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A large candlestick, of metal, with many sconces, hanging from the ceiling, and symbolically referring to the Branch of Jesse.
Usually so called, but more formally named the Royal Order of Jesters, an organization evolved out of the goodfellowship of members of the Mystic Shrine during a voyage to Honolulu, February 15 to March 7, l911. An offhand ceremony grew into a ritual, and to local Courts and a National Body, very much of its success due to the initiative of William S. Brown, many years the Treasurer of the Mystic Shrine; Lou B. Winsor, Past Imperial Potentate and Grand Secretary of Michigan, and others of their genial kind who organized and led the Body whose local units were limited to thirteen initiates yearly. Initiation, by invitation, and unanimous ballot, limited to members in good standing of the Mystic Shrine. The slogan, "Mirth is lying," expounded by Jester Brown, and the poem by Edmund Rowland Sill, "The Fool's Prayer," recited by Jester Winsor, have furnished inspiration. Officers, thirteen, bear the titles: Director, Tragedian, b Property Man, Impresario, Treasurer, Soubrette, Light Comedian, Serio Comic, Heavy Man, Leading Lady, Judge, High Constable, Stage Manager; the national officers' titles are the same but preceded by the word Royal.
In the eighteenth century the Jesuits were charged with having an intimate connection with Freemasonry, and the invention of the Degree of Kadosh was even attributed to those members of the Society who constituted the College of Clermont. This theory of a Jesuitical Freemasonry seems to have originated with the Illuminati, who were probably governed in its promulgation by a desire to depreciate the character of all other Masonic systems in comparison with their own, where no such priestly interference was perrnitted. Barruel scoffs at the idea of such a connection, and cans it (Histoire de Jacobinisme iv, page 287) "la fable de la Franc-Maçonnerie Jésuitique" meaning an invention of false or Jesuitical Freemasonry. For once he is right. Like oil and water the tolerance of Freemasonry and the intolerance of the "Society of Jesus" cannot commingle. Yet it cannot be denied that, while the Jesuits have had no part in the construction of pure Freemasonry, there are reasons for believing that they took an interest in the invention of some Degrees and systems which were intended to advance their own interests. But wherever they touched the Institution they left the trail of the serpent.
They sought to convert its pure philanthropy and toleration into political intrigue and religious bigotry. Hence it is believed that they had something to do with the invention of those Degrees, which were intended to aid the exiled house of Stuart in its efforts to regain the English throne, because they believed that would secure the restoration in England of the Roman Catholic religion. Almost a library of books has been written on both sides of this subject in Germany and in France.
Jesus in Latin comes from the Greek word Iesous, pronounced ee-ay-soos, and this in turn is from the Hebrew Joshua or Jeshua or perhaps more properly Yeshua, meaning "Jehovah is salvation" or "He will save." These latter Hebrew words are shortened forms of Jehoshua, pronounced as yeh-ho-shoo-ah, "Jehovah saves." Christos, the Greek word for the anointed or consecrated is equivalent to Messiah and Messias from the Hebrew word Mashach, meaning to anoint with oil. The word Christos suggested in sound the somewhat similar term Chrestos, signifying benign qualities as in First Epistle of Peter (ii, 3), "If so be ye have tasted that the Lord is (chrestos) gracious." This expression was applied by their enemies to Christians as being followers of Chrestos. An early Latin writer on the Church, Tertullian, 193 to 217 A.D., pointed out that this word given ignorantly in enmity was actually expressive of benevolence.
Jesus Christ, whose life and teachings form the foundation and structure of Christianity, was born at Bethlehem, about five miles south of Jerusalem, the chief city of Palestine. His birth chronologically is now generally assigned to a few years prior to the beginning of the modern era, or about 4-5 B.C., later estimates placing the time of the event differently to what was formerly accepted.
From the Bible we learn that Jesus was the son of Mary, a virgin of Nazareth, in the ancient province of Galilee. She was betrothed to Joseph, a carpenter, and during a visit made by them to Bethlehem for enrollment, Jesus was born in a stable and cradled in a manger because of the over-crowded condition of the local inn. Here came shepherds and the Magi, wise men from the East, and their publicly proclaimed reverence for the babe as the King of the Jews endangered the family with the reigning monarch and they fled to Egypt after the circumcision of the child. King Herod died and Joseph and Mary with Jesus returned to the home at Nazareth. From the record of the Scriptures we note that the boy listened to instruction at the Temple and that he "advanced in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men." That the trade of Joseph was adopted in due course is suggested by the visit to Nazareth during the public ministry of Jesus when the gossipping spectators said "Is not this the carpenter?"
From the year 4 B.C. to 30 A.D. is estimated in the Stevens-Burton Harmony of tile Gospels Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1912) as the period from birth to crucifixion with the actual ministry between three and four years. However, the length of ministry has also had other estimates based on the probable number of passovers in that period and accordingly as these were three or four the results figure out respectively as two and a half or three and a half years of public life. Baptized by John, as Luke tells us (iii, 23), "And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age." Then followed forty days in the wilderness and later the public preaching to the people vwith the private instruction of the disciples, urging repentance and faith upon all. In public as well as religious affairs the new teaching was not acceptable to the officials, civil and ecclesiastic.
The leaders, the priests and the Roman Governor, prepared to put Jesus on trial. Betrayed by Judas, taken before the high priest for examination and then to the Roman Governor, condemnation was speedy and crucifixion promptly followed. Resurrection after burial with appearances to the disciples and the ascension to heaven are told by the biblical narrative. A popular Life of Christ, written by Dean F. NV. Farrarg London, 1874, many following editions, is b admirable for study, and there are excellent discus sions upon allied topics in James Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1914), and in similar works. Ernest Renan's Life of Jesus, an English translation from the twenty-third edition (Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1917), less orthodox than the work of Farrar, is scholarly and independent, while H. G. Enclow's Jeurish View of Jesus, Macmillan, New York, 1920, presents a viewpoint of decided interest and importance.
The existence of the Essenes, a Jewish brotherhood of the time of Christ, not mentioned in the Bible but recorded by other authorities and having suggestive resemblance to features of Christianity, in fact the latter has been described as a popularized Essenism, brings up the oft-debated question of Jesus being an Essene. Brother Dudley Wright's book Was Jesus an Essene (Power-Book Company, London, 1908) submits concisely considerable information though many authors reject claims made for the membership of Jesus in the organization which came to an end in the second century. Essenes were tillers of the soil, esteemed ceremonial purity—bathing and white garments were featured, special food was prepared by priests and eaten solemnly together, marriage was forbidden and every sensual enjoyment deemed sinful, all property was held in common, and three years' preparation or probation was necessary before full initiation into this monastic order (see Essenes).
JETZIRAH, BOOK OF.
In many Lodges, especially among the Germans, where it is called Mitglieder Zeichen, a jewel is provided for every member and presented to him on his initiation or affiliation. It is to be worn from the buttonhole, and generally con tains the name of the Lodge and some Masonic device.
JEWEL OF AN ANCIENT GRAND MASTER.
A Masonic tradition informs us that the jewel of an ancient Grand Master at the Temple was the square and compass with the letter G between. This was the jewel worn by Hiram Abif on the day which deprived the Craft of his invaluable services, and which was subsequently found upon him.
JEWELS, IMMOVABLE. See Jewels of a Lodge.
JEWELS, MOVABLE. See Jewels of a Lodge.
JEWELS OF A LODGE. Every Lodge is furnished with six jewels, three of which are movable and three immovable. They are termed jewels, says Brother Oliver, because they have a moral tendency which renders them jewels of inestimable value. The movable jewels, so called because they are not confined to any particular part of the Lodge, are the Rough .Ashlar, the Perfect Ashlar, and the Trestle-Board. The Immovable Jewels are the Square, the Level, and the Plumb. They are termed Immovable, because they are appropriated to particular parts of the Lodge, where alone they should be found, namely, the Square to the East, theLevel to the West, and the Plumb to the South. In the English system the division is the reverse of this. There, the Square, Level, and Plumb are called Movable Jewels, because they pass from the three officers who wear them to their successors.
Jewels are the emblems worn by Maçonic officers as` distinctive badges In Masonic Facts and Fict (page 12), Brother Sadler is of the opinion that in the early days no jewels were worn, even by the Grand Master himself. He points to the portrait of Antony Sayer, the Grand Master, 1717, who is represented wearing a plain leather apron, but no jewel of any kind. The same may be said of Montgomery, the Grand Guarder. Brother Sadler also quotes a most important Minute of the Grand Lodge as follows:
24th June, 1727. Resolved Nem. Con. that in all private Lodges and Quarterly Communieations and general meetings Ma(ste)r and Wardens do wear the Jewells of Masonry hanging to a white ribbon (viz.) that the Ma(ste)r wear the Square, the Senr. Warden the Levell, the Junr Warden the Plumb Rule.
Brother W. Harry Rylands says this points to the idea of wearing jewels instead of using them.
For the purpose of reference, the jeweLs worn in Symbolic Lodges, in Chapters, Councils, and Commanderies are here appended.
In the lectures of the Second and Third Degrees, allusion is made to certain moral qualities, which, as they are intended to elucidate and impress the most important moral principles of the Degree, are for their great value called the Precious Jewels of a Fellow Craft and the Precious Jewels of a Master Mason. There are three in each Degree, and they are referred to by the Alarm. Their explanation is esoteric.
JEWISH RITES AND CEREMONIES.
A period of excitement in favor of the rites of Judaism centered upon and pervaded the people of various nations during the early portion of the fourteenth century. The ceremonies grew and took fast hold upon the minds of the Romans, and, combining with their forms, spread to Constantinople and northwest to Germany and France. The Jewish rites, traditions, and legends thus entered the mystic schools. It was during this period that the legend of Hiram first became known, according to Brother George H. Fort, and Jehovah's name, and mystic forms were transmitted from Byzantine workmen to Teutonic sodalities and German gilds.
Thus, also, when the Christian enthusiasm pervaded the North, Paganism gave way, and the formal toasts at the ceremonial banquets were drunk in the name of the saints in lieu of those of the Pagan gods.
JEWS, DISQUALIFICATION OF.
The great principles of religious and political toleration which peculiarly characterize Freemasonry would legitimately make no religious faith which recognized a Supreme being a disqualification for initiation. But, unfortunately, these principles have not always been regarded, and from an early period the German Lodges, and especially the Prussian, were reluctant to accord admission to Jews. This action has given great offense to the Grand Lodges of other countries which were more liberal in their views, and were more in accord with the Masonic spirit, and was productive of dissensions among the Freemasons of Germany, many of whom were opposed to this intolerant policy.
But a kindlier tolerance now prevails; and more recently the Grand Lodge of the Three Sobes at Berlin, the leading Masonic body of Prussia, has removed the interdict, and Judaism is there no longer a disqualification for initiation.
A Mohammedan sect in Turkey and Persia, which took its name from the founder, Jezeed, a chief who slew the sons of Ali, the father-in-law of Mohammed. They were ignorant in the extreme, having faith in both the Hebrew Bible and Moran; their hymns were addressed, without distinction, to Moses, Christ, or Mohammed.
or JETZIRAH, BOOK OF. The Hebrew spelling is tnssb NDD, meaning, Book of the Creation. A Cabalistic work, which is claimed by the Cabalists as their first and oldest code of doctrines although it has no real affinity with the tenets of t he Cabala. The authorship of it is attributed to the Patriarch Abraham; but the actual date of its first appearance is supposed to be about the ninth century Steinschneider says that it opens the literature of the Secret Doctrine. Its fundamental idea is, that in the ten digits and the twenty letters of the Hebrew alphabet we are to find the origin of all things. Landauer, a German Hebraist, thinks that the author of the Jetzirah borrowed his doctrine of numbers from the School of Pythagoras, which is very probable. The old Freemasons, it is probable, derived some of their mystical ideas of sacred numbers from this work.
J. N. R. I.
See I. N. R. I. Formerly the first letter J was preferred.
This, according to the legends of the advanced Degrees, was the name of the chief favorite of Solomon, who incurred the displeasure of Hiram of Tyre on a certain occasion, but was subsequentlv pardoned, and, on account of the great attachment he had shown to the person of his master, was appointed the Secretary of Solomon and Hiram in their most intimate relations. He was afterward still further promoted by Solomon, and appointed with Tito and Adoniram a Provost and Judge. He distinguished himself in his successful efforts to bring certain traitors to condign punishment, and although by his rashness he at first excited the anger of the king, he was subsequently forgiven, and eventually received the highest reward that Solomon could bestow, by being made an Elect, Perfect, and Sublime Freemason. The name is evidently not Hebrew, or must at least have undergone much corruption, for in its present form it cannot be traced to a Hebrew root. Lenning says (Encydopädie) that it is Johaben, or, more properly, Ihaoben, which he interprets the Son of God; but it would be difficult to find any such meaning according to the recognized rules of the Hebrew etymology.
JOACHIM, ORDER OF.
A secret association instituted in Germany near the end of the eighteenth century. Its recipients swore that they believed in the Trinity, and would never waltz. None but nobles, their wives and children, were admitted. It had no connection with Freemasonry.
The International Order of Job's Daughters was founded in 1920 in Omaha, Neb., by Mrs. Ethel T. Wead Mick. Job's Daughters began in an atmosphere of Masonry and the Order of the Eastern Star. The membership is composed of Masonic related teen-aged girls—12 to 20. It is International, as it has Bethels in 29 States in the Union, four Provinces in Canada and Australia. In 1951 there were 932 Chartered Bethels. California has the greatest number of Bethels (210), with some 22,000 active members and this State has Initiated over 70,000 girls; Illinois is next.
A term introduced by Doctor Oliver to designate the system of Freemasonry, of which the two Saints John are recognized as the patrons, and to whom the Lodges are dedicated, in contradistinction to the more recent system of Doctor Hemming, in which the dedication is to Moses and Solomon. Brother Oliver was much opposed to the change, and wrote an interesting work on the subject entitled A Mirror for the Johannite Masons, which was published in 1848. According to his definition, the system practised in the United States is Johannite Masonry.
A Masonico-religious sect established in Paris, in 1814, by Fabré-Paliprat, and attached to the Order of the Temple, of vhich he vas the Grand Master (see Levitikon and Temple, Order of the).
In the Charter of Cologne, it is said that before the year 1440 the society of Freemasons was known by no other name than that of John's Brothers Joannaeorum fratrum; that they then began to be called at Valenciennes, Free and Accepted Masons; and that at that time, in some parts of Flanders, by the assistance and riches of the brotherhood, the first hospitals were erected for the relief of such as were afflicted with Saint Anthony's fire. In another part of the Charter it is said that the authors of the associations were called Brothers consecrated to John, or in Latin fratres Joanni Sacros, because "they followed the example and imitation of John the Baptist."
Sometimes spelled Johnstone. An b adventurer, and Masonic charlatan, whose real name was Leucht. He assumed Freemasonry as a disguise under which he could carry on his impositions. He appeared first at Jena, in the beginning of the year 1763, and proclaimed that he had been deputed by the chiefs of Templar Freemasonry in Scotland to introduce a reform into the German Lodges. He established a Chapter of Strict Observance, the Rite then dominating in Germany, and assumed the dignity of Grand Prior. He made war upon Rosa, the founder of the Rosaic Rite, and upon the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes, which then sustained that enthusiast. Many of the German Lodges succumbed to his pretensions, and, surrendering their Warrants, gave in their adhesion to Johnson. Von Hund himself was at first deceived by him; but in 1764, at Altenberg, having discovered that Johnson had been formerly, under the name of Becker, the Secretary of the Prince of Bernberg, whose confidence he had betrayed; that during the seven years' war he had been wandering about, becoming, finally, the servant of a Freemason, whose papers he had stolen, and that by means of these papers he had been passing himself as that individual Brother von Hund denounced him as an impostor. Johnson fled, but was subsequently arrested at Magdeburg, and imprisoned in the fortress of Wartzberg, where in 1773, he died suddenly.
JOHN THE BAPTIST.
See Saint John the Baptist.
JOHN THE EVANGELIST.
See Saint John the Evangelist.
JOINVILLE, CHAILLOU DE.
See Chaillou de Coincide.
Hebrew,Fowler. The second son of Abraham and Keturah, whose sons appear to be the ancestors of the Sabeans and Dedanites, who inhabited part of Arabia Felix. Same as Jeksan.
JONATHAN AND DAVID, ORDER OF.
A Dutch Roman Catholic Order organized about 1770, vith statutes issued in 1773 at Amsterdam. The seven grades were: Ostearius, Lector, Exorcist, Acoluthus, Subdiaconus, Diaconus, and Summus Superior, or S. S., and the latter grade also known as Confederati, the head being a vicarius Summus.
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