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A Jewish belief that the Solomonian Temple was constructed by Divine means, that the stones were squared and polished by a specially created worm called samis, and that the stones by innate power came to the temple ground. and were placed in position by angelic aid. The worm has been designated the Insect Shermah.
See Jewels, Official..
See Sovereign Grand Inspector General.
The act by which an officer is put in possession of the place he is to fill. In Freemasonry it is, therefore, wapplied to the induction of one who has been elected into his office. The officers of a Lodge, before they can proceed to discharge their functions, must be installed. The officers of a new Lodge are instated by the Grand Master, or by some Past Master deputed by him to perform the ceremony. Formerly, the Master was installed by the Grand Master, the Wardens by the Grand Wardens, and the Secretary and Treasurer by the Grand Secretary and Treasurer; but now this custom is not continued. At the election of the officers of an old Lodge, the Master is installed by his predecessor or some Past Master present, and the Master Elect then installs his subordinate officers. No officer after his installation can resign. At his installation, the Master receives the Degree of Past Master. It is a law of Freemasonry that all officers hold on to their respective offices until their successors are instated. It is installation only that gives the right to exercise the franchises of an office.

The ceremony is an old one, and does not pertain exclusively to Freemasonry. The ancient Romans installed their priests, their kings, and their magistrates; but the ceremony was called inauguration, because performed generally by the augurs. The word installation is of comparatively modern origin, being medieval Latin, and is compounded of in and stallum, meaning a seat. Priests, after ordination or reception into the sacerdotal order, were installed into the churches or parishes to which they were appointed. The tertn as wed as the custom is stir in use.

Installation as a Masonic ceremony was early used. We find in the first edition of Anderson's Constitutions, a form of Constituting a Nets Lodge, which was practised by the Duke of Wharton, who was Grand Master in 1723. It was probably prepared by Desaguliers, who was Deputy, or by Anderson, who was one of the Wardens, and perhaps by both. It _ included the ceremony of installing the new Master w and Wardens. The words "Shall, in due form, install them" are found in this document. The usage then was for the Grand Master, or some Brother for him, to install the Master. and for the Master to install his Wardens; a custom which still exists.
Similar in form and identical in purpose to the Actual Past Masters Degree. Writing on the subject in Masonic Record, London, December, 1926, Brother Lionel Vibert says in part that "The full working of the Board of Installed Masters followed by Lodges in all parts of England except perhaps the South East. The present Grand Master states it is unknown to the Scottish Craft. The Minutes of Royal Cumberland No. 41, Bath, prove the use of the ceremony in 1827 (see the 1924 volume of the Somerset Master's Transactions, page 268). At Exeter the Minutes show the working in 1823, and it was no new thing. At Bristol there is evidence back to 1773, and in 1827 it was described in the Minutes of a Lodge."
An expression used in England to designate a Committee of Masters to whom "the Master Elect is presented that he may receive from his predecessor the benefit of installation." It is the same as the Emergent Lodge of Past Masters assembled in the United States for the same purpose.
The person who performs the ceremony of installation is thus called. He should be of the same official dignity at least; although necessity has sometimes permitted a Grand Master to be installed by a Past Deputy, who in such case acts as locum t«ens, the holder of the place, of a Grand Master. The Masonic rule is that anyone who has been installed into an office may install others into similar or inferior offices. In this it agrees with the old Rabbinical law as described by Mairnonides (Statute de Sanhedrim, chapter 4), who says: "Formerly, all Rabbis who had been installed, hasmochachim, could install others; but since the time of Hillel the faculty can be exercised only by those who have been invested with it by the Prince of the Grand Sanhedrim; nor then, unless there be two witnesses present, for an installation cannot be performed by less than three." So the strict Masonic rule requires the presence of three Past Masters in the complete installation of a Master and his investiture with the Past Master's Degree. The first Master of a new Lodge can be installed only by the Grand Master, or by a Past Master especially appointed by him and acting as his proxy.
It is the duty of the Master of the Lodge to give the necessary instruction to the candidate on his initiation. In some of the advanced Degrees and in the Continental Rites these instructions are imparted by an officer called the Orator; but the office is unknown in the English and American systems of Ancient Craft Freemasonry.
See Loge of Instruction.
Brother Oliver by this term defines a species of Freemasonry which is engaged in the study of mechanical instruments. But there is no authority in any other writer for the use of the term, nor is its necessity or relevancy apparent.
Masonic working tools have been called Instruments of Freemasonry.
Integrity of purpose and conduct is symbolized by the Plumb, which see.
This is a vice which is wholly incompatible with the Masonic character, and the habitual indulgence in which subjects the offender to the penalty of expulsion from the Order (see Temperance).
The French expression is Indendant du Bâtiment. This Degree is sometimes called Master in Israel. It is the Knighth in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Red is the emblematic color; and its principal officers, according to the old rituals, are a Thrice Puissant, representing Solomon; a Senior Warden, representing the Illustrious Tito, one of the Harodim; and a Junior Warden, representing Adoniram the son of Abda. But in the later rituals of the two Supreme Councils of the United States the three chief officers represent Adoniraxn, Joabert, and Stolkin; but in the working of the Degree the Past Officer assumes the character of Solomon. The legend of the Degree is, that it was instituted to supply the place of the chief architect of the Temple.
The obligations of Freemasonry are required to be taken with an honest determination to observe them; and hence the Freemason solemnly affirms that in assuming those responsibilities he does so without equivocation, secret evasion, or mental reservation.
See Preparation of the Candidate.
Those qualifieations of a candidate which refer to a condition known only to himself, and which are not patent to the world, are CaAAed internal qualifications.. They are: That he comes forward by his own free-will and accord, and unbiased by the solicitations of others; that he is not influenced by mercenary motives, and that he has a disposition to conform to the usages of the Order. The knowledge of these can only be obtained from his own statements, and hence they are included in the preliminary questions which are proposed before initiation.
In Gerrnan the title is Die Freimaurerische Weltgeschäftsstelle, and in French Le Bureau International de Relations Maçonniques. This was organized by the authority of the Grand Lodge Alpina of Switzerland on January 1, 1903. The officer in charge was Brother Edouard Quartier-la-Tente, of Neuchatel, where the headquarters were located. He died January 19, 1925. Born in New York in 1855, his father was a founder of La Sincérité Lodge there. Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Alpina of Switzerland, a member of the Supreme Council of the Thirty-third Degree, he had also been General Representative since its organization of the International Bureau for Masonic Affairs. Director of the Secondary and Higher Schools of Neuchatel, Professor of Theology, and Director of Public Education, he had taken an active part in civic and Masonic life. For fifteen years he edited the Masonic Journal Alpina.
The program of the Bureau was announced as the following:
  • 1. Facilitate fraternal intercourse between Masonie Powers.
  • 2. Favor the development of Masonic ideas.
  • 3. Collect all obtainable information about the organization and activity of Freemasonry everywhere.
  • 4. Draw up a list of Grand Orients, Grand Lodges and Supreme Councils.
  • 5. Catalogue the Masonic periodicals of all countries
  • 6. Collect the documents necessary for an abridged history of Freemasonry everywhere.
  • 7. Acquire new adhesions among the Masonic Powers in favor of the Bureau.
  • 8. Publish the Bulletin frequently.
  • 9. Publish in the Bulletin the important facts which mark the activity of Freemasonry.
  • l0. Give series of practical and historical questions for discussion in the Lodges.
  • 11. Develop the exchange of interesting works.
  • 12. Spread the knowledge of useful newspapers, doeuments, and transactions.
  • 13. Found a library of all Masonic works.
  • 14. Study the Masonic Rites and Rituals.
  • 15. Publish a correct Annual of Freemasonry every year.
  • 16. Translate the most useful Masonic works into various languages.
To be admitted as members of the Bureau the regular Masonic Powers only had to send for the Act of Adhesion and signal it, at the same time contributing an optional annual subscription. This gave the right to receive all the publications of the Bureau, and to ask for any information that might be useful to them, without further charge.

But such uncertain donations were insufficient to meet the needs of so ambitious a program. Nevertheless the Bulletin appeared, even if irregularly, and was in English, French, and German, with occasional Esperanto, the international or auxiliary language, altogether a polyglot combination that with all these tongues must have proved most perplexing to the Editor. An Annual or Calendar edition was published and this cataloging of Masonic Bodies was praiseworthy though the desired information was difficult to get and therefore the returns were of uneven value as a showing of Freemasonry everywhere. Some pamphlets were produced, as an outline of Freemasonry in Eastern Europe. Yet up to his death Brother La-Tente was at his post, his last effort immediately at his seizure being to append his signature at the office to a message for the writer of these lines. He was succeeded in office by Brother Max Gottschalk of Brussels, Belgium (see the Masonic International Association).
An agreement entered into by the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland with the Grand Lodge of England in July 1814. The object of the Compact was to place on record the fact that the United Grand Lodge of England, formed by a coalition of the Antients and Moderns, was in perfect accord with the other two parties to the agreement. Before the union of the two Grand Lodges of England that known as the Moderns had not been in agreement with Scotland and Ireland. Eight articles were specified in the International Compact pertaining to the Degrees of pure ancient Freemasonry, limits of jurisdiction, etc.
This was organized in Europe by Masonic officials but independently of Grand Lodges in the hope of securing a permanent peace among the nations, and to that end to promote mutual understanding, cultivate the sense of knowing one another, and strengthen the will for ala to again join hands together. Meetings were held annually before the World War for several years and these assemblies were renewed in December, 1924, when Brethren from France, Germany, Holland, Luxembourg and Switzerland met to discuss the possibility of any practical plan of reconciliation. A Board or International Committee was appointed to consist of a representative of every nation active in this moves ment and National Committees in every separate country were contemplated. A second meeting was held at Basle, Switzerland, in August, 1925.
Organized in 1919 with headquarters at 813 Republicbuilding, Louisville, Kentucky (see-Light, March 1-15, 1919, published at Louisville), the main object announced as the practical application of Masonic principles (see also Magian Society).
The Latin name is Into mus Initiatus. The Fourth Degree of the Order of w the Temple.
The French title is Secretaire Intime. The Sixth Degree in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Its emblematic color is black, strewed with tears; and its collar and the lining of the apron are red. Its officers are only three: SolomonJ King of Israel; Hiram, King of Tyre; and a Captain of the Guards. Its history records an instance of unlawful curiosity, the punishment of which was only averted by the previous fidelity of the offender. The legend in this Degree refers to the cities in Galilee which were presented by Solomon to Hiram, King of Tyre; and with whose character the latter was so dis pleased that he called them the Land of Cabul.
This is the arch-enemy of Freemasonry. Toleration is one of the chief foundation stones of the Fraternity, and Universality and Brotherly Love are ever taught. Notwithstanding this fact, Intolerance has ever had its grip upon the brotherhood, and insidiously does its silent and undermining work. Human powers are limited or circumscribed. Man by nature is weak, and is largely the creature of early education; yet no institution has such resisting power and is of such avail as Freemasonry against that great enemy of man, which has destroyed more of the human race than any other evil power. The synonym may be found in the Third and Tenth Degrees, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
Officers in a Lodge of Adoption, whose functions resemble those of a Master of Ceremonies.
A ritualistic word.
In some of the French documents of the advanced Degrees the letters of some words were inverted—not apparently for concealment, but as a mere caprice. Hence Thory (Fondation, page 128) calls them Inuersions Enfantines meaning childish inversions. Thus they wrote Deals uossa for Rosse crucis. But in all French cahiers and rituals, or, as they call them, tuiEeurs, wordsare inverted; that is, the letters are transposed for purposes of secrecy. Thus they would write Nomolos for Solomon, and Marih for Hiram. This was also a custom among the Cabalists and the Alchemists to conceal secret words.
Reference may well be made in this connection to what is said elsewhere in this work regarding Candidate. The subject is of the utmost importance to Freemasons and many Lodges supplement so far as this is deemed proper the work of the usual Investigating Committees. Such additional Committees often carry on an investigation of their own in an independent manner but this is not to say that more or less co-operation of the various Brethren is impracticable in a working combination if this is desired, in fact any and all other available Masonic means are justifiable of making successful inquiries about the qualifications of petitioners for the Degrees.

These supplementary or Advisory Committees, as they are sometimes called, are commonly permanent; that is they are not as in the case of the Investigating Committees specifically appointed to consider but one individual but may examine into all the cases, few or many, referred to them for study. Naturally this task is of such a character that the Advisory Committees frequently are wholly comprised of the older Brethren of the Lodge or they are principally selected from that experienced class of the membership. They may be past or present officers of the Lodge though the doubling or overlapping of responsible duties, active officers of the Lodge serving also on committees, is as a rule avoided in order that Brethren may not be overburdened with exacting labor and that the work may be the better divided among the various members.

Of course the purpose is not to interfere and certainly not to dominate or control the work of the Investigating Committee but to add whatever aid may be at hand, to do just what the words Advisory Committee suggest. Behind this appointment and lending pressure to it is the paramount thought among many Brethren that too much care cannot well be devoted to the preliminary labor, that before the ballot has been passed is a proper time to make all the requisite search into the worthiness of the applicant for membership.

The foregoing general statement would not be complete without specimens of the forms used by one of the Lodges employing this co-operative investigation of the Candidate. ThesE are given herewith. First is the notice sent by the Secretary of the Lodge to the members of the Investigating Committee on their appointment by their \ orshipful Masters Such a blank, eight and a half by four and a half inches over all, for the appointment of a member on an Investigating Committee is here reproduced in Figure 1 to illustrate the praetise of Tyrian Lodge No. 307 at Cleveland, Ohio.
Figure 9 is the blank, eleven by eight and a half inches over all, signed bs an applicant at the close of a personal interview before the Advisory Committee, whose Chairman appends his nature to the report, favorable or unfavorable as it may be. The questions may be taken as fairly representative though there is no absolute uniformity of practise between the several Lodges known to us that have followed this plan of investigation. Figure 3 is a small blank, loose-leaf style, three by five and a half inches over all, as a convenient pocket memorandum record for the Lodge Secretary a similar thing would be useful to the Worshipful Master, particularly in a large Lodge, for temporary reference while the Candidate progresses.
The presentation of an apron to a candidate in the ceremony of initiation.
The Degree of Knights of the Christian Mark, formerly conferred in the United States, was called the Invincible Order, and the title of the presiding officer was Invincible Knight.
French expression, meaning The Invisibles. A secret Order of which little is known. Thory (Acta Latomorum i, page 319) quotes a German writer, who says: "C'est la secte la plus danyereuse; les receptions des initiés se font la nuit, sous une voUte souterraine, et la doctrine des initians preche l'athéisme et Me suicide," meaning, "This is a most dangerous organization; the candidates are initiated at night, within an underground vault, and the doctrine of the initiated extols atheism and suicide." We need say no more upon this subject, and believe the society "sleeps the sleep that knows no waking."
The Rev. Jethro Inwood was Curate of Saint Paul's at Deptford, in England. He was born about the year 1767, and initiated into Freemasonry in 1785 as a Lewis, according to Brother Oliver. He was soon after appointed Chaplain of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Kent, an office which he held for more than twenty years, during which time he delivered a great number of sermons on festival and other occasions.
A volume of these sermons was published in 1799, with a portrait of the author, under the title of Sermons, in which are explained and enforced the religious, moral, and political virtues of Freemasonry, preached upon several occasions before the Provincial Grand Officers and other Brethren in the Counties of Kent and Essex. An edition of these sermons was published by Dr. George Oliver, in 1849, in the fourth volume of his Golden Remains. These sermons are written, to use the author's own expression, "in a language that is plain, homely, and searching but, in Masonic character, surpass the generality of sermons called Masonic, simply because they have been preached before the Craft. Doctor Oliver describes him as "an assiduous Mason, who permitted no opportunity to pass unimproved of storing his mind with useful knowledge, or of imparting instruction to those who needed it."
A chain of islands along the western and southern shores of Greece. Freemasonrs appears to have been founded at Corfu, by a Lodge, Loge de Saint Napoléon, under the Grand Orient of France, in 1809, with a second Lodge in 1810.
One of the three Greeian Orders, and the one that takes the highest place in Masonic symbolism. Its distinguishing characteristic is the volute of its capital, and the shaft is cut into twenty flutes separated by fillets. It is more delicate and araceful than the Dories and more simply majestic than the Corinthian. The judgment and skill displaved in its construction, as combining the strength of the former with the beauty of the latter, has caused it to be adopted in Freemasonry as the symbol of Wisdom. and being placed in the East of the Lodge it is referred to as represented by the Worshipful Masters

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