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Operative Freemasons, like other men in Medieval times, followed a general custom in observing the "horarium," or scheme of hours, for which the pattern was set by the churches and monasteries. In a book which contains much that is illuminating about Operative Freemasons, English Monasteries in the Middle Ages (Richard C. Smith, New York), R. Liddesdale Palmer describes the flexible system by which each period of the day had a name rather than a number; and the time of the period was altered during the season. This arrangement itself was so old, so ingrained in religious habit, that it became almost an object of worship, and the sun and the moon, representing the working day and the resting night, appeared as symbols in Mason windows in the churches and abbeys centuries before Speculative Freemasonry; in the minds of Masons it also (as with other craftsmen) became indissolubly connected with the great question of wages, which were much less in the winter half of the year the season when money was most needed. Our Twentyfour-inch Gage is a symbol, re-adjusted to an eighthour day, of the old horarium.

"The Horarium," says Mr. Palmer, "shows in broad outline the arrangement of the twenty-four hours of a Benedictine summer day, according to rule and custom. From dawn to sunset the monastic day was divided into twelve equal hours, irrespective of the length of the daylight; but in winter the hours, though the same in number as in summer, were each a third shorter, thus reducing the day by the same proportion. This arrangement enabled the fullest use to be made of the hours of daylight and evaded the difficulty of providing adequate lighting after dark; it came into use in September and ended at Easter, and during this period the fire in the warming-house was kept alight. Night began after Compline and lasted till Prime, but was broken at midnight for the longest service of the twenty-four hours, the night office of Matins and Lauds. This was the general practice in all Orders. During the day arrangements varied." The horarium as used in a Benedictine Monastery follows:

12... midnight ....... Rise for Matins. Short Interval.
1 o'clock....Lauds. Return to dorter.
6 o'clock.... Prime. Light Breakfast (Mistum).* Chapter. Parlement (Conversation of a rev igious nature in cloister, and transaetion of the day's business by the Obedientiars.)
9 ....o'clook ......... Terce. Chapter Mass. Study. High Mass.
12 ..noon ..............Sext. Dinner (Prandium). Grace after Meat (chanted in procession and concluding in the church.)
3.... o'clock........... None. Recreation for Novices. Study in cloister and library.
6 o'clock .... Vespers. Light Supper (Caena).* Collation (evening reading in chapterhouse). Interval. Compline. Procession to dorter.

"The Time of the Great Silence."

In the stricter Orders except to the delicate, but one meal a day dinner was served. Mixtum consisted of 4 oz. bread and about a half pint of liquid.
The (too-brief) biographical paragraphs on William James Hughan at page 407 are in no need of revision as to facts except that what may be called his American writings are omitted from the bibliography; he assisted to revise one edition of this Encyclopedia; he assisted Robert Macoy (to whom he paid a tribute) to prepare a short encyclopedia; he assisted to write and to give his name as a collaborator to The History of Freemasonry, by Hughan and Stillson, a single-volume, general history of permanent value which deserves to be re-edited and re-published; and in personal correspondence with such American leaders as Theodore Sutton Parvin, Newton R. Parvin, Albert Pike, Albert G. Mackey, etc., he both gave and received. Also, in England, he contributed many articles to Masonic periodicals and to the Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge and to Leicester Lodge of Research, and an undetermined number of introductions to Lodge histories.
He was a founder of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, a collaborator on Gould's Hixtory, and inspired the foundation of a number of Masonic libraries. Beyond that he was the intimate friend, inspirer, counsellor to a number of younger men (Fred J. W. Crowe among them) to whom he was so generous with time, advice, gifts of books that they dated a career in Masonic studies from his abounding personal friendship and kindness. A nobler, a more devoted, a more single-minded teacher of Freemasonry has not lived. He was the founder of the Masonic archeology of the Old Manuscripts, and his work made possible the great flowering of English Masonic scholarship which began about 1884-1886; in its own way his publication in 1872 of Old Charges of British Freemasonry was as epoehal in the history of the Craft as had been the erecting of the first Grand Lodge in 1717. Though now a half-century old the body of his writing is not obsolete or even obsolescent; it is among the working tools used by every student of Freemasonry. If it is become necessary to make certain reservations, to enter one or two caveats, or to essay a few criticisms against the Master, it is in no spirit of iconoclasm but rather as a reminder to a beginning student that the research which Hughan initiated has continued ever since. A study which begins with him should not end with him:

1. His work on the Old MSS. themselves was largely archeologic; the work of their larger interpretation and of correlating them with the history of Freemasonry as a whole has been partly accomplished since, and continues in process. His was the first word on them but not the last.

2. In the first sentence of his Memorials of the Masonic Union he says, " Grand Lodges are a modern outgrowth of operative Freemasonry...." There were many outgrowths of operative -Freemasonry the central problem of Masonic history is: how did the present day Speculative Freemasonry, a system of five Rites. come to grow out of Operative Freemasonry? Hughan's sentence is a statement of the problem, not an answer to it; like his colleague R. F. Gould he did not find the answer.

3. Also like Gould and a number of his other colleagues at the time and a number of his successors since he gave almost no attention to the history of Freemasonry in Canada and the United States, though it is as old here as it is in England less a decade, was for a half century a part of British Freemasonry, and it was here that the Scottish Degrees, as an organized Rite, had their origin. It is too much to say that the majority of Hughan's statements of fact about Ameriea were in error; it is not an exaggeration to say that too many of them were. In six replies to as many questions about Freemasonry in the United States in a paper contributed to one of the Lodges of Researeh five of tus answers were in error.
An error he made in another place about early American Provincial Grand Lodges was repeated by John Lane. Such minor errors as confusing Mackay with Mackey are of no importance but they betray a lack of familiarity, of another kind was the mistake he made when once he looked about for an American Masonic writer whom he could quote as a spokesman for or representative of American scholarship His choice occasioned a shudder on this side of the Atlantic. There was a discredited Mason in Philadelphia He wrote an ignorant, ill-natured book about the Grand Lodge of Old England at York; and it was everywhere repudiated or ignored in America. It was this particular book which Hughan chose, and did so when Mackey Stillson, Macoy, Drummond, Parvin, Pike, etc. were in their prime! This lack of knowledge of Freemasonry in the United States by Hughan and his compeers and by their successors led to the establishment among our present-day British colleagues of "the British myth" about Freemasonry here: namely, that it was re-invented here that American Masonry is "exotic," that it was revolutionized by the Revolutionary War; that it is one large "Americanism" from beginning to end; whereas in cold fact it has stubbornly adhered to the Ritual and practices of early Eighteenth Century Freemasonry in England, so that by a kind of paradox the Work in the younger country is older than the Workings in the older country.

4. Early in his career Hughan took his stand on two theorses of fundamental importance: First, he contended that prior to some date about 1720 or 1725 there had been but one Degree; when it was clearly shown that there had been at least two Degrees he made a slight gesture of assent, but not a full assent, and not a frank one. Second like Gould he had called the Masons of the Antient Grand Lodge of 1751 "heretics," "schismatics," etc., when Sadler and Crawley proved conclusively that they had been nothing of the kind, but had been true and regular Masons, he made an acknowledgment in one or two sentences, but his readers are left to feel that it was grudging and not as open as it ought to have been- and that to the end he failed to realize how the new knowledge of the Antients had revolutionized the whole conception of Masonic history from 1717 to 1751.
The History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted. Masons, and Concordants Orders; written by a Board of Editors; Henry Leonard Stillson, Editor-in-Chief, and William James Hughan, European Editor, was published in England by George Kenning, and in the United States by The Fraternity Publishing Company of Boston and New York, in 1899. One can say that this is one of the most remarkable Masonic books of the Nineteenth Century. It is a history and yet rather it is an encylcopedia of Masonic history, for into one volume of 904 pages its authors packed concise histories of each of the Five Rites, Ancient, Medieval and Modern, Side Orders, along with statistics, Lodge lists, and with a large number of illustrations. It is remarkable also for having among its twenty-one authors so many men of scholarly weight and reputation: W. J. Hughan, John Lane, J. Ross Robertson, W. R. Singleton, S. D. Nickerson, J. H. Drummond, C. T. McClenachan, E. T. Schultz among them. Hughan contributed an Introduction in the form of a cautious and critical essay on the history of the Craft and a review of the treatises contained in the volume.

William James Hughan, the European Editor, is secure in fame, and the Fraternity in England has kept his renown alive for more than half a century. But Henry Leonard Stillson, Editor-in-Chief, is one of a score of great American Masonic scholars and thinkers which the American Craft has to its shame abandoned to obscurity. In the hundreds of the bound volumes of American Masonic periodicals housed in our largest Masonic library his name appears only once, in a long-forgotten issue of the Voice of Masonry, and in the form of an inept, brief biographical sketch- (It is this neglect which took the heart out of working Masonic scholars and reduced their corps from fifty or sixty in 1900 to four or five a half century later-) He wrote the article on "Masonic Fraternity The," page 383, Vol. XVIII, The Encyclopedxa Americana; 1938 (a late edition).

Brother Stillson was born in Granville, N. Y., September 19, 1842. The Civil War cut short his college career, he returned to take up journalism, and for a long period of years was editor of The Banner, Bennington, Vt. He was made a Mason in Clinton Lodge, No. 155, Plattsburg, N.Y., in 1867; later was member of Mt. Anthony Lodge, No. 13, of Bennington. He was a member of the Correspondence Circle of Quatuor Coronati Lodge from March, 1892, until his death April 5, 1913. (John Lane wrote a detailed review of The History for The London Freemason.)
During the two administrations of President Washington two separate streams of Frenchmen flowed into the eastern port cities of Boston, New York, Providence, Norfolk, and Charleston, S. C., and into Philadelphia especially. First came shiploads of refugees to escape from the Terror; among these were some members of the aristocracy but also tradesmen, merchants, ete., who had opposed the Revolution. In 1799 and 1800 came in some thousands of the Revolutionists, and it was these who represented the new Government of France, and who hoped to see a social revolution similar to their own brought under way in the thirteen States. But in the meantime there had been an ingress of yet another stream, though they had never come en masse, the Huguenots, who had been driven out of France for being Protestants by King Louis XIV, and who were artisans, skilled craftsmen, and merchants, frugal and industrious, and who settled permanently where they found opportunity and did not bring with them any propaganda for or against the American Government.
Because they believed in work, were Protestant, democratic, and "Americans" in spirit before they arrived, they had a natural affinity for Freemasonry, and it is probable that in proportion to their number they contributed more members and leaders to the Craft than any other minority group. Paul Revere was a typical Huguenot Mason. At Philadelphia they comprised a large part of the French Lodge L'Amenité, chartered May 20, 1797. (See chapter on "The French in Freemasonry" in French Blood in America, by Lucian J. Fosdick; Richard S. Badger; Boston; 1911. It is interesting to note that a new discovery links William Shakespeare with the Huguenots in London. During a part of the some thirteen years of his residence in London Shakespeare had quarters with Mr. and Mrs. Mountjoy, on Silver Street, within walking distance from the Globe Theater and from the homes of Ben Jonson, Thos. Dekker, and his other personal friends. The Mountjoys were Huguenots, and had come to England in the same immigration of refugees as later on came Dr. Desaguliers, who was to become "the Father of Speculative Freemasonry." For full account see Mr. Shakespeare of the Globe, by Frayne Williams; E. P. Dutton & Co.; New York; 1941; p. 229 ff.)

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