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The Greek god of silence and seereey. He was, however, a divinity of the Egyptian mythologv; his true name being, according to Bunsen and Lepsius, Har-pi-krati, that is, Horus the child; and he is supposed to have been the son of Osiris and Isis. He is represented as a nude figure, sitting sometimes on a lotus flower, either bareheaded or covered by an Egyptian muter, but always with his finger pressed upon his lips. Plutarch thinks that this gesture was an indication of his childlike and helpless nature; but the Greeks, and after them the Romans, supposed it to be a symbol of silence; and hence, while he is sometimes described as the god of the renewed year, whence peach blossoms were conse crated to him because of their early appearance in spring, he is more commonly represented as the god of silence and secrecy. Thus, Ovid says of him:

Quique premit vocem digitoque silentia suadet.
He who controls the voice and persuades to silence with his finger.

In this capacity, his statue was often placed at the entrance of temples and places where the mysteries were celebrated, as an indication of the silence and secrecy that should there be observed. Hence the finger on the lips is a symbol of secrecy, and has so been adopted in Masonic syrnbolisrn.
The Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris, D.D., an American Masonie writer of high reputation, was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, July 7, 1767, and graduated at Harvard University in 1787. He was ordained as minister of a church in Dorchester in 1793, and died at Boston, April 3, 1842. He held at different times the offices of Deputy Grand Master, Grand Chaplain, and Corresponding Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. Huntoon says (in his Eulogy):

His first great Masonic work was the editing of a collation revision, and publication of the C'onstitutions of the ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, a quarto volume, printed at Worcester, Massachusetts 1792: a work which he accomplished with the accustomed diligence and fidelity with which he performed every enterprise confided to his care. His various occasional addresses while Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge, Masonic defenses and his volume of Masonic Discourses, published in 1801, constitute a large and valuable portion of the Masonic classic literature of America.
Secret society founded in New York City in 1847 or 1848 among immigrants from Germany to preserve the use of the German language and to mutually assist the needy and aid the widows and orphans of the members. The name is thought to be derived from an old German word, harur, meaning grove or forest, and the title itself to have been that of an ancient organization. The Order teaches Friendship, Love and Humanity (see Cyclopedia of Fraternities, Albert C. Stevens, and the Deutsch-Amerikanisches Conversations-Lexikon).
The word Haruspet comes from a Sanskrit word hira, meaning entrails; therefore implying a soothsayer or arus pice. The founder of the Etruscan Order was Tages, doubtless a myth of self-creative power. This Order is claimed to have been re-established in Rome at the time of the foundation of the city. It embraced two divisions, those who formed their judgment from the movements and habits of animals as well as the flight of birds, and those who judged and foretold events by the inspection of the entrails of newly killed animals. These were the precursors, the forerunners, of naturalists and physiologists.
The Seventy-fifth and Seventy-sixth Degrees of the Rite of Mizraim. It should be Chasidim, which see.
To uncover the head in the presence of superiors has been, among all Christian nations, held as a mark of respect and reverence. The Eastern nations uncover the feet when they enter a place of worship; the Western uncover the head. The converse of this is also true; and to keep the head covered while all around are uncovered is a token of superiority of rank or office. The king remains covered, the courtiers standing around him take off their hats.

To wear the hat in an assemblage has been thus done as a sign of equality and it is so worn in the English Parliament and in certain Masonic Lodges on the Continent of Europe. So very common is the ceremonial use of the hat wh`en at labor by the presidingofficers of a Masonic Body in the United States and to a far less frequent extent elsewhere, Bristol, in England, where a hat is worn being an exception to the general rule there, that one naturally looks for instances of any similar character in other directions. Among the Romans we are told in Fiske's Classical Antiquities (page 237) that they prayed with the head covered or veiled, capite velato. The woolen cap, the pileus (page 298) was allowed only to the free by birth or manumission, but forbidden to slaves. Fiske says (page 289):

The liberating of slaves took place in several ways. The most ancient mode seems to have been by will manumissio per testamentum, on the decease of the master. There were two other modes, censu, and per vindictam; the former was when the slave, with the master's consent, was enrolled in the taxation list as a freedman, the latter was a formal and public enfranchisement before the praetor. In the last case, the master appeared with his slave, before the tribunal, and commenced the ceremony by striking him with a rod, vindicta; thus treating him as still his slave. Then a protector or defender, assertor liberntatis steps forward and requests the liberation of the Slave by saying hunc hominen liberum esse aio, jure Quiritium, the last nord referring to the inhabitants of Cures a Sabine town, after the union of the Romans and Sabines, being equivalent to meaning citizenship.
The first of the two similar expressions was followed by the other, indicating that it was the owners will the slave should be freed. Then the master, who has hitherto kept hold of the slave, lets him go, e manu emittebat, and gives up his right over him with the words, hunc hominem libertum esse volo. A declaration by the praeter that the slave should be free formed the conclusion. To confirm this manumission the freed slave sometimes went to Terracina and received in the temple of Feronia a cap or hat, pious, as a badge of liberty. The slave to be freed must not be under twenty years of age, nor the person setting him free under thirty.

The goddess of fruits, nurseries, and groves, Feronia, had a Temple on Mount Soracte where a grove was especially sacred to her. She was honored as the patroness of enfranchised slaves, who ordinarily received their liberty in her Temple.

Another, and a custom that prevails in our own times, is mentioned by Dr. George C. Williamson, Cunous Survivals (page 92), writing of the House of Commons, London, "A member has to wear his hat when he is to address the House, and there is often confusion when the member is unable to find his hat at the moment, and to put it on, before he addresses the Speaker, but, were he to rise without his hat, he would be greeted immediately with cries of 'Order, Order'!"

Pascal's ProvincialLetters, American edition of 1850 translated by Rev. Thomas McCrie of Edinburgh, Scotland (page 79), gives a curious reference to the old Paris proverb about voting without speaking, Il opine du bonnet comme un moine en sorbonne, means literally: "He votes with his cap like a monk in the Sorbonne" alluding to the custom in that place of learning of taking off the cap when a member was not disposed to speak, or in token of agreement with the rest (see also Nicole i, page 184, Ludovici Montaltii Litterae Provintciales).
Among the German Stone Masons of the Middle Ages, the original Lodge at Strasburg was considered as the head of the Craft, under the title of the Haupt-Hutte, the Head Lodge, or Grand Lodge.
French, meaning Hiph Dearees, which see.
See Oceania.
Author of the Concise Cyclopedia and founder of the Miscellanea Latomorum, died on April 17, 1913, and was at the time of his death Senior Warden of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, being appointed to that office on November 8, 1912.
Born on August 10, 1851, initiated in the Apollo University Lodge No. 357 at Oxford, England, and was its Worshipful Master in 1881. He also served as Provincial Grand Steward of Oxfordshire in 1879, becoming Grand Registrar in 1880, Grand Warden in 1882, and was Grand .Secretary of the Province from 1883 to 1885. In the Province of Sussex he was Grand Steward in 1910 and Senior Grand Warden in 1912. In other Bodies he also held prominent rank. one of the earliest joining members of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, on April 7, 1882, the first meeting after the consecration, and on November 8 , 1912, he was appointed Senior Warden of Lodge 2076. Among his literary works are a History of Freemasonry in Oxfordshire, 1882; A Concise Cyclopedia, or Handbook of Masonic References, 1908, and also he took an active part in the preparation of the new and revised edition of Doctor Mackey's monumental Encyclopedia of Freemasonry and its Kindred Sciences published in 1912. He conceived the idea of a periodical treating of Masonic notes and queries and in Mail, 1911, the first number of Miscellanea Latomorum appeared and was continued up to his death, then the editorial labor was carried on by Brother F. W. Lavender, and after his death, by Brother Lionel Vibert.
Born 1739 in Lisbon, Portugal, his parents were Jews. In 1761, while in Jamaica, he secured the appointment of Deputy Inspector-General for North America for the Masonic Rite of Perfection. From Jamaica Brother Hays went to the West Indies and thence to Newport, Rhode Island, where he became active in the Fraternity. November 5, 1782, Brother Hays was proposed as a member of Massachusetts Lodge, Boston. He was elected Master, December 3, 1782, held this office until 1785, when he was appointed Junior Grand Warden and he served as Grand Master of the Massachusetts Grand Lodge from July 24, 1788, until March 5, 1792, at which time the union was effected between the two Grand Lodges of Massachusetts. which unity was due in a large way to the efforts of Brother Hays.

His death occurred May 9, 1805, and the Columbian Sentinel, Boston, published the following obituary notice ore May 11:

In the character of the deceased there is much worthl of our admiration much for our imitation. Possessed by nature of a strong inteUeet there was a vigor in his conceptions of men and things which gave a seeming asperitv to his conversation, which was ever frank anal lucid. He walked abroad fearing no man, but loving all. Under his roof dwelt hospitality, it was an asylum of friendship, the mansion of peace. He was without guile. despising hypocrisy as he despised meanness. Take hint for all in all, he was A MAN. In his death society wils mourn the loss of a most estimable citizen, his family the kindest of husbands, the most indulgent of fathers. But what consolation shall we offer to assuage the violence of their grief? Why this is all—the recollection of his virtues, and that as he lived, so he died, that to his last moment the cheerfulness and benevolence of his whole life wasted not on his falling brow. Calm and without a sign he sunk to rest. and is non secure in the bosom of his Father and our Father, of his God and our God.
Freemasonry, which had been in existence for several years in the island of Hayti, was entirely extinguished by the revolution which drove out the white inhabitants. In 1809, the Grand Lodge of England granted a Charter for a Lodge at Port au-princes and for one at Cayes. In 1817, the same authority constituted two others, at Jeremias and at Jacmel. Subsequently, a Provincial Grand Lodge was established under obedience to England. January 25, 1824, this Provincial Grand Lodge declared its independence and organized the Grand Orient of Hayti.
A technical Masonic term which signifies to make valid or legal. Hence one who has received a Degree in an irregular manner or from incompetent authority is not recognized until he has been healed.
The precise mode of healing depends on circumstances If the Lodge which conferred the Degree was clandestine, the whole ceremony of initiation would have to be repeated. If the authority which conferred the Degree was only irregular, and the question was merely a technical one of legal competence, it is only necessary to exact an obligation of allegiance, or in other words to renew the covenant.
One of the five senses, and an important symbol in Freemasonry, because it is through it that we receive instruction when ignorant, admonition when in danger, reproof when in error, and the claim of a Brother who is in distress. Without this sense, the Freemason would be crippled in the performanee of all his duties; and hence deafness is deemed a disqualification for initiation.
Notwithstanding that all the modern American Masonic Manuals and Masters Carpets from the time of Jeremy L. Cross exhibit the picture of a heart among the emblems of the Third Degree, there is no such symbol in the instructions except as a part of the stern injunction that justice will sooner or later overtake the wrongdoer. But the theory that every man who becomes a Freemason must first be prepared in his heart was advanced among the earliest lectures of the eighteenth century, and demonstrates, as Krause properly remarks, in Speculative Freemasonry, an internal principle which addresses itself not simply to the outward conduct, but to the inner spirit and conscience of all men who seek its instructions.
There is a legend in some of the advanced Degrees and in Continental Freemasonry, that the heart of Hiram Abif was deposited in an urn and placed upon a monument near the Holy of Holies; and in some of the Tracing Boards it is represented as a symbol. The myth, for such it is, was probably derived from the very common custom in the Middle Ages of persons causing their bodies to be dismembered after death for the purpose of having parts of them buried in a church, or some place which had been dear to them in life. Thus Hardynge, in his Metrical Chronicle of England, tells us of Richard I that
He queathed his corpse then to be buried
At Fount Everard, there at his father's feete;
His herte invyneyb!e to Rome he sent full mete
For their great truth and stedfast great Constance.

The medieval idea has descended to modern times; for our present instructions in the United States say that the ashes of Hiram were deposited in an urn.
The ecclesiastical year commences with the first Nisan, March, but the civil reckoning begins with the first Tishri, September, which is New Year's Day.
The following dates are accepted by the Hebrews, as given by Doctor Zunz in Remarks prefacing The 24 Books of the Holy Scriptures according to the .Massoretic Text:
3988, Creation.
2332, Flood.
2040, Abraham born.
1575, Moses born.
1495, Exodus.
1051, David acknowledged as King.
1015, First Temple commenced.
586, First Temple destroyed.
536, Cyrus Decree.
516, Second Temple completed.
330, Alexander conquers Palestine.

The succeeding dates are in accord with the research of other authorities.
The Temple was dedicated on five occasions:
1. 1004 B.C., fifteenth day of Tishri- Ethanim and Abib. First Kings via 2 to 62.
2. 726 B. C., when purified from the abominations of Ahaz.
3. 516 B.C., third Adar, upon completion of Zerubbabel's Temple.
4. 164 B.C., twenty-fifth Kislev, after the victory of Judas Maceabaeus over the Syrians the service lasted eight days.
5. 22 B.C., upon completion of lIerod's Temple.
The three Temples were destroyed on the same day and month of the year
The " three-fold destruction " of the Temple took place on the ninth Ab, or fifth ecclesiastical month.
Destruction of Temple, by Nebuchadnezzar, 588 b.c., or four hundred and sixteen years after dedication.
Taking the city of Jerusalem by Titus is commemorated as a fast day on the seventeenth Tamuz.
Passover, fourteenth Nisan- Little Passover, fifteenth Iyar.
Pentecost, or First Fruits, commemorating the giving of the law on Mount Sinai sixth Sivan Great Day of Atonement, tenth Tishli.
Feast of Tabernaeles, fifteenth to twenty-first Tishri.
Fast for commencement of siege of Jenasalem by Nebuchadnezzar, tenth day of Tebeth.
Feast of Purim, fourteenth and fifteenth Adar.
King Cyrus liberated the Jews, 538 B.C.
King Darius confirmed the Deeree, 520 B. C. (see Cons) .

See Talmud.
A French Masonic writer, who was born at Valenciennes in 1755, and died in 1838. He made a curious collection of Degrees; and invented a system of five, namely:
1. Knight of the Prussian Eagle;
2. Knight of the Comet;
3. The Scottish Purifier;
4. Victorious Knight;
5. Scottish Trinitarian, or Grand Master Commander of the Temple.
This cannot be called a Rite, because it was never accepted and practised by any Masonic authority. It is known in nomenclatures as Nécart's System. He was the author of many dissertations and didactic essays on Masonic subjects. He at one time proposed to publish his collection of Degrees with a full explanation of each, but did not carry his design into execution. Many of them are cited in this work.
The Greek compound word hecatotombe, from hecaton, meaning one hundred, and bous, ox. and therefore strictly speaking a reference to the sacrifice of one hundred oxen. But the allusion to a sacrifice, formerly of ene hundred bulls, and in later expressions referring probably only to an indefinitely large number of victims, is also capable of being applied and was frequently so employed, to mean any great sacrifice. In this latter sense should the word be understood by Freemasons. Pythagoras was a vegetarian who taught that killing was wicked and to him the sacrifice of a hecatomb could have meant no loss of animal life in the offering (see Forty-seventh Problem).
This expression has been believed to be applied to a secret society, probably Masonic, but meeting without Warrant or authority. In Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 1913 (volume xxvi, part 2, page 197), we find that a letter of Amicus to the Editor of the Northern Star, Ireland, dated March 21, 1792, mentions that all disorders and mischiefs in the country are being hatched by those who associate under the description of Hedge Masons.
From the earth to the highest heavens. A symbolic expression (see Form of the Lodge).
A Professor of Political Science in the Academy of Bern, in Switzerland, and was born at Margetshochheim, in Franconia, November 24, 1770. He was one of the most profound of the German investigators into the history and philosophy of Freemasonry. He was initiated into the Order at Freiburg, in 1809, and, devoting himself to the study of the works of Fessler and other eminent scholars, he resolved to establish a system founded on a collation of all the rituals, and which should be more in accordance with the true design of the Institution. For this purpose, in 1816, he organized the Lodge zur Brudertreue at Aarau, in Switzerland, where he then resided as a professor. For the Lodge he prepared a Manual, which he proposed to publish. But the Helvetian Directory demanded that the manuscript should be given to that Body for inspection and correction, which the Lodge, unwilling to submit to such a censorship, refused to do. Heldmann, being reluctant to involve the Lodge in a controversy with its superiors, withdrew from it. He subsequently published a valuable work entitled Die drei altesten geschichtlichen Denkmale der deutschen Freimaurerbruderschaft; meaning, The three oldest Memorials of the German Masonic Brotherhood, which appeared at Aarau in 1819. In this work, which is chiefly founded on the learned researches of Krause, the Constitutions of the Stone-Masons of Strasburg were published for the first time.
A tiler or teghtor. From the AngloSaxon Helan. Also written Hillyar and Hilliar.
See Heler.
A defensive weapon wherewith the head and neck are covered. In heraldry, it is a mark of chivalry and nobility. It was, of course, a part of the armor of a knight, and therefore, whatever may be the head covering adopted by modern Knights Templar, it is in the instructions called a helmet.
In quaint old Templar ritualism, to lay aside the covering of the head.
In the early Templar ritualism, to resume the covering of the head.
See Aid and Assistance.
Previous to the Union of the two Grand Lodges of England in 1813, the Prestonian system of lectures was practised by the Grand Lodge of Modern Freemasons, while the Atholl Freemasons recognized higher Degrees, and varied somewhat in their ritual of the lower. When the Union was consummated, and the United Grand Lodge of England was organized, a compromise was effected, and Doctor Hemming, who was the Senior Grand Warden, and had been distinguished for his skill as the Master of a Lodge and his acquaintance with the ritual, was appointed to frame a new system of lectures. The Prestonian system was abandoned, and the Hemming lectures adopted in its place, not without the regret of many distinguished Freemasons, among whom was Doctor Oliver. Among the innovations of Doctor Hemming, which are to be regretted, are the abolition of the dedication to the two Saints John, and the substitution for it of a dedication to Solomon. In Brother Mackey's opinion, some other changes that were made were certainly not improvements.
Editor of the fourth volume of the German Encyclopadie (see Lenning) .
The widow of Charles I, of England It is asserted, by those who support the theory that the Master's Degree was invented by the adherents of the exiled house of Stuart, and that its legend refers to the death of Charles I and the restoration of his son, that in the technical Masonic expression of the "Widow's Son," the allusion is to the widow of the decapitated monarch. Those who look further for the foundation of the legend give, of course, no credence to a statement whose plausibility depends only on a coincidence.
See Price, Henry.

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