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GRAND MASTER OF LIGHT.
One of the various names bestowed on the Degree of Knight of Saint Andrew.
According to the English system of lectures, three important events recorded in Scripture are designed as the three Grand Offerings of Freemasonry, because they are said to have occurred on Mount Moriah, which symbolically represents the ground floor of the Lodge. These three grand offerings are as follows: The first grand offering was when Abraham prepared to offer up his son Isaac; the second was when David built an altar to stay the pestilence with which his people were afflicted; and the third was when Solomon dedicated to Jehovah the Temple which he had completed (see Ground Floor of the Lodge).
The elective officers of a superintending Masonic Pody, such as Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter, etc., are so called. The appointed officers have been designated as subordinate officers, but this distinction is not always strictly observed.
Most of the Grand Lodges established by the Latin races, such as those of France, Spain, Italy, and the South American States, are called Grand Orients. The word is thus, in one sense, synonymous with Grand Lodge; but these Grand Orients have often a more extensive obedience than Grand Lodges, frequently exercising jurisdiction over the highest Degrees, from which English and American Grand Lodges refrain. Thus, the Grand Orient of France exercises jurisdiction not only over the seven Degrees of its own Rite, but also over the thirty-three of the Ancient and Accepted, and over all the other Rites which are practiced in France by the Brethren of its Obedience.
Grand Orient is also used in English, and especially in American, Freemasonry to indicate the seat of the Grand Lodge of highest Masonic power, and is thus equivalent to Grand East, which see.
The French title is Grand Pontiff ou Sublime Ecossais. The Nineteenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The Degree is occupied in an examination of the Apocalyptic mysteries of the New Jerusalem. Its officers are a Thrice Puissant and one Warden. The Thrice Puissant is seated in the East on a throne canopied with blue, and wears a white satin robe. The Warden is in the X lest, and holds a staff of gold. The members are clothed in white, with blue fillets embroidered with twelve stars of gold, and are called True and Faithful Brothers. The decorations of the Lodge are blue sprinkled with gold stars.
The first three officers of the Grand Chapter of England are so called. They are respectively designated as Z., H., and J., meaning Zerubbabel, Haggai, and Joshua.
There are two available explanations of this title. 1. Each chief or conventual bailiff of the eight languages of the Order of Malta was called a Grand Prior. There were also other Grand Priors, under whom were several Commanderies. The Grand Priors of the Order were twenty-six in number.
2. The third officer in the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States (see Prior).
GRAND SECRETARIES GUILD, MASONIC.
See Masonic Grand Secretaries Guild.
The recording and corresponding officer of a Grand Lodge, whose signature must be attached to every document issued from the Grand Lodge; where there is no Grand Register or Keeper of the Seals, he is the Custodian of the Seal of the Grand Lodge. The Regulations of 1722 had provided for the office, but no appointment was made until 1723, when William Cowper was chosen by the Grand Lodge. The office was therefore at first an elective one, but Anderson, in his edition of 1738 (page 161), says that "ever since, the new Grand Master, upon his commencement, appoints the Secretary, or continues him by returning him the books." This usage is still pursued by the modern Grand Lodge of England; but in every Jurisdiction of the United States the office of Grand Secretary is an elective one. The jewel of the Grand Secretary is a circle enclosing two pens crossed. His badge of office was formerly a bag (see Bag).
Officers of a Grand Lodge, whose duty it is to prepare and serve at the Grand Feast. This duty was at first performed by the Grand Wardens, but in 1791 they were authorized "to take some Stewards to their assistance" (see Constitutions, 173S, page 112). This was sometimes done and sometimes omitted, so that often there were no Stewards. In 1728 (see Constitutions, 1738, page 123), the Stewards, to the number of twelve, were made permanent officers; and it was resolved that in future, at the annual election, each Steward should nominate his successor. At present, in the Grand Lodge of England, nineteen Grand Stewards are annually appointed from nineteen different Lodges. Each Lodge recommends one of its subscribing members, who is nominated by the former Steward of that Lodge, and the appointment is made by the Grand Master. The number of Grand Stewards in the United States seldom exceeds two, and the appointment is made in some Grand Lodges by the Grand Master, and in others by the Junior Grand Warden. The jewel of a Grand Steward is a cornucopia within a circle, the cornucopia being the horn of plenty, representing peace and prosperity, the circle meaning endless, and his badge of office a white rod.
GRAND STEWARDS LODGE.
According to the Constitutions of England, the past and present Grand Stewards constitute a Lodge, which has no number, but is registered in the Grand Lodge books at the head of all other Lodges. It is represented in the Grand Lodge by its Master, Wardens, and Past Masters, but has no power of making Freemasons. The institution has not been introduced into this country except in the Grand Lodge of Maryland, where the Grand Stewards' Lodge has acted as a Committee of Grievances during the recess of the Grand Lodge.
An officer who performs in a Grand Lodge the same duties that a Tiler does in a subordinate Lodge. The brand Tiler is prohibited from being an active member of the Grand Lodge, because his duties outside of the door prevent his taking part in the deliberations of the Body.
The office of Grand Treasurer was provided for by the Regulations of 1722, and in 1724, on the organization of the Committee of Charity, it was enacted that a Treasurer should be appointed. But it was not until 1727 that the office appears to have been really filled by the selection of Nathaniel Blakerby. But as he was elected Deputy Grand Master in the same year, and yet continued to perform the duties of Treasurer, it does not appear to have been considered as a distinct appointment. In 1838, he dimitted the office, when Revis, the Grand Secretary, was appointed. But he declined on the ground that the offices of Secretary and Treasurer should not be held by the same person "the one being a check on the other" (see constitutions, 1735, page 184). so that, in 1739, it was made a permanent office of the Grand Lodge by the appointment of Brother John Lesse. It is an elective office; and it was provided, by the Old Regulations. that he should be "a brother of good worldly substance." The duties are similar to those of the Treasurer of a subordinate Lodge. The jewel is a circle enclosing two keys crossed, or in saltine According" to ancient custom, his badge of office was a white staff, but this is generally disused in the United States.
The Senior and Junior Grand Wardens are the third and fourth officers of a Grand Lodge. Their duties do not differ very materially from those of the corresponding officers of a subordinate Lodge, but their powers are of course more extensive.
The Grand Wardens succeed to the government of the Craft, in order of rank;, upon the death or absence from the Jurisdiction of the Grand and Deputy Grand Masters (see Succession to the Chair).
It is also their prerogative to accompany the Grand Master in his visitations of the Lodges, and when there to set as his Wardens. In the absence of the Senior Grand Warden, the Junior does not occupy the West, but retains his position in the South. Having been elected and installed to preside in the South, and to leave that station only for the East, the temporary vacancy in the West must be supplied by the appointment by the Grand Master of some other Brother (see Wardens).
On the same principle, the Senior Grand Warden does not supply the place of the absent Deputy Grand Master, but retains his station in the West.
The Old Charges of 1722 required that no one could be a Grand Warden until he has been the Master of a Lodge. The rule still continues in force, either by specific regulations or by the force of usage.
By the Regulations of 1721, the Grand Master nominated the Grand Wardens, but if his nomination was not approved, the Grand Lodge proceeded to an election. By the present Constitutions of England the power of appointment is vested absolutely in the Grand Master. In the United States the Grand Wardens are elected by the Grand Lodge.
GRASSE TILLY, ALEXANDRE FRANCIS AUGUSTE, COMTE DE.
He was the son of the Comte de Grasse who commanded the French fleet that had been sent to the assistance of the Americans in their revolutionary struggle. De Grasse Tilly was born at Versailles, in France, about the year 1766.
He was initiated in the Mother Scottish Lodge du Contrat Social, and subsequently, going over to America, resided for some time in the island of St. Domingo, whence he removed to the city of Charleston, in South Carolina, where, in 1796, he affiliated with the French Lodge la Candeur. In 1799, he was one of the founders of the Lodge la Reunion Francaise, of which he was at one time the Venerable or Master. In 1802, the Comte de Grasse was a member of the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, which had been established the year before at Charleston; and in the same year he received a Patent as Grand Commander for life of the French West India islands. In 1802 he returned to St. Domingo, and established a Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite at Port au Prince. In 1804 he went to Europe, and labored with great energy for the extension of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
On September 22, 1804, he founded at Paris a Supreme Council, of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, of which Body he was, until 1806, the Grand Commander. On March 5, 1805, he organized a Supreme Council at Milan, in Italy, and on July 4, 1811, another at Madrid, in Spain. The Comte de Grasse was an officer in the French army, and was taken prisoner by the English and detained in England until 1815, when he returned to Paris.
He immediately resumed his functions as Grand Commander of a Body which took the unauthorized pretentious title of the Supreme Council of America. For several years Scottish Freemasonry in France was convulsed with dissension's, which De Grasse vainly labored to reconcile. Finally, in 1818, he resigned his post as Grand Commander, and was succeeded by the Comte Decazes. From that period he appears to have passed quietly out of the Masonic history of France, and probably died soon after.
The grave is, in the Master's Degree, the analogue of the pastos, couch or coffin, in the Ancient Mysteries, and is intended scenically to serve the same purpose. The grave is, therefore, in that Degree, intended, in connection with the sprig of acacia, to teach symbolically the great Masonic doctrine of a future life.
The name of the second of the three conspirators in the Master's Degree, according to the Adonhiramite Rite. The others are Romvel and Abiram. The etyrnologv of Gravelot is unknown.
GREAT ARCHITECT OF THE UNIVERSE.
The title applied in the technical language of Freemasonry to the Deity. It is appropriate that a society founded on the principles of architecture. which symbolizes the terms of that science to moral purposes, and whose members profess to be the architects of a spiritual temple, should view the Divine Being, under whose holy law they are constructing that edifice, as their Master Builder or Great Architect. Sometimes, but less correctly, the title Grand Architect of the Universe is found.
Such was the opinion of Brother Mackey but it is north while to note the evidence to the contrary Great is said of that which is more than ordinarily powerful and influential, grand of that which is worthily so.
In the late eighteenth century the term Great Architect of the Universe had not become crystallized.
In the Book of Constitutions, Antient Charge I, certainly not later than 1815, we find the Glorius Architect of Heaven and Earth, and it still extant in the Antient Charges we are still bound by. The term as we otherwise use it can be traced back but probably it was not general. Wellins Calcott's Candid Disquisition of Masonry, 1769, uses the terms Great Architect, Chief Architect, Most Holy and Glorious Lord God, Thou Architect of Heaven and Earth. The prayers of some of them he refers to are purely Christian. He gives a charge delivered by Thomas Dunckerley, September 11, 1769, at Marlborough, wherein occurs the term Grand architect of the Universe. Preston, first edition, Illustrations of Masonry, 1772, follows Calcott to some extent. He speaks of Almighty Author of the World. An examination of later editions would substantially show the term Grand was still in use. Brother Sandby was appointed by the Grand Lodge to be Grand Architect as a personal mark of distinction but it died with him in 1779. On the revision of Constitutions, Ritual, etc., in 1814 after the Union, much which had been used before was discarded. Brother J. Walter Hobbs has examined a Manuscript series of Lectures, Prayers and Addresses to officers, copied in 1849, apparently used in Lodge.
These are largely Preston's with some Calcott's altered a bit here and there. Here are used terms such as God the Grand Geometrician of the Universe whose Son died for us and rose again; Great Architect of the Universe in whose image we were first formed; Divine Architect. In a Prayer to the Fellow Craft Degree appears O Thou Supreme Grand Ruler of the Universe, and O Thou Supreme Grand Master. In the Prayer to the Master Mason Degree we have O Thou blessed and glorious Lord God, coequal, coeternal omniscient.
See Lights, Greater; Bible: Square and Compasses.
The ruling Body of the Order of the Temple for England, Wales, and Canada is so called.
A Lodge working under the Grand Orient of France was in existence at Corfu in 1809 and there was another one under the same authority active in 1810. The Grand Orient of France also chartered in 1843 at Corfu a Lodge, Le Phénix, which continues to be active, with Lodge Veritas at Saloniki in 1904. The first English Lodge was Pythagoras, No. 654, chartered in 1836 at Corfu. The Grand Lodge of France chartered a Lodge, L'Avenir de Orient, The Future East, at Saloniki in 1907. The Grand Orient of Italy has chartered two Lodges at Saloniki and the Grand Orient of Portugal has also organized a Lodge at Saloniki.
The claim has been made that a Grand Orient of Greece existed in 1814 and that a Grand Lodge of Greece in 1840 had as Grand Master Angelo Calichiopulo, but the latter organization soon became extinct and nothing is known of its history. A Provincial Grand Lodge was organized in 1866 by the Grand Orient of Italy.
Steps were taken in 1867 to reorganize these Lodges into a Grand Lodge of Greece and in July, 1872, Prince Dimitrius Rhodocanaki of Scio was made Grand Master, and at the same time a Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite was established with the seat of both Bodies at Athens. Sundry complications brought about the closing down of the Lodges but in 1906 a committee of the several Worshipful Masters was convened to reorganize both the Grand Orient and the Supreme Council, and recreate the former activity. The present Grand Orient of Greece operates with the Supreme Hellenic Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite and has founded Lodges in Constantinople, Alexandria, Smyrna, Cyprus and other places on the Mediterranean Sea.
GREECE, MYSTERIES IN.
The principal Pagan masteries celebrated in Greece were the Eleusinian and the Bacchic 'see Eleusinian Mysteries).
Green. as a Masonic color, is almost confined to the four Degrees of Perfect Master, Knight of the East, Knight of the Red Cross, and Prince of Mercy. In the Degree of Perfect Master it is a symbol of the moral resurrection of the candidate, teaching him that being dead to vice he should hope to revive in virtue.
In the Degree of Knight of the Red Cross, this color is employed as a symbol of the immutable nature of truth, which, like the bay tree, will ever flourish in immortal green.
This idea of the unchanging immortality of that which is divine and true, was always connected by the ancients with the color of green. Among the Egyptians, the god Phtha, the active spirit, the creator and regenerator of the world, the goddess Pascht, the Divine preserver, and Thoth, the instructor of men in the sacred doctrines of truth, were all painted in the hieroglyphic system with green flesh.
Portal says, in his essay on Symbolic Colors, that "green was the symbol of victory"; and this reminds us of the motto of the Red Cross Knights, "magna est veritas et praevalebit," meaning great is truth and mighty above ad things; and hence green is the symbolic color of that Degree. In the Degree of Prince of Mercy, or the Twenty-sixth Degree of the Scottish Rite, green is also symbolic of truth, and is the appropriate color of the Degree, because truth is there said to be the palladium or safeguard of the Order.
In the Degree of Knight of the East, in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, green is also the symbolic color. We may very readily suppose, from the close connection of this Degree in its ritual with that of the Companion of the Red Cross, that the same symbolic explanation of the color would apply to both, and Brother Mackey was of opinion that such an explanation might very properly be made; but it is generally supposed by its possessors that the green of the Knights of the East alludes to the waters of the river Euphrates, and hence its symbolism is not moral but historical.
The evergreen of the Third Degree is to the Master Mason an emblem of immortality. Green was with the Druids a symbol of hope, and the virtue of hope with a Freemason illustrates the hope of immortality. In all the Ancient Mysteries, this idea was carried out, and green symbolized the birth of the world, and the moral creation or resurrection of the initiate. If we apply this to the evergreen of the Master Mason we shall again find a resemblance, for the acacia is emblematic of a new creation of the body, and a moral and physical resurrection.
GREEN DRAGON TAVERN.
Known also as Freemason's Arms, a famous building in Boston, Massachusetts, on what was later on Union Street near the corner of Hanover Street. An account of this celebrated Masonic; resort was written for the centenary occasion by Brother Charles W. Moore for the Lodge of Saint Andrew and was printed, 1870. Brother Moore was Recording Grand Secretary of Massachusetts, 1834-67, and edited Masonic journals, 1826-73. The Green Dragon Tavern was bought on March 31, 1764, for the Lodge of Saint Andrew, a Committee for that purpose being appointed on January 19.
The Tavern's hall was a suitable and preferred location for the political clubs of the time and Elliott's History of New England, sales "Among the most active of the Sons of Liberty was Paul Revere. In the fall and winter of 1774-5, some of the best Boston mechanics formed themselves into a club to watch the doings of the British soldiers.
They were 'High Sons of Liberty' and men of action, who met at the Green Dragon Tavern, and every man swore on the Bible that nothing should be revealed except to Samuel Adams, John Hancock, Doctor warren, and Doctor Church." An authentic record of the persons taking part in the various activities planned at the Green Dragon Tavern, such as the Boston Tea Parts of 1773, is not available for obvious reasons. A comparison of several published lists with the roster of the Lodge found a number of names identical in both.
Daniel webster, at Andover, Massachusetts, 1843, called the Green Dragon Tavern the headquarters of the American Revolution and speaks particularly of two members of the Lodge of Saint Andrew, "It was there, in Union Street, that John Grav, Paul Revere, and others of their class met for consultation." Edward Everett, another American orator, at Lexington, April 19, 1835, dealing with the war and its genesis, tells of bringing the question "home to bosoms and firesides, not by profound disquisition's and elaborate reports though these in their place were not spared but in caucuses, the club rooms, at the Green Dragon, in the shipyards, in actual conference, man to man and heart to heart." And noting the pertinence of this reference we can the more easily see the relation of the Lodge and its members to these stirring times (see Boston Tea Party).
GREENE, GENERAL NATHANIEL.
Famous Revolutionary War General, born August 7, 1742; died June 19, 1786. Member of a Lodge in Rhode Island, wore a Masonic emblem around his neck all through the Revolution. and Brother Roth (Masonry in the Formation of Our Government, 1927, page 90) says: "The Grand Tyler of the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island states that they have in their possession a Masonic medal once worn by General Greene." The Government has erected an equestrian statue to this distinguished soldier at Washington, District of Columbia (see New Age, August, 1924).
GREENLEAF, LAWRENCE NICHOLS.
Born October 4 183S, in Boston, Massachusetts, in which city he was initiated into the Masonic Fraternity by Columbian Lodge, March, 1863. Later in this year he went West and arriving at Denver he affiliated with Denver Lodge N o. 5, where he retained membership until his death At Denver he was in the mercantile business until 1893 when he purchased, edited and published the Masonic magazine Square and Compass, which he continued until 1917 when failing health forced him to retire. Senior Warden, 1865, and Worshipful Master in 1866, 1868, 1869, 1877 and 1878 of Denver Lodge No. 5. Made a Royal Arch Mason in Denver Royal Arch Chapter No. 2, April 18, 1864, was High Priest in 1867 and 1868, elected Grand High Priest of Colorado in 1885. Received Degrees of the Cryptic Rite in Boston Council, 1868, charter member of Denver Council No. 1 and Master in 1901, elected Grand Master of the Grand Council of Colorado in 1907. Created a Knight Templar in De Molay Commandery at Boston, June 12, 1868, affiliated with Colorado Commandery No. 1, July 17, 1883, and elected Commander in 1890, served as Recorder from 1895 to 1913.
He received the Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite from Brother Albert G. Mackey. He initiated and was the principal factor in the organization of this Rite in Denver, was a charter member of each of the several Bodies and presiding officer of each. Albert Pike, Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite, appointed him Deputy for Colorado in 1878, a post he held for many years. He received the Thirty-third Degree, October 19, 1880. Elected Junior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, at Central City, October 2, 1866, and reselected, September 17, 1878. On September 16, 1879, he was elected Senior Grand Warden, and on September 21, 1880, Grand Master. Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence of the Grand Lodge in 1870, 1878, 1882 and 1885, and from 1889 to September, 1917, when ill-health necessitated his giving up this work. For years he was Chairman of the Committee on Necrology in the Grand Lodge.
His distinction among Freemasons is not based merely upon the Degrees and offices which he held as he was an author of fine ability and a prolific poet. His centennial poem at Philadelphia in 1876 was one of the features of that occasion. His best known Masonic poem is the Lodge-Room Over Simpkins' Store, published in the Square and Compass in 1898 (see Poetry of Freemasonry), and in another entitled Hands Across the Seth written in 1912, he seems to have had a prophetic vision of the war clouds hovering near. Brother Greenleaf died on October 25, 1922, and a memorial was read in every Lodge in the entire State of Colorado to honor him who wrote:
LIVE ON, O MASONRY!
Live on! O Masonry, live onl Thy work hath scarce begun
Live on! nor end, if end there be, till earth's last setting sun.
Live on! thy work in ages past hath but prepared the way
For every truth thy symbols teach there's pressing need today.
In cultured or unlettered age humanitv's the same,
And evermore the passions rage whose furies thou wouldst tame
Would but the nations head thy Plumb—war's carnage soon would end
Thy Level rivalries subdue, thy Square to virtue tend
Thy Trowel spread that true cement which doth all hearts unite.
Ana darkness comprehend and glow with thy immortal Light
Live on, O Masonry, live on!
This word means salutation, and' under the form of "Thrice Greeting, " it is very common at the head of Masonic documents. In the beginning of the eighteenth century it was usual at the meeting of Freemasons to say, "God's good greeting be to this our happy meeting." Browne gives the formula as practiced in 1800: "The recommendation I bring is from the Right Worthy and Worshipful Brothers and Fellows of the Holy Lodge of Saint John, who greet your Worship well." This formula is obsolete, but the word greeting is still in use among Freemasons. In Masonic documents it is sometimes found in the form of S.°. S.°.S.°., which three letters are the initials of the Latin word salutem or health, three times repeated, and therefore equivalent to Thrice Greetings In European Lodges, especially in England, a brief but most acceptable response to the usually few but always very cordial words of welcome to any visiting official is "Brethren, I greet you well."
An association established early in the eighteenth century in ridicule of and in opposition of the Freemasons. There was some feud between the two Orders, but the Gregorians at last succumbed, and long ago became extinct. They lasted, however, at least until the end of the century, for there is extant a Sermon preached before them in 1797. They must, too, by that time, have changed their character, for Prince William Frederick of Gloucester was then their presiding officer; and Doctor Munkhouse, the author of that sermon, who was a very ardent Freemason, speaks in high terms of the Order as an ally of Freemasonry, and distinguished for its "benign tendency and salutary effects."
A Dominican monk, who, while preaching a course of Lenten sermons at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1779, endeavored to prove that the Jews who crucified Jesus were Freemasons; that Pilate and Herod were Wardens in a Masonic Lodge; and that Judas, before he betrayed his Lord, had been initiated in the synagogue, the thirty pieces of silver which he returned being the amount of his fee for initiation. With discourses like these Greinemann, who had threatened, if his followers would assist him, he would slay every Freemason he met with his own hand, so excited the people that the magistrates were compelled to issue an edict forbidding the assemblies of the Freemasons. Peter Schuff, a Capuchin, also vied with Greinemann in the labor of persecution, and peace was not restored until the neighboring free imperial States threatened that, if the monks did not refrain from stirring up the mob against Freemasonry, they should be prohibited from collecting alms in their territories.
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