputy Grand Master G. C. Conner officiated. Coeur de Lion Commandery No. 9, Knoxville, also giving Templar ceremony.
sixteenth president; born February 1°, 1809; president, 1861; died April 15, 1865. Brother Edouard Quartier-la-Tente, Past Grand Masters SNviss Grand Lodge "Alpina," in the Annuaire, International Masonic Assoeiation, listed Lincoln among illustrious Freemasons (see, for example, page 44, 1913, and page 59, 1923). William H. Grimshaw of the Library of Congress also in History of Freexnasonry, 1903 (page 365), lists Lincoln as a Freemason. In a letter to us, April 5, 1917, this author says: "So far as my book is concerned I quoted M. Edouard Quartier-la-Tente, P. G. M., Grand Lodge 'Alpina.' I will further state that Mr. J. H. Brooks, who was Mr. Lincoln's messenger. informed me that Mr. Lincoln was a Mason. The degrees were conferred in an Army Lodge attached to Gen. Grant's army in front of Richmond. I wrote Robert T. Lincoln as to the matter, and he informed me that so far as he could find, there were no papers or other record among his father's papers to indicate that he was a Mason."
Nothing further to support the claim credited to Brooks has been discovered by us. In the memorial volume published by the Government at Washington 1866, there are found the tributes of forty-four foreign Masonic Bodies, most of these plainly referring to Lineoln as a Brother. An inquiry made by R. NV. Robert D. Holmes, Deputy Grand Master, New York; was answered by Brother B. B. French from the Washington office of the Grand Mastcr, Knights Templar, April 91, 1865, "Yours of the 19th is just received. President Lincoln was not a Mason. He once told me in the presence of Most Worshipful Brother J. W. Simons that he had at one time made up his mind to apply for admission to our Fraternity but that he feared he was too lazy to attend to his duty as a Mason, 3S he should like to do, and that he had not carried out his intentions. I told him it was not too late now. 'Well,' said he, 'as likely as not I shall apply to nou some day to let me in' " (see the Masonic Monthly, May,1865, page 351;
Builder,volume 3, page 93; volume 10, pages 31, 286, 361). A published address by Dr. L. D. Carman, Past Master, before his Lodge, Harmony No. 17, Washington, District of Columbia, January 28, 1914, contains the B. B. French letter with much other data, including some peculiarly significant allusions made by Lincoln in Masonic style, a circumstance perhaps due to his early intimacy with Past Master Bowling Green at whose funeral Lincoln was asked by the Fraternity to make an address, which he was unable to complete owing to emotion, His great antagonist, Stephen Douglas was a Freemason whose framed petition, written in his own hand entirely, hangs on the wall of the Masonic Temple at Springfield, Illinois. For this information and other particulars we are indebted to Brother Hal C. McLoud of Sprlngfield.
fourth president; born March 16, 1751; president, 1809; died June 28, 1836. Mentioned in connection with the Craft but no proof offered. Brother Bovden found in the history of Richmond Lodge No. 10, Richmond, Virginia, where Brother Walthall records that on July 25, 1836, this Lodge with Nos. 14 and 19 took part in a general tribute of respect to the memory of the ex-president. But this offers no evidence of Masonic affiliation. A letter, not indicative of Masonic membership, purporting to be from Madison to a friend on January 24, 1832, is given in the Anti-Masonic Publications (page 22, volume ii, 1834-79), by Joseph Ritner, Governor of Pennsvlvania, but the authenticity of the communication is not fully established any more than is Madison's connection with the Craft. Both are doubtful.
twenty-fifth president; born January 29, 1843; president, 1897; died September 14, 1901. A native of Niles, Ohio, he took his first Degrees at Winchester, Virginia, in Winchester Hiram Lodge No. 21, Secretary C. Vernon Edd! kindly supplying us the dates, as Entered Apprentice, May 1, 1865; Fellow Craft, May 2, 1865; Master Mason, May 3, 1865. This occurred during the Civil War while Major McKinley was stationed there nith the Northern Army. Observing the Masonic brotherhood prominent under the afflictions of war a number of northern soldiers petitioned the local Lodge and received the Degrees. McKinley affiliated with Canton (Ohio) Lodge No. 60, August 21, 1867; then became a Charter Member of Eagle Lodge No. 43, also at Canton, a Lodge afterwards named after him. He received the Marl;, Past and Most Excellent Master Degrees in Canton Chapter No. 84, December 27, 1883, and the Royal Arch Degree, December 28, that year. The Red Cross was conferred upon him December 18, 1884, in Canton Commandery No. 38, and the Malta and the Order of the Temple, December 23, 1884. A gold card presented to him by California Commandery No. 1 of San Francisco for his reception there on May 22, 1901, came by gift after McKinley's death into the possession of the Grand Lodge of Pennsrlvania through the kindness of Brother John Wannamaker, formerly PostmasterGeneral.
fifth president; born April 28, 1758; president, 1817; died July 4, 1831. Brother W. L. Bovden finds from the original records that Monroe was on November G. 1775, recommended to be admitted a member of Williamsburg Lodge No. 6, at Williamsburg, Virginia, and that on November 9, 1775, Monroe was "prefer'd, received and balloted for, passed, accepted and entered an apprentice." Where his other Degrees were given is not clear but as there is an old tradition oft repeated of him taking Degrees in an Armv Lodge that may account for them. Brother J. G. Hankins. Richmond, Virginia, mentioned in a letter his correspondence with the president of Williams and Mary College at Williams burg, Virginia, that Dr. Lyon G. Tyler wrote a history of the Lodge from the records, that this was published in the WiUiam and Mary Quarterly, 1892, volume i, number 1, lists the name of James Monroe, afterwards President of the United States. Dalcho Consistory Bulletin at Richmond, Virginia, MarchApril, 1915, tells of Richmond Randolph Lodge No. 19, taking part in a memorial meeting in honor of James Monroe.
A much more conclusive instance is the one given by Brother Boyden that the records of Cumberland Lodge No. 8, of Tennessee, June 8, 1819, show a reception to Monroe as "a Brother of the Craft," that the Worshipful Master W. Tannehill, afterwards Grand Master, headed the procession meeting the president, and that he was given a "Private Reception by the Masons." Admiral George W. Baird, Past Grand Master, Credits Monroe, on page 125, Masonry in the formation of Our Government, bv Philip A. Roth, with also being a member of Kilwinning Cross Lodge No. 2 at Port Royal, Virginia (see also Quarterly Bulletin, Iowa Masonic Library. October, 1923, pages 121-3).
fourteenth president; born November 23, 1804; president, 1853; died October 8, 1869. Has been claimed as a Freemason, but Brother lV. L. Boyden in View jlyc, August, 1920, asserted there was no record of it, nor has any sinee come to our notice.
POLK, JAMES KSTON,
eleventh ~)re.iident; born 5'0Vemi)er 9, l795; president, 1845; died June 15, 1849. Initiated,lune 5, 182(); passed, August 7, 1820; Raised, September 4, 182(); chosen Junior l>eaeon ()ctol)er < 20, Junior \\~rden December 3, 1821, all in Columbia Lodge No. 31, Columbia, Tennessee. Lafayette Chapter No. 4, Columbia, Tennessee, gave him the Royal Arch April 14, 1825.
ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN DELAN O.
thirtysecond president; born January 30, 1882; died April 12, 1945. Initiated October 10, 1911; Passed, November 14, 1911 Raised, November 28, 1911, Holland Lodge No. 8, New York, N.Y. Received the 32° A. A. Scottish Rite in Albally Consistory February 28, 1929. Cyprus Temple A.A.O.:\;.M.S. Albany, A. Y., Marcl 25, 1930. Tri-Po-Bed Grotto M.O.V.P. Poughkeepsie, N. \ ., "at sight" October 30, 1931. Greenwood Court No. 81, Tall Cedals of Lebanon, Warwick, A. Y., "at sight' April 25, 193().
tuenty-sixth president; born October 27, 1858; as vice-president he succeeded the assassinated President McKinley 1901; died Januarv 6, 1919. A member of Matinecock Lodge No. 806, Oyster Bay, New York, he was initiated January as, 1901; Passed, March "7, 1901, and Raised, April 24, 1901. His Masonic interests were keen, loyal, and constant, and his intercourse vsith Brethren abroad and at home most enjoyable. He participated w hole-heartedly in a number of public Masonic functions
TAFT, WILLIAM HOWARD,
twenty-seventh president; born September 15, 1857; president, 1909. Brother F. Wm. Harte, Secretary, Kilwinning Lodge No. 356, Cincinnati, Ohio, wrote us as follows: "William Howard Taft was made a Mason at sight on the afternoon of February 18, 1909, by Worships ful Brother Charles S. Hoskinson, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio. In the evening of the same day Brother Taft witnessed the conferring of the Master Mason Degree in full form on one candidate, the work being done by Kilwinning Lodge No. 356. All of the above took place in the Scottish Rite Cathedral 417 Broadway, Cincinnati, Ohio. He was given a demit from the Grand Lodge of Ohio and presented same to Kilwinning Lodge No. 356, F. & it. LI., on February 18, 1909, and he was elected a tssember of said Lodge on April 14, 1909." "At sight" in this case meant that the Grand Master convened a Lodge Ot such assisting Brethren as he deemed neeessary and the three Degrees were given concisely on the one occasion.
twelfth president; born September 24, 1784; president, 184t9; died July 9, 18a0. Brother Boyden suggests that the story of Taylor being a Freemason arose from resolutions passed bv Santa Rosa Lodge No. 16, Milton, Florida, on the death of "Brother Taylor," and from his presence when the Grand Lodge of Virginia laid a cornerstone at Riellmond, February 22, 1850. But nothing conclusive has arisen to establish his Masonic affiliation.
TRUMAN, HARRY S.
President and Bro. Harry S. Truman was initiated in Belton Lodge, No. 450, Missouri, Feb. 9, 1909; raised March 18, 1909, and became Junior Warden in 1910. In 1911 he became Charter Master of Grandview Lodge, No. 618; was District Deputy Grand Master of the 59th Masonic District from 1925 to 1930, and was an expert ritualist. He entered the Grand Lodge line in 1930; became Grand Master of Masons in Missouri, in 1940. He presided over the Grand Communication, held in St. Louis, beginning September 30, 1941. His address was memorable. He was a United States Senator at the time, with temporary residence in Washington, D. C.
Harry S. Truman was born at Lamar, Barton Co., Rio., Nlay 8, 1884. He attended the grades and high school in Independenee, SIo., and studied law for tvvo years in Kansas City. He served as Captain of Artillery in World War I, and was demobilized sith the rank of Major in 191'3. After many years as County Judge, and in the Senate he was elected Vice-President in 1944. On April 12, 1945, at 7:08 P.AI. he was Sworn in as President, four hours after President and Bro. Franklin D. Roosevelt had died in Warm Springs, Ga.
In his address as Grand Master he called the attention of his Grand Lodge to the martyrdom of tl1ousands of Masons in Europe and Asia at the hands of Faseists, Nazis, and Japanese. They nere executed, he said, because thev stood for freedom in polities, religion, thought and Speech, which are principles of Freemasonry, and he expressed the hope that American Masons would hold their martyrdom in sacred memory. He also warned that the fraternity should not admit new members with insufficient examination.
tenth president; born Marsh 99, 17'D0; president, 1841, as vice-president succeeding President Harrison on the latter's death; died January 18, 1862. No support of consequence has appeared for the claim that he was a Freemason. The Virginia Masonic Journal, September, 1919, published the following: "In a public address before a body of Masons at a corner-stone laying a few years before his death, John Tyler used these words 'It is not my good fortune to belong to your (Masonic) society, or to any of a kindred character' " (see also Bulletin, Dalcho Consistory, Richmond, Virginia, March-April, 1915, quoted in above).
first president; born February 11, 1731/2 (Old Style, owing to reform of the calendar date now celebrated is February 2°, 1732); president, 1789; died Deeember 14, 1799. Initiated, November 4, 1752; Passed, Marsh 3, 1753; Raised, August 4, 1753, in Frederieksburg Lodge No. 4, Frederieksburg, Virginia. Charter Master of Alexandria Lodge No. 22, Alexandria, Virginia, April 98, 17S8, and re-eleeted December 20, 1788. This Lodge formerly N o. 39 under Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, became N o. 22 under the Grand Lodge of Virginia, and after the death of Washington v as in 180o named Alexandria-NVashington Lodge (see article on TT'ashington for additional details?.
A thorough-going treatise on Masonic Presidents, Vice-Presidents and Signers (of the Deelaration of Independence), Washington, is published by Brother William L. Boyden, Librarian of the Supreme Couneil, Southern Jurisdiction, Ancient and Aceepted Scottish Rite, arid in the Stew Age, August, 1920, Brother Boyden also deals with the subject. His list of Masonic Vic>Presidents includes John C. Breckinridge, Aaron Burr, Schuyler Colfax, George LI. Dallas, Charles W. Fairballks, Garret A. Hobart, Andrew Johnson, Richard LI. Johnson, William R. King, Thomas R. Marshall, Theodore Roosevelt, Adlai E. Stevenson, Daniel D. Tompkins, all of u horn are given the obtainable details of their respective memberships. Lists have also appeared in Masonic journals, notably the Quarferly Bulletin, Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, January, 1917, and October, 1923.
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