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The Hebrew is pronounced, Mem, which signifies water in motion, having for its hieroglyph a waving line, referring to the surface of the water. As a numeral, M stands for 1000. In Hebrew its numerical value is 40. The sacred name of Deity, applied to this letter, is Meborach, and in Latin Benedictus, meaning tha Blessed One.
In the Tenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite we are instructed that certain traitors fled to "Maacha, King of Cheth," by whom they were delivered up to King Solomon on his sending for them. In First Kings ii, 39, we find it recorded that two of the servants of Shimei fled from Jerusalem to "Achish, son of Maachah king of Gath." There can be little doubt that the carelessness of the early copyists of the Ritual led to the double error of putting Cheth for Gath and of supposing that Maacha was its king instead of its king's father.
The manuscripts of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, too often copied by unlearned persons, show many such corruptions of Hebrew names, which modern researches must eventually correct. Delaunay, in his Thuileur, 1813, makes him King of Tyre, calls him Mahakah, and adds a Latin word, Compressus, as further explanation, the meaning evidently being to bring together.
Masonic writers have generally given to this word the meaning of "is smitten," deriving it probably from the Hebrew verb macha, to smite. Others, again, think it is the word mak, rottenness, and suppose that it means "he is rotten." Both derivations are, in Brother Mackey's opinion, incorrect. Mac is a constituent part of the word macbenac, which is the substitute Master's Word in the French Rite, and which is interpreted by the French ritualists as meaning "he lives in the son." But such a derivation can find no support in any known Hebrew root. Another interpretation must be sought. Doctor Mackey believed there is evidence, circumstantial at least, to show that the word was, if not an invention of the Sentient or Dermott Freemasons, at least adopted by them in distinction from the one used by the Moderns, which latter is the word now in use in the United States of America.
Brother Mackey was disposed to attribute the introduction of the word into Freemasonry to the adherents of the House of Stuart, who sought in every way to make the Institution of Freemasonry a political instrument in their schemes for the restoration of their exiled monarch. Thus the old phrase, "the Widow's Son," was applied by them to James II, who was the son of Henrietta Maria, the widow of Charles I. So, instead of the old Master's word which had hitherto been used, they invented macbenac out of the Gaelie, which to them was, on recount of their Highland supporters, almost a sacred language in the place of Hebrew. Now, in Gaelic, Mac is son, and benach is blessed, from the active verb oeannaichy to bless.
The latest dictionary puished by the Highland Society give this example:
De Righ Albane, Alexander, Mac Alexander," etc., that is, Bless the King of Scotland, Alexander, son of Alexander, etc. Therefore we find, without any of those distortions to which etymologists so often recur, that macbenac means in Gaelic the blessed son. This word the Stuart Freemasons applied to their idol, the Pretender, the son of Charles I.
This word is capable of at least two interpretations.
1. A significant word in the Third Degree according to the French Rite and some other Rituals (see Mac).
2. In the Order of the Beneficent Knights of the Holy City, the Recipiendary, or Novice, is called Macbenac.
A heroic family, whose patriotism and valor form bright pictures in the Jewish annals. The name is generally supposed to be derived from the letters M. C. B. I. which were inscribed upon their banners Wng the initials of the following words in the Hebrew sentence, Mi Camocha, Baalim, Jehovah, meaning, Who is like unto thee among the gods, O Jehovah. The Hebrew sentence has been appropriated in some of the advanced Degrees as a significant term.
MACCALLA, CLIFFORD P.
Initiated in Concordia Lodge No. 67 at Philadelphia, 1869; was Worshipful Master in 1874; accepted position of Secretary in 1876 and served twelve years. Brother MacCalla was elected Junior Grand Warden of Pennsylvania in 1882, Senior Grand Warden in 1884, Deputy Grand Master in 1886 and Grand Master in 1888. For many years he was Editor of the Reystone, a Masonic journal. He wrote a historical sketch of Concordia Lodge in Philadelphia, a Life of Daniel Coxe and many essays on Freemasonry in America. He discovered the Secretary's ledger of Saint John's Lodge dating from June 24, 1731, to June, 1738 (see Transactionz, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, volume iii, page 134).
Du Cange (in his Glossarium) gives this as one of the Middle Age Latin words for orison, deriving it from maceria, a wail The word is now never employed.
Du Cange, Slossarzum, defines Macio, Mario, or Machio, on the authority of Isidore, as Maçon, latomus, a mason, a constructor of walls, from machina, the machines on which they stood to work on account of the height of the walls. He gives Maço also.
MACKENZIE, KENNETH R. H.
His favorite pen name was Cryptonymus, a Latin word meaning One whose name is hidden. Editor of The Royal Masonic Cyclopedia of History, Rites, Symbolism, and Biography, published in London in 1877, by Brother John Hogg, Paternoster Row. He was one of the founders of the Rosicrucian Society in England (see Rosicrucianism).
MACKEY, ALBERT GALLATIN.
The American Masonic historian. He was born at Charleston, South Carolina, March 12, 1807. This scholarly Brother lived to the age of seventy-four years. He died at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, June 20, 1881, and was buried at Washington, District of Columbia, Sunday, June 26, with all the solemnity of the Masonic Rites wherein he had long been an active leader. From 1834, when he was graduated with honors at the Charleston Medical College, until 1854 he gave attention to the practice of his profession, but from that time on literary and Masonic labors engrossed his efforts. Doctor Mackev was a Union adherent during the Civil War and in July, 1865, President Johnson appointed him Collector of the Port. In a contest for senatorial honors Brother Mackey was defeated by Senator Sawyer. Doctor Mackey removed to Washington. District of Columbia, in l870.
Doctor Mackey was Initiated, Passed and Raised in Saint Andrews Lodge No. 10, Charleston, South Carolina, in 1841. Shortly thereafter he affiliated with Solomon's Lodge No. 1, also of Charleston, and was elected Worshipful Master in December, 1842. From 1842 until 1867 he held the office of Grand Seeretary and during this period prepared all the reports of the Foreign Correspondence Committee of the Grand Lodge. In 1851 he was a founder member of Landmark Lodge No. 76. During the winter of 1841-2 he was advanced and exalted in Capitular Freemasonry; elected High Priest in December, 1844; and also elected Deputy Grand High Priest in 1848 and successively reselected until 1855. From 1855 to 1867 he was each year elected as Grand High Priest of his State. Elected in 1859 to the office of General Grand High Priest, he continued in that position until 1868. Created a Knight Templar in South Carolina Commandery No. 1, in 1842, he was elected Eminent Commander in 1844, later being honored as a Past Grand Warden of the Grand Encampment of the United States. Crowned a Sovereign Grand Inspector General of the Thirtythird and last Degree in 1844, he was for many years Secretary-General of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
As a contributor to the literature and science of Freemasonry, Doctor Mackey's labors have been more extensive than those of any other in America or in Europe. In 1845 he published his first Masonic work, entitled A Lexicon of Freemasonry; in 1851 he published his second work entitled Tame True Afystic Tie. Then followed The A11iman Rezon of South Carolina, 1852; Principles of Masonic Laun, 1856; Book of tile Chapter, 1858; Text-Book of Masonic Jurisprudence; 1859; History of freemasonry in South Carolina, 1861, Manual of the Lodge, 1869; Cryptic Masonry, 1877; Symbolism of Freemasonry, and Alasonic Ritual, 1869; Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, 1874; and Masonic Parliamentary Law, 1875. Doctor Mackey also contributed freely to Masonic periodicals and edited several of them with conspicuous ability. In 1849 he established and edited the Southern and Western Masonic Miscellany for five years.
In 1857 he undertook the publication of the Masonic Quarterly Review which continued for two years. Then he was invited to assume editorial charge of a department in the American Freemason which he accepted in July, 1859, and he held this position for one year. He was solicited to take charge of a department in the Masonic Trowel, his first article appearing in the September number of 1865, and he wrote for this publication for nearly three years. In October, 1871, Doctor Mackey again published a Masonic magazine of his own, Mackey's Nationd Freemason. Although a periodical of great merit, after three years it was discontinued. In January, 1875, Doctor Mackey became one of the editors of the Voice of Masonry, and for over four years was a constant contributor to that periodical, when failing health necessitated his giving up this work.
After Doctor Mackey located at Washington, District of Columbia, he affiliated with Lafayette Lodge No. 19, Lafayette Chapter No. 5, and Washington Commandery No. 1.
The funeral services in Washington in 1881 were begun at All Souls Church, Unitarian, of which Doctor Mackey was a member, by the pastor and were followed by the ceremonies of a Lodge of Sorrow, Rose Croix Chapter, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, and were in charge of the venerable General Albert Pike and his associate officers. General Albert Pike wrote a touching and ape preciative message at the time of the death of Doctor Mackey, which was sent out officially by the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Southern Jurisdiction in which the various Masonic Bodies were instructed to "drape in black the altars and working tools and the Brethren will wear the proper badge of mourning during the space of sixty days."
The following Memorial was presented by a Committee headed by Brother Charles F. Stansbury at a Special Communication of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia:
Our illustrious Brother, Albert Gallatin Mackey, is no more! He died at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, on the 20th day of June, 1881, at the venerable age of 74, and was buried at Washington on Sunday June 26, 1881, with the highest honors of the Craft, ah Rites and Orders of Masonry uniting in the last sad services over his remains. The announcement of his death has carried a genuine sentiment of sorrow wherever Freemasonry is known. His ripe scholarship, his profound knowledge of AMasonic law and usage, his broad views of Masonic philosophy, his ceaseless and invaluable literary labors in the service of the Order, his noble ideal of its character and mission, as well as his genial personal qualities and his lofty character, had united to make him personally known and vvidely respected and beloved by the Masonic world. While this Grand Lodge shares in the common sorrow of the Craft everywhere at this irreparable loss she can properly lay claim to a more intimate and peculiar sense of bereavement, inasmuch as our illustrious Brother had been for many years an active member of this Body Chairman of the Committee on Jurisprudenee, and an advisor ever ready to assist our deliberations with his knowledge and counsel. In testimony of our affectionate respect for his memory the Grand Lodge jewels, and insignia will be appropriately draped, and its members near the usual badge of mourning for thirty days.
A memorial page of our proceedings will also be dedicated to the honor of his name. We extend to his family the assurance of our sincere and respectful sympathy, and direct that an attested copy of this Minute be transmitted to them.
In the eulogy over Doctor Mackey, delivered by Past Grand Master Henry Buist, of Georgia, before the Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdietion, he said of the Doctor:
He was a fearless and gifted speaker; his language was courteous and manner dignified; and occasionally, in his earnestness to maintain what he conceived to be right, he became animated and eloquent. Positive in his eonvietions. he was bold in their advocacy. His course of action once determined on, supported by an approving conscience no fear or disfavor or discomfiture could swerve him from his fixed purpose. Whatever was the emergency, he was always equal to it. Where others doubted. he was confident; where others faltered, he was immovable; where others queried, he affirmed. He was faithful to every public and Masorsic duty. Treachery found no place in his character. He never betrayed a trust. He was eminently sincere and loyal to his friends, and those who were most intimately associated with him learned to appreciate him the most. He was generous and frank in his impulses, and cherished malice toward none, and charity for all. His monument is in the hearts of those who knew him longest and best. He is no longer of this earth. His work among men is ended; his earthly record is complete.
MAÇON DANS LA VOIE DROITE.
MAÇON DU SECRET.
MAÇON, ECOSSAIS, MAITRE.
The following is substantially from Renning's Cydopedia of Freemasonry:
The Norman-French word for mason as the Operative Mason in early days was called "le rnaçon and this was corrupted into maccon, maccouyn, masoun, masouyn, messouyn, and even mageon. The word seems to come from maçonner, which had both its operative meaning and derivative meaning of conspiring, in 1238, and which again comes from mansio, a word of classic use. The word mason, as it appears to us, is clear evidence of the development of the operative Gilds through the Norman-French artificers of the Conquest, who carried the Operative Gilds, as it were, back to Latin terminology, and to a Roman origin,
In addition to the above paragraph by the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, see Mason, Macemo and Macio.
MAÇON DANS LA VOIE DROITE.
French, meaning The Mason in the Right Way. The second grade of the Hermetic system of Montpellier (Thory, ActaLatomorum i, page 321).
MAÇON DU SECRET.
French, meaning The Mason of the Secret. The sixth grade of the reformed Rite of Baron Tschoudy, and the seventh in the reformed rite of Saint Martin (Thory, ActaLatomorum i, page 321).
MAÇON, ECOSSAIS, MAITRE.
These French words are explained under their English equivalents (see Mason, Scottish Master).
Low Latin, signifying a Mason, and found in documents of the fourteenth century.
A French word signifying a Female Mason, that is to say, a woman who has received the Degrees of the Rite of Adoption. It is a very convenient word. The formation of the English language might permit the use of the equivalent word Masoness, if custom would sanction it.
The Third Degree in Cagliostro's Egyptian Rite of Adoption.
Third grade of the Maçonnerie d' Adoption.
Du Cange gives citations from docurnents of the fourteenth century, where this word is used as signifying to build.
French for Red Freemasonry. The designation of the four advanced grades of the French Rite. Bazot says that the name comes frogn the color worn in the fourth grade.
Dutch Masonic Clubs, somewhat like unto the English Lodges of Instruction with more, perhaps, of the character of a Club. Renning's Cyclopedia says "there were about nineteen of these associations in the principal towns of Holland in 1860."
"A General History, Cyclopedia, and Dictionary of Freemasonry," containing some 300 engravings, by Robert Macoy, 33°, published in Nesv York, which has passed through a number of editions. It was originally founded on A Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry, by Dr. George Oliver. Brother Macoy has occupied the prominent position of Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New York, and that of Grand Recorder of the State Grand Commandery of the Order of the Temple, Knights Templar.
Greek, she great world. The visible system of worlds; the outer world or universe. It is opposed to Microcosm, the little world, as in man. It has been used as the Macric soul in opposition to the Micric animal life, and as the soul of the universe as opposed to the soul of a single world or being. A subject of much note to the Rosicrucians in the study of the Mysterium Magnum.
Latin of the Middle Ages for a mason. Du Cange quotes a Computum of the year 1324, in which it is said that the work was done "per manum Petri, maczonis de Lagnicio," meaning "by the hand of Peter, a mason of Lagnicio,"
L'Action Républicaine Lodge, from June 25,1913, at Diego Suarez, and La France Australe, from July 20, 1903, at Tananarivo, are subject both to the Grand Orient of France. Three others, La Fraternite Universale, from 1917, at Ambositra, Imerina, from 1903, at Tananarivo and Les Trois Freres, The Three Brothers, at Majungo, are controlled by the Grand Lodge of France. Madagascar is an island, under the F rench Government, is 975 miles long, with some three million inhabitants, and is in the Indian Ocean, 230 miles from the east coast of Africa.
A technical word sigrufying initiated into Freemasonry (see Make).
Madmen are specially designated in the oral law as disqualified for initiation (see Qualifications).
A presidency of British India. The first Lodge in Southern India was established at Madras. Others were opened in 1765 and in the following year Captain Edmond Pascal was appointed Provincial Grand Master for Madras and its Dependencies. A Provincial Grand Lodge was established in 1781 by the Athol Grand Lodge of England but after about seven years the state of warfare round about Madras caused its decline. Unity among the Brethren in Southern India was finally achieved by the appointment of Brigadier-General Horn as "Provincial Grand Master for the Coast of Coromandel, the Presidency of Madras and parts adjacent." The older Lodges had all ceased work when in 1786 the Carnatic Military Lodge was established at Arcot. The early attempts of the Freneh to plant Freemasonry in Madras were even less successful than those of the English. The first.Lodge, La Fraternite Cosmopolite, meaning in French Worldvwide Fraternity, was chartered in 1786, but after Iying dormant for some time finally ceased to exist. The Grand Lodge of Scotland has chartered many surviving and successful Lodges in Madras and other parts of India (see Bombay and India).
Sometimes spelled Maffia, a name for a Sicilian secret society active early in the nineteenth century, perhaps more usually the title is employed to mean the persons impatient and contemptuous of constitutional processes of law who reserve vengeance for execution by themselves. The Chief of Police of New Orleans was killed, following the severity of his course in hunting the murderers of an Italian. Several Mafiusi were implicated, six were acquitted but the verdict was credited to the fears of the jury, and the gaol was entered by a mob and eleven prisoners were lynched, March 14, 1891 (see Carbonari, Camorra, and Secret Societies).
The earliest Masonic magazine was published at Leipsic in 1738 and named Der Freimaurer. The second, in 1742, was Der bedachtiae Frei7naurer, at Hamburg, and then the Aufmerksamn Freimaurer, 1743, at Gorlitz, according to Brother Woodford (Renning's CycZopedia). In 1783 theFreimaurerzeitung appeared at Berlin, having only a short existence of six numbers. The Journal fur Freimaurer, which appeared in 1784 at Vienna, had a longer life of some three years. In England, the first work of this kind was The Freemasons Magazine or General and Complete Library, begun in 1793, and continued until 1798. In Ireland, in 1792, the Sentimental and Masonic Magazine appeared and ran to seven volumes (1792-5). In Francethe Miroir de laverite seems to have been issued 1800-2, followed by Nermes in 1808. In England the Free7naso7~s Quarterly Review commenced in 1834 and was continued until 1849, followed by the Freemasons Quarterly Magazine in 1853, which lived until 1858. In 1873 a new Masonic Mapazine was issued, but it had not a very long existence. Of American Masonic magazines the earliest is the Freemasons Magazine and General Miscellany, published at Philadelphia in 1811. An old and constant periodical devoted to Freemasonry was the Freetmasonry's Monthly Magazine, published by Charles W. Moore, at Boston. It was established in the year 1842 (see Literature).
The ancient Greek historians so term the hereditary priests among the Persians and Medians. The word is derived from mog or amp, signifying Priest in the Pehlevi language. The Illuminati first introduced the word into Freemasonry, and employed it in the nomenclature of their Degrees to signify men of superior wisdom.
MAGI, THE THREE.
The "Wise Men of the East" who came to Jerusalem, bringing gifts to the infant Jesus. The traditional names of the three are Melchior, an old man, with a long beard, offering gold; Jasper, a beardless youth, rho offers frankincense; Balthazar, a black or Moor, with a large spreading beard, who tenders myrrh. The patron saints of travelers. "Tradition fixed their number at three, probably in allusion to the three races springing from the sons of Noah. The Empress Helena caused their corpses to be transported to Milan from Constantinople. Frederick Barbarossa carried them to Cologne, the place of their special glora as the Three Kings of Cologne." Yonge. The three principal officers ruling the Society of the Rosicrucians are styled Magi.
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