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An English Lodge, No 204 organized in the south of France, 1730, and still active. Some merchant captains in the course of their trade put into Bordeaux and founded this Lodge Sunday, April 27, 1732, under the Grand Lodge of England. In those days three Master Masons assembled for the express purpose could constitute a Lodge without Grand Lodge Warrant.
The Minutes of the first meeting show Martin Kelly, Master, and Nicolas Staunton and Jonathan Robinson the Wardens. Two candidates were present, one being James Bradshaw. The Lodge met on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday of the same week and at the latter meeting Nicolas Staunton was elected Master. Brother Kelly had Initiated five andRaisedfourto the Third Degree. Brother Staunton was installed May 2 and by May 6 he Initiated two and Raised two others. On May 6 James Bradshaw was elected Master. During the first year seventeen members were enrolled, only one French. English was used in the Minutes the first eleven years. From September 8,1743, onward, French became the language of the Lodge and, except for short periods during its first few years and fifteen months during the Reign of Terror, the Lodge has met regularly. With the ads proval of the Grand Lodge of England the early Lodge granted Constitutions to various Lodges in France and abroad.
Of interest is a record in the Minutes of August 2, 1746, that admittance was refused three initiates on the ground that they were "players of instruments in the theatre." February 11, 1749, they decided that "no Jew shall ever be admitted a member in this Lodge." On March 25, 1781, Brother La Pauze, a Roman Catholic priest and Curé of the Parish of Saint Pierre, is recorded as Master of the Lcdge. In April, 1766, the Lodge received a Warrant from the Grand Lodge of England specifically confirming the proceedings from the time of its inception in 1732. In 1766 the Grand Lodge of France issued an edict stating that all Lodges in France not accepting its Jurisdiction would be irregular. At the intercession of the Grand Lodge of England in behalf of the Loge Anglaise an exception was made in its case. In 1767 the Loge Anglaise appears as N. o. 363 on the List of Lodges of the Grand Lodge of England but is omitted from the list of 1774 and therefore negotiations begun with the Grand Orient for a formal Warrant, of December 12, 1780, the Lodge giving up its right to found other Lodges in France but retaining friendlv relations with England.
The Grand Orient issued a Warrant, January 6, 1783, to seventeen Brethren who had resigned, forming the newLa T'raie AnS7laise, the True English, and the Loge Anglaise had itself restored on the list of the Grand Lodgc of England as No. 240 in 1785. August 31, 1790, this Lodge with four other French Lodges agreed to no longer recognize the authority of the Grand Orient of France. In 1793 the name was changed to Lodge No. 240 'Egalité (called Equality) but the old title was resumed in 1795. In 1802 a renumbering of Lodges under the Grand Lodge of England put the Loge Anglaise as No. 204 on the Register. The Loge Anglaise agreeably to the Grand Orient of France, September °7, 1803, and the Grand Lodge of England, with three other Lodges formed a Provincial Grand Lodge, February 21, 1804. New by-laws, June °7, 1816, specified that the Lodge was under "Joint protection of the Grand Orients of England and France." May 16, 1818, the Grand Secretary of England wrote the Loge Anglaise that all connection with the Grand Lodge had ceased since 1786.
The Lodge protested and remained independent. Brother John Lane says in Masonic Records that the Lodge was on the English Register until 1813. After considerable time the Lodge again associated with the Grand Orient of France, maintaining always the custom of toasting the Grand Lodge of England at banquets. In 1869 an amendment to Article 1, Constitution of the Grand Orient, came up for decision.
This Article stated that "The principles on which Freemasonry is founded are the existence of God, the immortality of the soul, and the solidarity of the human race.' An amendment was defeated thanks to the effort made by the Loge Anglaise, but the matter again came up, 1876, and the Lodge was helpless to prevent the adoption of the amendment by the General Assembly and relations were severed. January 7, 1913, the Lodge passed a vote of disapproval of the Grand Orient, and with the Lodge CentRre des Amis undertook to form the new Grand Loge Nationale pour la France (see Loge Anglaise, by Edmund Heisch, London, 1917; also Transactions Authors Lodge, London, volume 2, and the English Lodge at Bordeaux G. W. Speth, a paper read in Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 1899).
The art of reasoning, and one of the Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences, whose uses are incuLcated in the Second Degree. The power of right reasoning, which distinguishes the man of sane mind from the madman and the idiot, is deemed essential to the Freemason, that he may comprehend both his rights and his duties. And hence the unfortunate beings just named, who are without this necessary mental quality, are denied admission into the Order. The Old Charges define logic to be the art "that teacheth to discern truth from falsehood."
At the close of the dark ages, Idombardy and the adjacent Italian States were the first which awakened to industry. New cities arose, and the kings, lords, and municipalities began to encourage the artificers of different professions. Among the arts exercised and improved in Lombardy, the art of building held a pre-eminent rank, and from that kingdom, as from a center, the Comacine Masters were dispersed over all Europe (see Traveling Freemasons; also Commune).
With the city of London, the modern history of Freemasonry is intimately connected. A Congress of Freemasons, as it may properly be called was convened there by the Four Old Lodges, at the Apple-Tree Tavern, in 1717. Its results were the formation of the Grand Lodge of England, and a modification of the Masonic system, whence the Freemasonry of the present day has descended. Anderson, in his second edition of the Book of Constitutions, 1738, gives the account of this, as it is now called, Revival of Freernasonry, which see.
Authorized by the Grand Lodge of England upon the suggestion of the Grand Master, December 4, 1907, as a means of conferring Masonic honors upon members of those Lodges which were held within a radius of ten miles of Freemasons Hall, London, and which are known as London Lodges, they not coming under any Provincial or District organization and thus being unable to obtain any distinction but that of Grand Lodge Office. As a result of this condition, much discussion was had regarding the dividing of the London Lodges into Provinces, thereby multiplying the honors within their reach, but at this time the Grand Master was authorized to confer the right to wear a distinctive jewel, collar, and apron with the designation London Rank, this honor to be conferred upon Past Masters of London Lodges, one for each such Lodge for 1908 and up to the number of 150 each year thereafter, a certain fee being paid for the distinction. This Rank is the equivalent of Provincial or District Rank and is bestowed on the Brethren for long and meritorious service to the Craft.
The mythical history of Freemasonry informs us that there once existed a Word of surpassing value, and claiming a profound veneration; that this Word was known to but few; that it was at length lost; and that a temporary substitute for it was adopted. But as the very philosophy of Freemasonry teaches us that there can be no death without a resurrection—no decay without a subsequent restoration—on the same principle it follows that the loss of the Word must suppose its eventual recovery.
Now, this it is, precisely, that constitutes the myth of the Lost Word and the search for it. No matter what was the Word, no matter how it was lost, nor why a substitute was provided, nor when nor where it was recovered. These are all points of subsidiary importance, necessary, it is true, for knowing the legendary history, but not necessary for understanding the symbolism. The only term of the myth that is to be regarded in the study of its interpretation, is the abstract idea of a word lost and afterward recovered.
The Word, therefore, may be conceived to be the symbol of Dianne Truth; and all its modifications— the loss, the substitution, and the recovery—are but component parts of the mythical symbol which represents a search after truth. In a general sense, the Word itself being then the symbol of Disine Truth, the narrative of its loss and the search for its recovery becomes a mythical symbol of the decay and 1088 of the true religion among the ancient nations, at and after the dispersion on the Plains of Shinar, and of the attempts of the wise men, the philosophers, and priests, to find and retain it in their secret mysteries and initiations, which have hence beed designated as the Spurious Freemasonry of Antiquity.
But there is a special or individual, as well as a general interpretation, and in this special or individual interpretation the Word, with its accompanying myth of a loss, a substitute, and a recovery, becomes a symbol of the personal progress of a candidate from his first initiation to the completion of his course, when he receives a full development of the mysteries.
The lotus plant, so celebrated in the religions of Egypt and Asia, is a species of Nymphaea, or water-lily, which grows abundantly on the banks of streams in warm climates. Although more familiarly known as the Lotus of the Nile, it was not indigenous to Egypt, but was probably introduced into that country from the East, among whose people it was everywhere consecrated as a sacred symbol.
The Brahmanical deities were almost always represented as either decorated with its flowers, or holding it as a scepter, or seated on it as a throne. Coleman says (Mythology of the Hindus, page 388) that to the Hindu poets the lotus was what the rose was to the Persians. Floating on the water it is the emblem of the world, and the type also of the Mountain of Meru, the residence of the gods. Among the Egyptians, the lotus was the symbol of Osiris and Isis. It was esteemed a sacred ornament by the priests, and was placed as a coronet upola the heads of many of the gods. It was also much used in the sacred architecture of the Egyptians, being placed as an entablature upon the columns of their temples. Thence it was introduced by Solomon into Jewish architecture, being found, under the name of lily work, as a part of the ornaments of the two pillars at the porch of the Temple.
The word of almost the same sound in Arabic as in Hebrew includes many of the allied flowers and it is now generally accepted that the various biblical references to lilies (as in First Kings vii, 19; Second Chronicles iv, 5; Canticles in, 1; Hosea xiv, 5; Matthew vi, 28, and elsewhere) mean more than that one flower (see Lily and Pillars of the Porch).
Freemasonry was brought to San Domingo by Charter from the Grand Orient and the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania at a time when it was peopled chiefly by the Freneh and their negro slaves.
The negro insurrection of 1791 caused an influx of white refugees to many of the cities of the United States. In 1793 the Freemasons who fled to New Orleans organized the Parfaite Union Lodge, No. 29, by Charter from the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, and Officers were installed in the York Rite by Jason Lawrence on March 30, 1794. The sale of Louisiana to America and the return of many of thr refugees to San Domingo left Freemasonry in Louisiana more in the hands of the American Brethren than had hitherto been the case. On September 2, 1807, a Charter was granted by the Grand Lodge of New York to Louisiana Lodge, No. 2, the first Lodge in New Orleans to work in the English language. In 1812 five of the twelve Lodges chartered in Louisiana had either ceased work or amalgamated with other Lodges and there were thus seven left, all of which worked the York Rite, namely: PerfectUnion, Charity, Louisiana, Concord, Perseverance, Harmony and Polar Star. The above seven Lodges organized themselves into a Committee for the establishment of a Grand Lodge.
Harmony and Louisiana withdrew from the Committee before long and the Grand Lodge was formed by the remaining five Lodges on July 11, 1812. It was announced at a Quarterly Communication held March 27, 1813, that a Grand Royal Arch Chap ter had been organized and attached to the Grand Lodge of Louisiana. In 1829 a representative was admitted to the General Grand Chapter. After 1831, however, no meeting took place and the subordinate Chapters, with the exception of Holland, No. 9, ceased to exist. In 1841, the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana called a meeting and a Grand Chapter of Louisiana was organized Holland Chapter was not represented at the Convention and refused to recognize the authority of the new Grand Chapter. In 1847 the General Grand Chapter denied that it had any legal existence. The following year, on May 1, representatives of the four Chapters in Louisiana chartered by the General Grand Chapter, Holland, No. 1; New Era, No. 2; Red River, No. 3, and East Feliciana, No. 4, met at New Orleans and duly established a Grand Chapter for Louisiana.
The first Council in the State was Holland, No. 1, probably organized by John Barker in 1827. In the official reports of the Grand Chapter of Louisiana in 1829 and 1830 a Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters is mentioned. This seems to have died out but was revived about 1848 to 1850 when Holland, No. 1; Louisiana, No. 15, and Orleans, No. 36, were represented at a Convention to organize a Grand Council.
A Charter was granted on May 4, 1816, for the formation of an Encampment which was enrolled under the Grand Encampment of the United States on September 15, 1844, as Indivisible Friends Encamp ment, No. 1. This Commandery with Jacques de Molay, No. 2, and Orleans, No. 3, assembled on February 12, 1864, and formed the Grand Commandery of Louisiana.
On June 19, 1813, Charters were granted to Albert Pike Lodge of Perfection, No. 1, and Eagle Council of Kadosh, No. 6, at New Orleans. Grand Consistory, No. 1, was chartered at New Orleans on August 8, 1852, and a Chapter of Rose Croix, Cervantes, No. 4, was opened during the year 1887.
Second Adjoint of the Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France. Nominated, in 1806, King of Holland. Louis, Napoleon III, was widely known as an interested Freemason.
In the Lansdowne Manuscript we meet with this charge: "that a Master or ffellow make not a moulde stone square, nor rule to no Lowen, nor sett no Lowen worke within the Lodge." Brother Hawkins observes this has been said to be an error for Cowan, but in his opinion it is more probably intended for Layer, which is the word used in the parallel passage in other Manuseripts (see Layer).
In Masonic language midnight is so called. The reference is to the sun, which is then below the earth. Low Twelve in Masonic symbolism is an unpropitious hour.
Notwithstanding the calumnies of Barruel, Robison, and a host of other anti-Masonic writers who assert that Freemasonry is ever engaged in efforts to uproot the governments within which it may exist, there is nothing more evident than that Freemasonry is a loyal institution, and that it inculcates in all its public instructions, obedience to government, Thus, in the Prestonian Charge given in the eighteenth century to the Entered Apprentice, and continued to this day in the same words in English Lodges, we find the following words:
In the State, you are to be a quiet and peaceable subs jeet, true to your sovereign, and just to your country; you are not to countenance disloyalty or rebellion, btlt patiently submit to legal authority and conform with cheerfulness to the government under which you live, yielding obedience to the laws which afford you proteetion, but never forgetting the attachment you owe to the place of your nativity, or the allegiance due to the sovereign or protectors of that spot.
The Charge given in American Lodges is of the sarne import, and varies but slightly in its language.
In the State, you are to be a quiet and peaceful subs ject, true to your government. and just to your country; you are not to countenance disloyalty or rebellion, but patiently submit to legal authority, and conform with cheerfulness to the government of the country in which you live.
The Charge given in French Lodges, though somewhat differing in form from both of these, has the same spirit and the same lesson. It is to this effect: Obedience to the laws and subtnission to the authorities are among the most imperious duties of the Freemason, and he is forbidden at all thnes from engaging in plots and conspiracies.
Hence it is evident that the true Freemason must be a true patriot.
LUCHET, JEAN PIERRE LOUIS, MARQUIS DE.
A French historical writer, who was born at Saintes in 1740, and died in 1791. He was the writer of many works of but little reputation, but is principally distinguished in Masonic literature as the author of an attack upon Illuminism under the title of Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés. It first appeared anonymously in 1789. Four editions of it were published. The third and fourth with augmentations and revisions, which were attributed to Mirabeau, were printed with the outer title of Histoire secrete de la Cour deBerlin, par Mirabeau. This work was published, it is known, without his consent, and was burned by the common executioner in consequence of its libelous character. Luchet's essay has become very scarce, and is now valued rather on account of its rarity than for its intrinsic excellence.
LUDEWIG, H. E.
An energetic Freemason, born in 1810, in Germany; died in 1856, in America. By "powers from home" this ardent Brother attempted to set up an independent authority to the existing Grand Lodge system in the United States; but, like many such attempts, it flashed brilliantly for a season, but proved of ephemeral nature.
One of the French terms for Louveteau, or Lewis, which see.
A celebrated chemist and philosopher, the Seneschal of Majorca, surnamed > docteur iUuminé, the enlightened doctor His discoveries are most noted, such as the mode of rectifying spirits, the refining of silver, etc. He was born about 1234. In 1276 he founded a college of Franciscans at Palma, for instruction in Eastern lore, and especially the study of the Arabic language, for which purpose he instituted several colleges between the years 1293 and 1311. He died in 1314. He is known as an eminent Rosicrucian, and many fables as to his longevity are related.
The foregoing account has long been generally acceptable though there is some uncertainty as to the dates of Lully's birth and death, and investigators have not agreed as to his scientific knowledge nor the authorship of certain works attributed by others to him. The alchemical works bearing his name are all apocryphal, spurious, according to J. FitzmauriceKelly (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911), but Lewis Spence (Dictionary of Occultism, 1920) not only accepts him as an author and alchemist of ability but quotes a German historian of chemistry, Gruelin, who asserts Lully to be a scientist of exceptional skill. However, it is clear that he was a devoted missionary to the infidels, a progressive student and teacher of languages, venerated as saint and poet. Some of his views were in advance of the Church he served and in 1376 they were condemned in a Papal Bull issued at the behest of the Inquisition, but this was annulled by Pope Martin V in 1578. At eighty Lully was of unabated enthusiasm, preaching the Gospel, journeying far afield in Europe, crossing into Africa, where he was stoned to death by the people.
LUMIERE, LA GRANDE.
French for The Grand Light. A grade in the collection of Brother Viany.
LUMIERE, LA VRAIE.
French for The True alight, or Perfect Mason. A Degree in the Chapter of the Grand Lodge of Royal York of Berlin (Thory, ActaLatomorum i, page 321).
The first five officers in a French Lodge, namely, the Master, two Wardens, Orator, and Secretary, are calledLuminaires or Luminaries, sources of light, because it is by them that light is dispensed to the Lodge.
An Egyptian deity, known as Khons Lunus, and represented as hawk-headed, surmounted by the crescent and disk. When appearing with the head of an ibis, he is called Thoth-Lunus. His worship was very extensive through ancient Egypt, where he was known as Aah, who presides over rejuvenation and resurrection. Champollion mentions in his Pantheon a Lunus-Bifrons.
From a Latin word meaning both gashing and atonement. A religious rite practiced by the ancients, and performed before any act of devotion It consisted in washing the hands, and sometimes the whole body, in lustral or conseerated water. It was intended as a symbol of the internal purification of the heart. It was a ceremony preparatory to initiation in all the Ancient Mysteries. The ceremony is practised with the same symbolic import in some of the advanced Degrees of Freemasonry. So strong was the idea of a connection between lustration and initiation, that in the low Latin of the Middle Ages lustrare meant to initiate. Thus Du Cange (Glossarium) cites the expression "lustrare religione Christianorum" as signifying "to initiate into the Christian religion."
Latin for Light, which see. Freemasonry anciently received, among other names, that of Lux, because it is that sublime doctrine of truth by which the pathway of him who has attained it is to be illumined in the pilgrimage of life. Among the Rosicrucians, light was the knowledge of the philosopher's stone; and Mosheim says that in chemical language the cross was an emblem of light, because it contains within its figure the forms of the three figures of which LVX., orLight, is composed
An independent Grand Duchy of Europe situated to the southeast of Belgium. In 1774 a Grand Orient with the reigning Duke as Protector was at work in Bouillon, a town which, though now in Belgium, was formerly part of Luxemburg. In 1812 this Grand Body had ceased to exist.
The Lodge, Les Enfants de la Concorde, meaning in French The Children of Good Understanding, was chartered in 1803 by the Grand Orient of France though it is possible that it was at work some years before that date. The Grand Duchy became independent in 1839 and a few years later the Lodge became independent also. It is the smallest self-governing Masonic Body in the world.
LUX E TENEBRIS.
Latin, meaning Light out of darkness. A motto very commonly used in the caption of Masonic documents as expressive of the object of Freemasonry, and what the true Freemason supposes himself to have attained. It has a recondite meaning. In the primeval ages and in the early mythology, darkness preceded light. "In the thought," says Cox, "of these early ages, the sun was the child of night or darkness" (Aryan Mythology i, page 43).
So lux being Truth or Freemasonry, and tenebrae, or darkness, the symbol of initiation, luxe tenebris is Masonic truth proceeding from initiation. A Lodge at London comprising Brethren devoted especially to the welfare of blind persons has been given this appropriate name.
LUX FIAT ET LUX FIT.
Latin, meaning Let there be light, and there was light. A motto sometimes prefixed to Masonic documents (see True Light).
An ever-living power, according to the old Jewish Rabbis, residing in a small joint-bone existing at the base of the spinal column. To this undying principle, watered by the dew of heaven, is ascribed the immortality in man. Rabbi Joshua Ben Hananiah replied to Hadrian, as to how man revived in the world to come, "From Luz, in the back-bone." When asked to demonstrate this, he took Luz, a little bone out of the back-bone, and put it in water, and it was not steeped; he put it in the fire, and it was not burned; he brought it to the mill, and that could not grind it, he laid it on the anvil and knocked it with a hammer, but the anvil was cleft and the hammer broken.
Lettersengraved onthe rings of profession worn by the Knights of Baron von Hund's Templar system. They are the initials of the words in the Latin sentence Labor Viris Convenit, meaning Labor is suit able for men, It was also engraved on their seals.
LYON, DAVID MURRAY.
This well-known writer and historian of Freemasonry in Scotland was initiated in 1856 in Lodge Ayr Saint Paul, No. 204, on the roll of the GrandLodge of Scotland. He was a printer by trade and was at one time employed by the Ayr. shire Express Company. In 1877 he was appointed Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Scotland and held the post until 1900. He died on January 30, 1903. He was, without doubt, says Brother Hawkins, who prepared this article, the foremost Masonic student in Scotland, either of this or any other period; and the results of his continuous and arduous researches are to be found in all the books and periodicals of the Craft for twenty years, both at home and abroad. It is simply impossible to furnish anything like an accurate and complete list of his many valuable contributions to Masonic magazines. His chief works have been the History of the MotherLodge Wilwinning, Scotland, the History of the old Lod ge at Thornhill, and, finally, the History of the Ancient Lodge at Edinburgh, Mary's Chapel, from the sixteenth century. This grand work, which was published in 1873, has placed its author in the front rank of Masonic authors.
LYONS, CONGRESS OF.
A Masonic Congress was convoked in 1778, at the City of Lyons, France, by the Lodge of Chevaliers I3ienfaisants, or Benevolent Knights. It was opened on the 26th of November, and continued in session until the 27th of December, under the presidency of M. Villermoz. Its ostensible object was to procure a reformation in Freemasonry by the abjuration of the Templar theory; but it wasted its time in the correction of rituals and in Masonic intrigues, and does not appear to have been either sagacious in its methods, or successful in its results. Even its abjuration of the Strict Observance doctrine that Templarism was the true origin of Freemasonry, is said to have been insincere, and forced upon it by the injunctions of the political authorities, who were opposed to the propagation of any system which might tend to restore the Order of Knights Templar.
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