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In Hebrew, Kodesh Layehovah. It was the inscription on the plate of gold that was placed in front of the High Priest's miter. The letters were in the ancient Samaritan character (see Exodus xxix, 30).
The first mention of the Craft in Holland belongs properly to the history of Freemasonry in Austria. In 1731 Francis, Duke of Lorraine, later Emperor of Austria and Germany, was initiated by Doctor Desaguliers at a special Lodge at the Hague. The first regular Dutch Lodge was the Loge du Grand Maitre des Provinces Réunies, Grand Masters Lodge of the Reunited Provinces, instituted at the Hague with Count Vincent de la Chapelle as Worshipful Master. Freemasonry in Holland was regarded with disfavor by the Government and suffered much persecution. On December 25, 1756, however, fourteen Lodges attended a Convention to constitute a Grand Lodge and two days later Baron Aerssen Beyeren was elected Grand Master. A separate Grand Lodge was formed by the Belgian Lodges in 1817 and between the two Grand Bodies there was some dissension. In 1835 a state of peace was at last attained under the leadership of Prince Frederick Wilhelm Karl of the Netherlands.
See Netherlands.
The Fifth and last of the Degrees of the rectified Rite of the Benevolent Knights of the Holy City, or the Rite of Strict Observance, settled at Wilhelmsbad in 1782.
See San GEraal.
A Masonic Lodge is said to be held on holy ground, according to the Prestonian lecture, because the first regularly constituted Lodge was held on that holy, consecrated ground wherein the first three grand offerings were made, which afterward met with Divine approbation (see Ground Floor of the Lodge and Grand offerings).
The lectures of the eighteenth century taught symbolically that there were three Lodges opened at three different periods in Masonic history; these were the Holy Lodge, the Sacred Lodge, and the Royal Lodge. The Holy Lodge was opened in the tabernacle in the wilderness, and over it presided Moses, Aholiab, and Bezaleel; the Sacred Lodge was opened on Mount Moriah during the building of the first Temple, and was presided over by Solomon, King of Israel, Hiram, the King of Tyre, and Hiram the Builder; the Royal Lodge was opened among the ruins of the first Temple, at the building of the second, and was presided over by Joshua, Zerubbabel, and Haggai. Though presented as a tradition, it is really only a symbol intended to illustrate three important events in the progress of Masonic science.
Freemasonry teaches, in all its symbols and rituals, a reverence for the name of God, which is emphatically caned the " Holy Name." In the prayer .Ahabath Olam, first introduced by Dermott, it is said, "because we trusted in Thy holy, great, mighty, and terrible Name"; and in the introductory prayer of the Royal Arch, according to the American system, similar phraseology is employed: "Teach us, we pray Thee, the true reverence of Thy great, mighty, and terrible Name." The expression, if not the sentiment, is borrowed from the Hebrew mysteries.
Every student of Jewish antiquities knows and every Freemason who has taken the Third Degree ought to knows, what was the peculiar construction, character, and uses of the Sanctum Sanctorum or Holly of Holies in King Solomon's Temple. Situated in the western end of the Temple, separated from the rest of the building by a heavy curtain, and enclosed on three sides by dead walls without any aperture or window, it contained the sacred Ark of the Covenant, and was secluded and set apart from all intrusion save of the High Priest, who only entered it on certain solemn occasions. As it was the most sacred of the three parts of the Temple, so has it been made symbolic of a Master's Lodge, in which are performed the most sacred rites of initiation in Ancient Craft Freemasonry.

But as modern hierologists have found in all the Hebrew rites and ceremonies the traces of more ancient mysteries, from which they seem to have been derived, or on which they have been modified, whence we trace also to the same mysteries most of the Masonic forms which, of course, are more immediately founded on the Jewish Scriptures, so we shall find in the ancient Gentile temples the type of this same Sanctum Sanctorum or Holy of Holies, under the name of Adyton or Adytum. And what is more singular, we shall find a greater resemblance between this Adytum of the Pagan temples and the Lodge of Master Masons, than we will discover between the latter and the Sanctum Sanctorum of the Solomonic Temple. It will be curious and interesting to trace this resemblance, and to follow up the suggestions that it offers in reference to the antiquity of Masonic rites.

The Adytum was the most retired and secret part of the ancient Gentile temple, into which, as into the Holy of Holies of the Jewish Temple, the people were not permitted to enter, but which was accessible only to the priesthood. And hence the derivation of the word from the Greek Adoein, meaning not to enter, or that which it is not permitted to enter. Seclusion and mystery were always characteristic of the Adytum, and therefore, like the Holy of Holies, it never admitted of windows.

In the Adytum was to be found a taphos or tomb, and some relic or image or statue of the god to whom the temple was dedicated. The tomb reminds us of the characteristic feature of the Third Degree of Freemasonry; the image or statue of the god finds its analogue or similarity in the Ark of the Covenant and the overshadowing Cherubim.

It being supposed that temples owed their first origin to the reverence paid by the ancients to their deceased friends, and as it was an accepted theory that the gods were once men who had been deified on account of their heroic virtues, temples were, perhaps, in the beginning only stately monuments erected in honor of the dead. Hence the interior of the temple was originally nothing more than a cell or cavity, that is to say, a grave regarded as a place of deposit for the reception of a person interred, and, therefore, in it was to be found the soros or coffin, and the taphos or tomb, or, among the Scandinavians, the barrow or mound grave. In time the statue or image of a god took the place of the coffin; but the reverence for the spot, as one of peculiar sanctity, remained, and this interior part of the temple became among the Greeks the sekos or chapel, among the Romans the AdyEum or forbidden place, and among the Jevvs the kodesh kodashim, or Holy of Holies.

"The sanctity thus acquired," says Dudley in his Naology (page 393), "by the cell of interment might readily and with propriety be assigned to any fabric capable of containing the body of the departed friend, or relic, or even the symbol of the presence or existence, of a divine personage." Thus it happened that there was in every ancient temple an Adytum or Most Holy Place.

There was in the Holy of Holies of the Jewish Temple, it is true, no tomb nor coffin containing the relics of the dead. But there was an Ark of the Covennnt which was the recipient of the Rod of Aaron, and the Pot of Manna, which might well be considered the relics of the past life of the Jewish nation in the wilderness. There was an analogy easily understood according to the principles of the science of symbolism. There was no statue or image of a god, but there were the sacred cherubim, and, above all, the Shekinah or Divine Presence, and the bathkol or Voice of God.

But when Freemasonry established its system partly on the ancient rites and partly on the Jewish ceremonies, it founded its Third Degree as the Adytum or holy of holies of all its mysteries, the exclusive place into which none but the most worthy the priesthood of Freemasonry the Masters in Israel were permitted to enter; and then going back to the mortuary idea of the ancient temple, it recognized the reverend for the dead which constitutes the peculiar characteristic of that Degree. And, therefore, in every Lodge of Master Masons there should be found, either actually or allegorically, a grave, or tomb, and coffin, because the Third Degree is the inmost sanctuary, the kodesh kodashim, the Holy of Holies of the Masonic temple.
Called also the Sanctuary. It was that part of the Temple of Solomon which was situated between the Porch and Holy of Holies. It was appropriated to the purposes of dailv worship, and contained the altars and utensils used in that service. It has no symbolic meaning in Freemasonry; although really, as it occupied the ground floor of the Temple, it might be properly considered as represented by an Entered Apprenticed Lodge, that is to say, by the Lodge when occupied in the ceremonies of the First Degree.
See Enight of the Holy Sepulcher.
The tree of life and man in the Zoroastrian doctrine of the Persians.
First employed by Entick, in his edition of the Constitutions, in reference to the installation of the Earl of Kintore, in 1740, as Grand Master: "Who having been homaged and duly congratulated according to the forms and solemnity of Masonry." He never repeats the word, using afterward the expression, "received the homage." Noorthouck adopts this latter expression in three or four instances, but more generally employs the word "recognized" or "selected." The expression "to do homage" to the Grand Master at his installation, although now generally disused, is a correct one not precisely in the feudal sense of homagium, the service of a bondman, but in the more modern one of cheerful reverence, obedience, and loyalty.
An early organization formed by certain members of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in the middle of the eighteenth century for the purpose of instructing the Scottish Brethren in the practise and history of Freemasonry and holding its meetings in Edinburgh. This club, while enthusiastically supported by its projectors, did not meet with success and went out of existence shortly after its inception, only to be revived about twentyfive years later by the forming of a group of Masonic Clubs in various parts of Scotland. These clubs were prohibited by the Grand Lodge because of their unfavorable criticism of the Grand Lodge transactions but in order to further the stated objects of the organization, Grand Lodge resolved to issue "temporary warrants, without fee, for holding Lodges of Instruction in any district or province when a majority of the Masters of the Lodges in the province should petition for it" (see History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, Mary's Chapel, Brother David Murray Lyon, 1873, page 402). This offer has never been taken advantage of to any extent which, as Brother Lyon observes, leaves the Brethren of Scotland without any centralized method for the giving and receiving of instruction.
This was the title formerly given to the Degree of Fellow Craft.
When a Degree of Freemasonry is conferred honoris causa, that is, as a mark of respect, and without the payment of a fee, it is said to be conferred as an honorarium. This is seldom done in Ancient Craft Freemasonry; but it is not unusual in the advanced Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, which have sometimes been bestowed by Inspectors on distinguished Freemasons as an honorarium.
1. The Mark Master's Degree in the American system is called the honorary Degree of Mark Master, because it is traditionally supposed to have been conferred in the Temple upon a portion of the Fellow Crafts as a mark of honor and of trust. The Degrees of Past Master and of High Priesthood are also styled honorary, because each is conferred as an honorarium or reward attendant upon certain offices; that of Past Master upon the elected Ataster of a Symbolic Lodge, and that of High Priesthood upon the elected High Priest of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons. '.
2. These Degrees which are outside of the regular series, and which are more commonly known by the epithet Side Degrees, are also sometimes called Honorary Degrees, because no fee is usually exacted for them.
A schismatic Body which arose soon after the revival in the beginning of the eighteenth century, the members of vhieh rejeeted the established formula of an obligation, and bound themselves to secrecy and obedience by a pledge of honor only. Lilie the Gregorians and the Gormogons, who arose about the same time, they soon died a natural death. A song of theirs, preserved in Carey's Musical Century, is almost the only record left of their existence.
It is a custom in some Lodges to invest distinguished Freemasons with the rank and title of honorary membership. This confers upon them, as the by-laws may prescribe, sometimes all the rights of active membership and sometimes only the right of speaking, but always without the exaction of annual dues. Nor does honorary membership subject the person receiving it to the discipline of the Lodge further than to a revocation of the honor bestowed. The custom of electing honorary members is a usage of very modern date, and has not the sanction of the old Constitutions. It is common in France; less so, but not altogether unknown, in America and England. Oliver, in the title of one of his works, claimed honorary membership in more than nine Lodges. It may be considered unobjectionable as a method of paying respect to distinguished merit and Masonic services, when it is viewed only as a local regulation, and does not attempt to interfere with Masonic discipline. A Freemason who is expelled forfeits, of course, with his active membership in his own Lodge, his honorary membership in any other Lodge.
The Supreme Councils of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in the United States have adopted the custom of electing honorary members, who are sometimes called Honorary Thirty-Thirds. They possess none of the rights of Inspectors-General or Active Members, except that of being present at the meetings of the Council, taking part to a limited extent in its deliberations, except when it holds an Executive Session.

The earliest record that we have been able to discover is a letter of Morris Holbrook; December 2A, 1897 (volume x, page 208), of iczal Bulletins, Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction, Ancient and Aceepted Scottish Rite. This letter was written to Brother J. J. J. Gourgas and, among other things, he says that Jeremy L. Cross was made an honorary member of this Supreme Council. The same Supreme Council provided for Honorary Thirty-thirds in the Statutes of 1855. Probably the specific idea in this particular case was to make honorary members of those Brethren of the Supreme Council of Louisiana who surrendered their Supreme Council in that year and amalgamated with the Southern Jurisdiction. From that time onward the Statutes contain provisions for Honorary Members.
The original number of Honorary Members in the United States of America was nine Sovereign Grand Inspectors-Ceneral comprising a Supreme Couneil. The additional Thirty-third Degree Members were made only by vacancies occasioned by the death of one of the original nine.

The necessity arising from the circulation of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite Degrees in America brought about the appointment of Deputy Inspectors-General, assigned sometimes to States; at other times at large. Some of the records of these Deputy Inspectors-General notably omitted the numerical designation of Degree. As time passed on and the organization of Supreme Councils by the several factions proceeded, the number of Thirtythirds grew. Thirty-three was the number set for a "regular" Supreme Council. After the union of the two Supreme Councils of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction in 1867, sixty-six was set as the limit and these vere expressly defined to be Active Members. The proceedings of the early seventies indicate the differences of opinion resulting in the adjustment of the rite privileges to Honorary Members of the Supreme Council.

In the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite there is but one Thirty-third Degree and persons elected under the provisons of Article 17 of the Constitution became honorary members of the Supreme Council, not Honorary Thirty-third Degree Members—and this subject was carefully dealt with in the Proceedings of 1923 (pages 48 to 50).

Practically the same rule governs in the Southern Jurisdiction except that Honorary Members are invested with a different title, Inspectors-General Honorary (see Article 4, Section 8, of The Statutes).
See Fees of Honor.
The Grand Honors of Freemasonry are those peculiar acts and gestures by which the Craft have always been accustomed to express their homage, their joy, or their grief on memorable occasions. In the Symbolic Degrees of the American Rite, they are of two kinds, the private and public, which are used on different occasions and for different purposes.

The Private Grand Honors of Freemasonry are performed in a manner known only to Master Masons, since they can only be used in a Master's Lodge. They are practised by the Craft only on four occasions; when a Masonic Hall is to be consecrated, a new Lodge to be constituted, a Master Elect to be installed, or a Grand Master, or his Deputy, to be received on an official visitation to a Lodge. They are used at all these ceremonies as tokens of congratulation and homage. And as they can only be given by Master Masons, it is evident that every consecration of a hall, or constitution of a new Lodge, every installation of a Worshipful Master, and every reception of a Grand Master, must be done in the Third Degree. It is also evident, from what has been said, that the mode and manner of giving the private Grand Honors can only be personally communicated to Master Masons. They Ere among the aporrheta— the things forbidden to be divulged.

The Public Grand Honors, as their name imports, do not partake of this secret character. They are given on all public occasions, in the presence of the profane as well as the initiated. They are used at the laying of corner-stones of public buildings, or in other services in which the ministrations of the Fraternity are required, and especially in funerals. They are given in the following manner: Both arms are crossed on the breast, the left uppermost, and the open palms of the hands sharply striking the shoulders; they are then raised above the head, the palms striking each other, and then made to fall smartly upon the thighs. This is repeated three times, and as there are three blows given each time, namely, on the breast, on the palms of the hands, and on the thigh making nine concussions in all, the Grand Honors are technically said to be given "by three times three." On the occasion of funerals, each one of these honors is accompanied by the words, The will of God is accomplished; so mote it be, audibly pronounced by the Brethren.

These Grand Honors of Freemasonry have undoubtedly a classical origin, and are but an imitation of the plaudits and acclamations practised by the ancient Greeks and Romans in their theaters, their senates, and their public games. There is abundant evidence in the writings of the ancients, that in the days of the empire, the Romans had circumscribed the mode of doing homage to their emperors and great men when they made their appearance in public, and of expressing their approbation of actors at the theater, within as explicit rules and regulations as those that govern the system of giving the Grand Honors in Freemasonry. This was not the case in the earlier ages of Rome, for Ovid, speaking of the Sabines, says that when they applauded, they did so without any rules of art, In medio plausu, plausus tunc arte carebat.

Propertius speaks, at a later day, of the ignorance of the country people, who, at the theaters, destroyed the general harmony by their awkward attempts to join in the modulated applauses of the more skilful citizens.

The ancient Romans had carried their science on this subject to such an extent as to have divided these honors into three kinds, differing from each other in the mode in which the hands were struck against each other, and in the sound that thence resulted. Suctonius, in his life of Nero (chapter xx), gives the names of these various kinds of applause, which he says were called bombi, imbrices, testoe, and Seneea, in his Quaestionum Naturalium, gives a description of the manner in which they were executed. The bombi, or hums, were produced by striking the palms of the hands together, while they were in a hollow or concave position, and doing this at frequent intervals, but with little force, so as to imitate the humming sound of a swarm of bees. The imbrices, or tiles, were made by briskly striking the flattened and extended palms of the hands against each other, so as to resemble the sound of hail pattering upon the tiles of a roof. The testae, or earthen vases, were executed by striking the palm of the left hand, with the fingers of the right collected into one point. By this blow a sound was elicited which imitated that given out by an earthen vase when struck by a stick.

The Romans, and other ancient nations, having invested this system of applauding with all the accuracy of a science, used it in its various forms, not only for the purpose of testifying their approbation of actors in the theater, but also bestowed it, as a mark of respect or a token of adulation, on their e:nperors, and other great men, on the occasion of their making their appearance in public. Huzzas and cheers have, in this latter case, been generally adopted by the moderns, while the manual applause is only appropriated to successful public speakers and declaimers.

The Freemasons, however, have altogether preserved the ancient custom of applause, guarding and regulating its use by as strict, though different rules as did the Romans; and thus showing, as another evidence of the antiquity of their Institution, that the Grand Honors of Freemasonry are legitimately derived from the plausus, or applaudings, practice i by the ancients on public occasions. In the advanced Decrees, and in other Rites, the Grand Honors are different from those of Ancient Craft Freemasonry in the American Rite as, indeed, are those of England from those of the United States.
A symbol of the secrecy, silence, and darkness in which the mysteries of our art should be preserved from the unhallowed gaze of the profane. It has been supposed to have a symbolic reference to the passage in Saint John's Gospel (i, 5), "And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not." But it is more certain that there is in the hoodwink a representation of the mystical darkness which always preceded the rites of the ancient initiations.
The second round in the theological and Masonic ladder, and symbolic of a hope in immortality. It is appropriately placed there, for, having attained the first, or faith in God, we are led by a belief in His wisdom and goodness to the hope of immortality. This is but a reasonable expectation; without it, virtue would lose its necessary stimulus and vice its salutary fear; life would be devoid of joy, and the grave but a scene of desolation. The ancients represented Hope by a nymph or maiden holding in her hand a bouquet of opening flowers, indicative of the coming fruit; but in modern and Masonic iconology, the science of Craft illustrations and likenesses, it is represented by a virgin leaning on an anchor, the anchor itself being a symbol of hope (see Immortality of the Soul).
A manuscript cops of the old Constitutions, which is in the possession of the Lodge of Hope at Bradford, in England. The parehment roll on which this Constitution is written is six feet long and six inches vvide, and is defaced and worn away at the lower edge. Its date is supposed to be about l680. From a transcript in the possession of the late Brother A. F. A. Woodford, whose correctness is certified to by the Master of the Lodge, Brother Hughan first published it in his Old Charades of the British Freemasons.
The jewel of the Steward of a Lodge (see Cornucopia).

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