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INDEPENDENT AND REGULAR NATIONAL GRAND LODGE OF FRANCE AND THE FRENCH COLONIES.
The French title of this organization is Grande Loge Nationale Indépendante et Reguliere pour la France et les Colonies Française. Grand Master D. E. Ribaucourt sent us the following information:
"Desirous of working in France outside of all compromise of political or atheistical character, some Brother French freemasons had in 1910 revived the practise of the old Rite of the Rectified Regime, which is a deistic system. This regular Rite among us had been practised in France by numerous Lodges since the commencement of the eighteenth century. Lodges of that type have been put to sleep in France since 1841. They bequeathed their powers to the Grand Rectified Directory of Geneva, Switzerland in order that the Lodges of France should be awakened when the time was opportune.
That was done in 1910 by the Grand Rectified Directory of Geneva, which created the Respectable Rectified Lodge Le Centre des Amis at the Orient of Paris. Thereupon the Grand Orient of France, preoccupied with the foundation of a new order of things, proposed to us a double Constitution guaranteeing the integrity of our Rituals of 1782, and the free exercise of the symbols of the Grand Architect of the Universe Turing these three years, l9l0-3, our Rite made much progress in France. In June, 1913, the Council of the Order of the Grand Orient of France violated the solemn promises of 1910 and imposed upon us new rituals, in which the opening and closing invocations had the symbol of the Grand Architect of the Universe suppressed. We carried our case before the Masonic Convent of the Grand Orient in 1913, and we were forbidden to use our old-time rituals.
The Orator of the Convent of the Grand Orient of France declared at that time amid the plaudits of the assemblage that the symbol of the Grand Architect of the Universe was contrary to the Constitution of the Grand Orient of Franee. To defend our menaced Masonic faith and to safeguard the traditions of our Order, we have been obliged to constitute ourselves in October, 1913, into the Independent and Regular National Grand Lodge. The Respectable Rectified Lodge, Le Centre des Amis of Paris, of which records exist as far as 1762, took the initiative and was promptly followed by the Respectable Lodge, L'Anglais No. 204, at Bordeaux, w hich existed in 1732. Some new Lodges have combined with us, and will adhere to the course of our action. We shall work after a just and perfect fashion in order to afford a sanctuary in Franee to Brothers believing in the Grand Architect of the Universe, loving and respecting His symbol, and also to resume with those abroad the chain of union so unfortunately broken between French Freemasons and those of other lands.
We have imposed and shall impose upon our Lodges the following obligations
1. During the work. the Bible shaN be constantly open upon the altar at the first chapter of Saint John.
2. The ceremonies shall strictly conform to the Ritual of the Rectified Regime which we practice, revised in 1778 and approved in 1782.
3. The communications shall always be opened and closed with the invocation and in the name of the Grand Architect of the Universe, and Lodges shall insert in a space in their announcements, documents, the inscription A. L. G. D. G. A. D. l'U, these being the initials of the French words meaning, to the glory of the Grand Architect of the Univerce.
4. No religious or political discussion shall be allowed in the Lodges.
5. The Brethren shall never officially as a Lodge take part in political matters, but each Brother shall reserve and guard his entire liberty of action.
6. Lodges of this Obedience only receive as visitors the Brethren belonging to the regular Obedenioes recognized by the Grand Lodge of England.
"In answer to our appeal, the Grand Lodge of England and its very Respectable Grand Master recognized us on November 20, 1913, as the only regular Masonic Power in France, and the announcement was made at the Centenary of that very Re spectable Grand Lodge on December 3, 1913" (see France) .
An extensive peninsula of Southern Asia. The Grand Lodge of England authorized Brother George Pomfret in 1728 to open a Lodge in Bengal. Captain Ralph Farwinter, Pomfret's successor, was appointed Provincial Grand Master of India in 1730. The records of this Provincial Grand Lodge are not extant but even previous to this time Lodges had been constituted at various places.
A Dutch Body, the Grand Lodge of Solomon at Chinsura, was always most friendly to the Bengal Lodge and at times the two worked a joint ceremony.
January 25, 1781, was the date of the last meeting of the Bengal Provincial Grand Lodge before the war in the Carnatic proved the cause of the downfall of all but Industry and Perseverance Lodge in Calcutta. July 18, 1785, the Provincial Grand Lodge reopened and Freemasonry began an uphill struggle to regain its former strength. In 1794 the Provincial Grand Lodge controlled nine Lodges, from the first two of which its officers were always chosen. This caused ill feeling and a secession of several Lodges took place. It disappeared for a time but was re-established in 1813 by the Earl of Moira. The Provincial Grand Master returned to England in 1826 and the loss of all proper authority gradually brought about a failure of communication between the Bengal Provincial Grand Lodge and the Grand Lodge of England.
The earlier groupings of the Lodges overseas in India and other countries were designated as in the records of the Grand Lodge as Provinces but since 1866 these have been termed Districts to distinguish them from the Provinces in England itself.
The Grand Lodge of Ireland issued a Charter for a Lodge in 1837 at Kurnaul but this did not survive.
A Lodge at Madras was chartered from England in 1755, and in 1766 a Provincial Grand Master, Captain Edmond Pascal, was appointed.
A Lodge was warranted for Bombay under English authority in 1758 and Brother James Todd was appointed Provincial Grand Master in 1763.
The Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1836 appointed Dr. James Burnes of the Indian Medical Service as Provincial Grand Master of Western India and its Dependencies, and a Provincial Grand Lodge came into being on January 1, 1838. A Provincial Grand Lodge of Eastern India was also created to control Masonic matters on behalf of the Grand Lodge of Scotland and of this Body also Doctor Burnes became the head, and in 1846 he was duly invested as Provincial Grand Master for all India. He was the author of a Sketch of the History of the Knights Tetreplar in 1844 and was also the founder of a fraternal organization having three classes of members, Novice, Companion, and Officer, and known as the Brotherhood of the Olive Branch of the East. Natives of India joined the Craft, and Rising Star Lodge at Bombay and Saint Andrew's Lodge at Poona were set up West and East in 1844 for that purpose and soon followed by others. Some prominent natives of India have become Freemasons. Among these are the son of the Nabob of Arcot, Umdat-ul-Umara, Prince Keyralla, Khanof Mysore, Prince Shadad Khan, the former Ameer of Scinde, Maharajah Duleep, and Maharajah Rundeer Sing.
The first Lodge in Indiana was organized at Vincennes by Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, August 27, 1807, as Sincennes Lodge, No. 15. Prior to this, however, Freemasonry had been introduced by Brethren belonging to Lodges in the army on the northwestern frontier. A Convention of representatives of the following Lodges of Ancient York Masons was held at Corydon on December 3, 1817, to consider the establishment of a Grand Lodge: Vincennes, No. 15; Lawrenceburg, Nso. 44; Madison Union, No. 29; Blazing Star, Is-o. 36; Melchizedeek, No. 43; Pisgah, No. 45. Three Lodges under dispensations Switzerland, RisinEs Sun and Brookville Harmona, also sent representatives and it was resolved to open a Grand Lodge. On January 12, 1818, arrangements were completed. The Id following dav Grand Officers were elected with M. W. Alexander Buckner as Grand Master, and the Grand Constitution was adopted January 15. Since 1825 this Grand Lodge has had permanent quarters at Indianapolis but before then it met at Charlestown and elsewhere.
According to the proceedings of the General Grand Chapter on September 14, 1826, a Charter was granted to Vincennes Chapter on May 13, 1820. At the twelfth Convocation of the General Grand Chapter in 1St4, permission was granted for a Convention of Chapter representatives to assemble on November 18, 1845, and the Grand Chapter of Indiana was duly constituted on December °5, 1845. At the meeting of the General Grand Chapter the General Grand Secretary stated that, according to the records of 1819, Dispensations were said to have been granted for Chapters at Madison and Brookville which were not ratified and therefore the Chapters ceased to exist in a legal sense. They were supposed, however, to have continued their labors for some years and, with another Chapter established at Vincennes, to have organized a Grand Chapter in 1823. Of this there was no documentary evidence, but the General Grand Chapter granted Madison Chapter a legal Charter on September 12, 1844.
The Council Degrees in Indiana were at first given in the Chapter work but, after the General Grand Chapter decided in 1853 to give up control of the Cryptic Degrees, Councils were chartered by the Grand Council of Kentucky, August 30, 1854, and by the Grand Council of Ohio, October 18, 1B55. The three Councils thus organized sent delegates to a meeting on December 20, 1855, when the Grand Council of Indiana was formed.
The first Commandery to be organized in Indiana mas Roper, No. 1, at Indianapolis, which was granted a Dispensation May 14, 1848. It was chartered October 16, 1850. With three others, Greensburg, No. 2; La Fayette, No. 3, and Fort Wayne, No. 4, this Commandery organized the Grand Commandery of Indiana on May 16, 1854, by authority of the Grand Encampment.
On May 19, 1865, the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite became part of the Masonic life of Indiana when the Adoniram Lodge of Perfection, the Saraiah Council of Princes of Jerusalem, the Indianapolis Chapter of Rose Croixs and the Indiana Consistory were established at Indianapolis by the Supreme Council, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction.
An Indian or Hindu year begins in April, thus: First Vaisakha, April 13; First Jyaishtha, May 14; First Ashadha, June 14; First Sravana, July 16; First Bhadrapada, August 16; First Asvina, September 16; First Kartlika, October 17; First Agrahayana or Margasirsha, November 16; First Pansha, December 15; First Magha, January 13; First Phalguna, February 15; First Caitra, March 13. The days of the week, commencing with Sunday, are Aditya, Soma, Mangala, Budha, Guru, Sukra, and Sani. The Hindu Era, until April 13, 1885, was 1937.
There is no doubt that Indians have been Freemasons, and devoted ones. But the claim has been made that there are Indian customs of so decided Masonie a character that a Freemason would at once assume their identity with the ceremonies of the Craft. The subject has been treated in a book, Indian Masonry, by Brother Robert C. Wright, who describes a number of Indian signs, for example, and he arrives at this conclusion (page 18);
It can thus be readily understood that Masonic signs which are simply gestures given to convey ideas, no doubt have taken their origin from the same signs or like signs no v corrupted but which meant something different in the beginning. Were we able to trace these signs we would then at once jump to the conelusion that the people who used them were Freemasons the same as we ourselves. The signs which have just been mentioned as given by the Indians could easily be mistaken for Masonic signs by an enthusiastic Freemason, more anxious to find what he thinks is in them than to indulge in sober analysis of the sign and its meaning. A ceremonial sign for peace, friendship, or brotherhood was made by the extended fingers separated, interlocked in front of the breast, the hands horizontal with the backs outward. When this sign is represented as a pictograph, we have on the Indian chart what corresponds exactly to the clasped hands on the Masonic chart. which means the same thing.
On the next page Brother Wright gives some attention to the study of things that may resemble each other and yet not be identicaL For instance, he says:
Charles Frush, a Freemason who spent many years among the Indians of Oregon and Washington, told me he had never seen any Masonic sign given by Indians, and if any one claimed he had seen such, it was misunderstood and was for conversational purposes. In response to an inquiry about a report that Indians who had gone East many years ago, upon returning to Lewiston, Idaho, had formed a Masonie Lodge, T. W. Randall, Grand Secretary of A. F. &; A. M. in Idaho, wrote me as follows: "I was in Lewiston as early as 1862 and heard of Indian Freemasons but was never able to trace this to a reliable source. I have frequently discussed this question with old pioneers of Oregon and Washington but never found a person who was a Freemason, and who believed the Indians ever were Freemasons or had a Lodge. That some Tribes have certain signs by which they can recognize each other, there can be no doubt, but those signs are not Masonic signs so far as I ean learn." Brother Randall has thus correctly determined that the signs he refers to are nothing more than conversational signs. The different Tribes had a sign which stood for their totem or the name of their Tribe, and it is very easily understood that an Indian of the same Tribe on seeing his tribal sign, would recognize the one giving it as a fellow tribesman. Indians of a different Tribe, familiar with it, would also recognize the sign and in turn could give their own sign and thus each know where the other "hails from."
There is nothing strange about it.
The closing chapter by Brother Wright sums up the "Lessons," as he heads it, we may derive from a Masonic study of the American Indian. He says on pages 108 and 109:
There is no Indian Freemasonry. There is Indian Freemasonry. This wide difference I make clear when I say, no Indian Freemasonry as the average man understands it, but there is a deep Indian Freemasonry for lum who seeks to find it.
Shall we Freemasons, who tell the E. A. of the universality of Freemasonry, dare to say that the Indian is not a Freemason? An interesting institution was found among the Wyandottes and some other tribes—that of fellowship. Two young men agree to be friends forever, or more than Brothers. Each tells the other the Hecrets of his life, advises him on important matters and defends him froth wrong and violence and at his death is his chief mourner. Here are, in full reality, all the elements of a Masonic Lodge. Those men were Freemasons in their hearts. There is no Indian Freemasonry in that small and narrow sense which most of us think of, that is, one who pays Lodge dues, wears an apron like ours and gives signs so nearly like ours that we find him perforce a l; reemason in any degree or degrees we know, and which degrees we are too prone to watch, just as we do a procession of historical floats, which casually interest us and maybe a little more so if we can but secure a place sit the head of the procession the true meaning of whieh we have but a faint idea about. This makes our own Freemasonrv as meaningless as the inter pretation of Indian signs by an ignorant trapper.
In a paper on the North American Indians, their Beliefs and Ceremonies Akin to Freemasonry, read by Brother F. C. Van Duzer on April 10, 1924, at a meeting of the Metropolitan College, London, England, and printed in the Transactions of that year (pages 18 to 27), the author examines several interestsing kindred customs of the Indians of Worth Arnerica and the Masonic Craft. He also furnishes some valuable particulars of the initiation of North American Indians into Freemasonry according to the Rites of the Craft. Brother Van Duzer says:
The first American Indian, of whom there is a definite record of having become a Master Mason, is Joseph Brant, the famous Mohawk, lroquois, Chief, whose native name was Thayendanega, and who was a brotherin-law of Sir William Johnson, who married as his second wife Molly Brant, Joseph Brant's sister. Brant was born in Ohio in 1742, and was the son of Nickus, Indian for Nicholas, a full-blooded Mohawk of the Wolf family who is said to be a grandson of one of the five Sachems who visited England in 1710 and was presented to Queen Anne. He was initiated in the Hiram's Cliftonian Lodge, No. 41 " Moderns holden in Princes Street, in Leicester Fields, London, on April 26, 1776.
His Grand Lodge Certificate was signed by Joseph Heseltine, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of the Moderns. die was a member of Lodge No. 10, Hamilton, Canada, and No. 11, Mohawk Village, of which he was first Master. He translated, among other works, the Gospel of Saint Mark into the Mohawk language in 1776. Brother Brant was buried in the Mohawk Church, Mohawk Village, and the Freemasons restored the vault or tomb in 1850, placing an appropriate inscription on it. It is stated that Brant's Masonic apron was presented to him by King George III. The Lodge at Hudson, New York, has upon its walls a painting of Brother Brant, and in its archives is the story of his friendship for Colonel McKinistry, whose life he once saved through recognition of the Sign of D. It is also related of Brother Brant that during General John Sullivan's raid on the Iroquois in 1779 he recognized the Sign of D, as given by Lieutenant Boyd, who with Sergeant Parker, was captured by the Indians. He saved them from immediate death, but having been called away, the captives were placed in the charge of the noted Tory, Butler, who, exasperated because they would give him no information with regard to their Army, handed them over to the Indians, who tortured them to death.
It is further claimed that the famous Seneca orator, Red Jacket, a contemporary of Brother Brant, was a Freemason, but the probability is that he was only an entered Apprentice. Certain it is that on the village sites of the Iroquois of Colonial times. Masonie emblems have been discovered that have evidently been in possession of the Indians. There is in the Tioga Point Museum at Athens, Pennsvlvania, an emblem of the Royal Arch, found in an Indian grave in the immediate vicinity, and which probably dates from the period of the American Revolution. It is known that a great Masonic student in America has in his posession trio somewhat conventional Masonic emblems, showing the square and compasses hammered and cut from a silver coin by an Iroquois silversmith, and it was obtained from the Seneca Indians. Many other similar emblems have been seen and noted among the Indians.
Masonic history holds records of a number of Delaware Indians who were Freemasons. One of these v, as a member of the Munsey division who was named John Ronkerpot, who impoverished himself to help the American cause during the Revolution, and who later received Masonic aid. George Copway, the Ojibway was an ardent Freemason.
Shabbonee, the Pottawatomi who saved the early settlers of Chicago from the Sauk chief, Black Hawk, is known to have been a freemason and tradition claims the famous Black Hawk himself as such but that is doubtful. General Eli S. Parker, the Seneca Chief, who entered the American Civil War as a private and came out as Aide-de-Camp and Secretary to General Grant, is a very good example of an American Indian Freemason. His distinguished nephew, Archie C Parker, State Archaeologist of New Cork, whose native name was Gazoasauana or Great Star Shaft, has recently been elevated to the Thirty-Third Degree, perhaps the first American Indian to receive that signal honor. I should like to refer to one or two other prominent Freemasons, and among them the Cherokee Chiefs, Ross Bushyhead, Hayes and Pleasant Porter. Gabe E. Parker, Registrar of the United States Treasury, a Chickasaw Indian, and James Muriel a Pawnee, may also be mentioned. On November 10, 1923, Kenwood Lodge No. 303, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, conferred the Degree of Master Mason upon Amos Oneroad, whose native name was Jinxing Cloud a full-blooded Sioux Indian.
They conferred this Degree on behalf of Hiawatha Lodge So. 434, of Mount Vernon, New York. Amos Oneroad comes of a distinguished stock. His grandfather, Blue Medicine. was the first of his Tribe to welcome the white man to their country, and his Chief's medal, together with an American Flag with thirteen stars and a Certificate of good character, are still treasured by his descendants. Brother Oneroad's father, Peter Oneroad was a warrior of great distinction, having earned practically every honor that is possible to the Sioux and Dakota Nations. It is related that once, at the head of a small party, he completely overwhelmed a large body of the warriors of the Ponea Tribe and personally killed both of their Chiefs. In other accounts it is stated that he dared the fire of the enemy to secure the body of a wounded comrade. Again, he rescued an Indian girl from freezing, carrying her ninety miles on his back over the snow-swept plain. Brother Oneroad had the advantage of a good education. He was a graduate of the Haskell Institute, at Lawrence, Kansas, and of the Bible Teachers' Training School in New York; and he became an ordained minister of the Presbyterian Church. He has been a good and steadfast friend. In fact, that is the literal meaning of his name, for One Road signified steads fast among the Sioux.
Thus from primitive and ancient rites akin to Freemasonry, which had their origin in the shadows of the distant past, the American Indian is graduating into Free and Accepted Masonry as it has been taught to us. It is an instructive example of the universality of human belief in fraternity, morality and immortality.
General Eli S. Parker, the Seneca Chief, to whom I have previously referred, in alluding to himself at a banquet, said, "I am almost the sole remnant of what was once a noble race, which is rapidly disappearing as the dew before the morning sun. I found my race melting away and I asked myself, 'Where shall I find home and sympathy when our last Council fire is extinguished?' I said, 'I will knock at the door of Freemasonrv and see if the white race will recognize me as they did my ancestors when we were strong and the white man weak.' I knocked at the door of the Blue Lodge and found Brotherhood around its altar. I went betore the Great Light in the Chapter and found companionship beneath the Royal Arch. I entered the Encampment and found there valiant Sir Knights willing to shield me without regard to race or nation. If my race shall disappear from the continent I have a consoling hope that our memory shall not perish. If the deeds of my ancestors shall not live in stories their memories will remain in the names of our lakes and rivers, pour towns and cities, and will call up memories otherwise forgotten. I am happy; I feel assured that when my glass is run out I shall follow the footsteps of my departed race, Masonic sympathizers will cluster around my coffin and drop in my lonely grave the evergreen acacia, sweet emblem of a better meeting."
Brother Van Duzer says further: "I desire to express mv grateful thanks to R. W. Brother Alanson Skinner; the eminent anthropologist of Milwaukee United States of America, for the great assistance he has rendered me."
This organization flourished in the middle of the eighteenth century in France The rites were of a quasi-Masonic character and both men and women were eligible to membership- The badge was a ribbon, striped black, white and yellow, and the device was an imitation of an icicle. One of the oaths taken by the members was to fight against Love, whose power thev renounced. Mdlle. Salle, a famous danseuse, wars President for a time.
or INDIAN MYSTERIES. In the German Cyclopedia we find the following: The East Indians have still their mysteries. which it is very probable they received from the ancient Egyptians. These mysteries are in the possession of the Brahmans, and their ancestors were the ancient Brachmen.
It is only the sons-of these priests who are eligible to initiation. Had a grown-up youth of the Braehmen sufficiently hardened his body, learned to subdue his passions, and given the requisite proofs of his abilities at school, he must submit to an especial proof of his for etitude before he was admitted into the mysteries, which proofs were given in a cavern. A second cavern in the middle of a high hill contained the statues of nature, which were neither made of gold, nor of silver, nor of earth, nor of stone, but of a very hard material resembling wood, the composition of which was unknown to any mortal.
These statues are said to have been given by God to His Son, to serve as models by which He might form all created beings. Upon the crown of one of these statues stood the likeness of Bruma, who was the same with them as Osiris was with the Egyptians. The inner part, and the entrance also into this cavern, was quite dark, and those who wished to enter into it were obliged to seek the way with a lighted torch. A door led into the inner part, on the opening of which the water that surrounded the border of the cavern broke loose. If the candidate for initiation was worthy, he opened the door quite easily, and a spring of the purest water flowed gently upon him and purified him. Those, on the contrary who were guilty of any crime, could not open the door; and if they were candid, they confessed their sins to the priest, and besought him to turn away the anger of the gods by praying and fasting.
In this cavern, on a certain day, the Brachmen held their annual assembly. Some of them dwelt constantly there- others came there only in the spring and harvest— conversed with each other upon the doctrines contained in their mysteries, contemplated the hieroglyphics upon the statues and endeavored to decipher them. Those among the initiated who were in the lowest degrees, and who could not comprehend the sublime doctrines of one God, worshipped the sun and other inferior divinities. This was also the religion of the common people. The Brahmans, the present inhabitants of India, those pure descendants of the ancient Braehmen, do not admit any person into their mysteries without having first diligently inquired into his character and capabilities, and duly proved his fortitude and prudence. No one could be initiated until he had attained a certain age; and before his initiation the novice had to prepare himself by prayer, fasting, and almsgiving, and other good works, for many days.
When the appointed day arrived he bathed himself and went to the Guru, or chief Brahman, who kept one of his own apartments ready in which to perform this ceremony. Before he was admitted he was asked if he earnestly desired to be initiated—if it was not curiosity which induced him to do so—if he felt himself strong enough to perform the ceremonies which would be preseribed to him for the whole of his life, without the exception of a single day. He was at the same time advised to defer the ceremony for a time, if he had not sufficient confidence in his strength. If the youth continued firm in his resolution, and showed a zealous disposition to enter into the paths of righteousness, the Guru addressed a charge to him upon the manner of living, to which he was about to pledge himself for the future. He threatened him with the punishment of heaven if he conducted himself wickedly; promised him, on the eontrary, the most glorious rewards if he would constantly keep the path of righteousness. After this exhortation, and having received his pledge, the eandidate was conducted to the prepared chamber, the door of which stood open, that all those who assembled might participate in the offering about to be made.
Different fruits were thrown into the fire, while the High Priest. with many ceremonies, prayed that God might be present with them in that sacred place. The Guru then conducted the youth behind a curtain, both having their heads covered, and then gently pronounced into his ear a word of one or two syllables, which he was as gently to repeat into the ear of the Guru, that no other person might hear it. In thts word was the prayer avhich the initiated was to repeat as often as he could for the whole day, yet in the greatest stillness and without ever moving the lips. :Neither durst he discover this sacred word unto any person.
No European has ever been able to discover thus word, so sacred is this secret to them. When the newly initiated has repeated this command several times, then the chief Brahman instructs him in the ceremonies, teaches him several songs to the honor of God, and finally dismisses him with many exhortations to pursue a virtuous course of life (see Paris) .
Southeast of Asia and south of China, including the protectorates of Annam, Tongking and Cambodia, the colony of Cochin China, and part of the Laos country. At Saigon, Cochin China, the Grand Orient of France established a Lodge in 1868, Le Réveil de l'Orient, meaning in English The Awakening of the East, and the Grand Lodge of France also warranted a Lodge there in 1908, La Ruche d'Orient, meaning The Beehive of the East. On December 8, 1886, the Grand Orient of France erected a Lodge at Hanoi, La Fraternité Tonkinoise, a title meaning The Tonking Brotherhood; a Lodge at Haiphong on July 21, 1892, L'Etoile du Tonking, meaning in English TheSlar of Tonking, and on Mareh 20, 1906, another at Pnom-Penh, L'Avenir Khmer, meaning The Coming Cambodia, Pnom-Penh being the capital of Cambodia or Khmer.
This word has more than one meaning:
1. The Master of a Lodge, when installed into office, is said to be inducted into the Oriental Chair of lQing Solomon. The same term is applied to the reception of a candidate into the Past Master's Degree. The word is derived from the language of the law, where the giving a clerk or parson possession of his benefice is called his induction.
2. Induction is also used to signify initiation into the Degree called Thrice IUustrious Order of the Cross.
The Senior and Junior Inductors are officers in a Council of the Thrice Illustrious Order of the Cross, corresponding to the Senior and Junior Deacons.
A virtue inculcated amongst Freemasons, because by it they are enabled not only to support themselves and families, but to contribute to the relief of worthy distressed Brethren. "All Masons," say the Charges of 1722, "shall work honestly on working days that theft may live creditably on holy days" (Constitutions, 1723, page 52). The Masonic symbol of industry is the beehive, which is used in the Third Degree.
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