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EDWARD III MANUSCRIPT.
A manuscript quoted by Anderson in his second edition (page 71), and also by Preston, as an old record referring to "the glorious reign of King Edward III." The whole of the record is not cited, but the passages that are given are evidently the same as those contained in what is now known as the Cooke ManuscripE, the archaic phraseology having been modernized and interpolations inserted by Anderson, as was, unfort»nately, his habit in dealing with those old documents. Compare, for instance, the following passages, taking first these lines from the Cooke Manuscript:
When the master and the felawes be forwarned ben y come to such congregations if nede be the Schereffe of the countre or the mayer of the Cyte or alderman of the towne in wyche the congregations is hold schall be felaw and sociat to the master of the congregation in helpe of hym a yest rebelles and upberying (upbearing) the rygt of the reme (see Lines 901 to 912).
Edward III Manuscript, as quoted bar Anderson:
That when the Master and Wardens preside in a Lodge, the sheriff if need be, or the mayor or the alderman (if a brother) where the Chapter is held, shall be sociate to the Master, in help of him against rebels and for upholding the rights of the realm.
The identity of the two documents is apparent. Either the Edward III Manuscript was copied from the Cooke, or both were derived from a common original.
EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, KING.
Said to have been a patron of Freemasonry in England in l041.
EDWARD VII, KING OF ENGLAND.
Albert Edward, born November 9, 1841, the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Albert, Prince Consort. Initiated by the King of Sweden, at Stockholm, 1868. In 1870 the rank of Past Grand Master of England was conferred upon him; installed as Most Worshipful Grand Master by the Earl of Carnarvon, April 98, 1875; served as Worshipful Master in the Apollo University Lodge, Oxford; the Royal Alpha Lodge, London, and from 1574 was Worshipful Master of the famous Prince of Wales Lodge, No. 959, never losing an opportunity to publicly show his attachment to the Masonic Fraternity.
He was enrolled as Patron of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland and was an honorary member of the Lodge of Edinburgh, No.1; member and Patron of the Supreme Council of the Thirty-third Degree for England and Grand Master of the Convent General of the Knights Templar. In 1901 he ascended the throne, and then assumed the title of Protector of the Craft, his brother, the Duke of Connaught, succeeding him as Grand Master of Freemasons. Edward VII died May 6, 1910.
The son of Edward, Saxon king of England, who died in 924, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Athelstan. The Masonic tradition is that Athelstan appointed his brother Edwin the Patron of Freemasonry in England, and gave him what the Old Records call a free Charter to hold an Annual Communication or General Assembly, under the authority of which he summoned the Freemasons of England to meet him in a Congregation at York, where they met in 926 and formed the Grand Lodge of England.
The Old Records say that these Freemasons brought with them many old writings and records of the Craft, some in Greek, some in Latin, some in French, and other languages, and from these framed the document now known as the York Constitutions, whose authenticity has been for years so much a subject of controversy among Masonic writers Prince Edwin died two years before his brother, and a report was spread of his being put wrongfully to death by him; "but this," says Preston, "is so improbable in itself, so inconsistent with the character of Athelstan, and, indeed, so slenderly attested, as to be undeserving a place in history." William of Malmesbury, the old chronicler, relates the story, but confesses that it had no better foundation than some old ballads.
But now come the later Masonic antiquaries, who assert that Edwin himself is only a myth, and that, in spite of the authority of a few historical writers, Athelstan had no son or brother of the name of Edwin. Woodford (Old Charges of the British Freemasons, page xiv) thinks that the Masonic tradition points to Edwin, King of Northumbria, whose rendezvous was once at Auldby, near York, and who in 627 aided in the building of a stone church at York, after his baptism there, with Roman workmen. "Tradition," he says, "sometimes gets confused after the lapse of time; but I believe the tradition is in itself true which links Freemasonry to the church building at York by the Operative Brotherhood, under Edwin, in 627, and to a gild Charter under Athelstan, in 927."
The legend of Prince Edwin, of course, requires some modification, but we should not be too hasty in rejecting altogether a tradition which has been so long and so universally accepted by the Fraternity, and to which Anderson, Preston, Krause, Oliver, and a host of other writers, have subscribed their assent. The subject will be fully discussed under the head of York Legend, which see.
The charges said to have been given by Prince Edwin, and contained in the Antiquity Manuscript, are sometimes so called (see Antiquity Manuscript).
EFFINGHAM, CHARLES HOWARD, EARL OF.
Said to have been Grand Master of England from 1579 to 1588 (see William Preston's Illustrations of Masonry, section v). The Earl was born in 1536 and was Lord High Admiral, defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588. IIe died in 1624.
EFFINGHAM, THOMAS HOWARD, EARL OF.
The Duke of Cumberland made the Earl his Pro Grand Master in 1782, serving until 1790.
Thory lists Egay as Grand Master of Portugal in 1805.
It was a belief of almost all the ancient nations, that the world was hatched from an egg made by the Creator, over which the Spirit of God was represented as hovering in the same manner as a bird broods or flutters over her eggs. Faber (Pagan Idolatry i, 4), who traced everything to the Arkite worship, says that this egg, which was a symbol of the resurrection, was no other than the ark; and as Dionysus was fabled in the Orphic hymns to be born from an egg, he and Noah were the same person; wherefore the birth of Dionysus or Brahma, or any other hero god from an egg, was nothing more than the egress of Noah from the ark.
Be this as it may, the egg has been always deemed a symbol of the resurrection, and hence the Christian use of Easter eggs on the great feast of the resurrection of our Lord. As this is the most universally diffused of all symbols, it is strange that it has found no place in the symbolism of Freemasonry, which deals so much with the doctrine of the resurrection, of which the egg was everywhere the recognized symbol. It was, however, used by the ancient architects, and from them was adopted by the Operative Freemasons of the Middle Ages, one of whose favorite ornaments was the ovolo, or egg-molding.
An old document dated December 28, 1599. It is so named from its having been discovered some years ago in the charter chest at Eglinton Castle. It is a Scottish manuscript, and is valuable for its details of early Freemasonry in Scotland. In it, Edinburgh is termed "the first and principal Lodge," and Kilwinning is called "the heid and secund Ludge of Scotland in ad tyme cuming." An exact copy of it was taken by Brother D. Murray Lyon, and published in his History of the Lodge of Edinburgh (page 12). It has also been printed in Brother Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Reprints.
About this country of famed antiquity along the Valley of the River Nile in Northeast Africa, has clustered many suggestive allusions of interest to the Craft. The old Cooke's Manuscript tells us that from Egypt, Freemasonry "went from land to land and from kingdom to kingdom." In more modern days the elaim has been made that a Lodge of the Order of Memphis, was founded by Freemasons of the prominence of Napoleon Bonaparte, General Kleber, and others of the French Army during the Egyptian Campaign of 1798.
The extent of parallelism between the innumerable hieroglyphs or picture-writing on the tombs and monuments of India find Egypt and the symbols and emblems of Freemasonry, taken together with their esoteric interpretation, has caused very many well-thinking Freemasons to believe in an Indian or Egyptian origin of our speculative institution of the present day. So close and numerous are these symbols and their meaning that it becomes difficult for the mind to free itself from a fixed conclusion; and some of the best students feel confident in their judgment to this end, more especially when tracing the Leader, "Moses, learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," from that country to Palestine with the twelve tribes of Israel and their successors building that Holy House in Jerusalem, which has become the chief Masonic symbol. Some have abominated this theory on the ground of alleged polytheism existing among the Egyptians; but this existed only at a later day in the life of the nation, as it also existed among the corrupted Jews in its worst form, for which see Second Kings, chapters 17 to 21.
Brother Thomas Pryer presents this evidence of a monotheistic belief, of pristine purity, among the early Egyptians, ages prior to Abraham's day. We give the hieroglyphs and their interpretation in the illustration.
How prophetical were the Books of Hermes.
O Egypt Egypt! a time shall come, when, in lieu of a pure religion, and of a pure belied thou wilt possess naught but ridiculous fables incredible to posterity, and nothing will remain to thee, but words engraven on stone, the only monuments that will attest thy piety.
Named Thoth, Paophi, Athyr, Choiak, Tybi, Mechir, Phamenoth, Pharmuthi, Pashons, Payni, Epiphi, and Mesore. The above twelve months, commencing with March 1, were composed of thirty days each, and the five supplementarv days were dedicated to Hesiri or Osiris, Hor or Horus Set or Typhon, IIis or Isis, and Nebti or Nephthys. The sacred year commenced July 20; the Alexandrian year, August 29 in the year 25 B.C.
Egypt has alwavs been considered as the birthplace of the Mysteries. It was there that the ceremonies of initiation were first established. It was there that truth was first veiled in allegory, and the dogmas of religion were first imparted under symbolic forms. From Egypt "the land of the winged globe" the land of science and philosophy, "peerless for stately tombs and magnificent temples the land whose civilization was old and mature before other nations, since called to empire, had a name" this system of symbols was disseminated through Greece and Rome and other countries of Europe and Asia, giving origin, through many intermediate steps, to that mysterious association which is now represented by the Institution of Freemasonry. To Egypt, therefore, the Freemasons have always looked with peculiar interest as the cradle of that mysterious science of symbolism whose peculiar modes of teaching they alone, of all modern institutions, have preserved to the present day.
The initiation into the Egyptian Mysteries was, of all the systems practised by the ancients, the most severe and impressive. The Greeks at Eleusis imitated it to some extent, but they never reached the magnitude of its forms nor the austerity of its discipline. The system had been organized for ages, and the Priests, who alone were the hierophants the explainers of the Mysteries, or, as we should call them in Masonic language, the Masters of the Lodges were educated almost from childhood for the business in which they were engaged. That "learning of the Egyptians," in which Moses is said to have been so skilled, was all imparted in these Mysteries. It was confined to the Priests and to the initiates; and the trials of initiation through which the latter had to pass were so difficult to be endured, that none but those who were stimulated by the most ardent thirst for knowledge dared to undertake them or succeeded in submitting to them.
The Priesthood of Egypt constituted a sacred caste, in whom the sacerdotal functions were hereditary. They exercised also an important part in the government of the state, and the Kings of Egypt were but the first subjects of its priests. They had originally organized, and continued to control, the ceremonies of initiation. Their doctrines were of two kinds exoteric or public, which were communicated to the multitude, and esoteric or secret, which were revealed only to a chosen few; and to obtain them it was necessary to pass through an initiation which was characterized by the severest trials of courage and fortitude.
The principal seat of the Mysteries was at Memphis, in the neighborhood of the great Pyramid. They were of two kinds, the greater and the less; the former being the Mysteries of Osiris and Serapis, the latter those of Isis. The Mysteries of Osiris were celebrated at the autumnal equinox, those of Serapis at the summer solstice, and those of Isis at the vernal equinox. The solstice is when the sun is at its greatest declination, usually June 21 and December 22. The equinoxes are twice a year when the days and nights are equal all over the world. The vernal equinox is March 21, the autumnal is September 22. These important astronomical events observed by the ancients were deemed especially suitable occasions for the most ceremonial of their mysterious customs.
The candidate was required to exhibit proofs of a blameless life. For some days previous to the commencement of the ceremonies of initiation, he abstained fmm all unchaste acts, confined himself to an exceedingly light diet, from which animal food was rigorously excluded, and purified himself by repeated ablutions.
Apuleius (Metamorphosis, book xi), who had been initiated in all of them, thus alludes, with cautious reticence, to those of Isis:
The priest, all the profane being removed to a distance taking hold of me by the hand brought me into the inner recesses of the sanctuary itself, clothed in a new linen garment. Perhaps curious reader, you may be eager to know what was then said and done. I would tell you were it lawful for me to tell you; you should know it if it were lawful for you to hear. But both the ears that heard those things and the tongue that told them would reap the evil results of their rashness. Still however kept in suspense as you probably are, with religious longing, I will not torment you with long-protraeted anxiety. Hear. therefore. but believe what is the truth. I approached the confines of death, and, having trod on the threshold of Proserpine, I returned therefrom, being borne through all the elements. At midnight I saw the sun shining with its brilliant light; and I approaehed the presence of the gods beneath and the gods above, and stood near and worshiped them. Behold, I have related to you things of which though heard by you, you must necessarily remam ignorant.
The first Degree, as we may term it, of Egyptian initiation was that into the Mysteries of Isis. What was its peculiar import, we are unable to say. Isis, says Knight, was, among the later Egyptians, the personification of universal nature. To Apuleius she says: "I am nature—the parent of all things, the sovereign of the elements, the primary progeny of time." Plutarch tells us that on the front of the Temple of Isis was placed this inscription: "I, Isis, am all that has been, that is, or shall be, and no mortal hath ever unveiled me." Thus we may conjecture that the Isiac Mysteries were descriptive of the alternate decaying and renovating powers of nature.
Godfrey Higgins (Anacalypsis in, 102), it is true, says that during the Mysteries of Isis were celebrated the misfortunes and tragical death of Osiris in a sort of drama; and Apuleius asserts that the initiation into her mysteries is celebrated as bearing a close resemblance to a voluntary death, with a precarious chance of recovery. But Higgins gives no authority for his statement, and that of Apuleius cannot be constrained into any reference to the enforced death of Osiris. It is, therefore, probable that the ceremonies of this initiation were simply preparatory to that of the Osirian, and taught, by instructions in the physical laws of nature, the necessity of moral purification, a theory which is not incompatible with all the mystical allusions of Apuleius when he describes his own initiation.
The Mysteries of Serapis constituted the second Degree of the Egyptian initiation. Of these rites we have but a scanty knowledge. Herodotus is entirely silent concerning them, and Apuleius, calling them "the nocturnal orgies of Serapis, a god of the first rank," only intimates that they followed those of Isis, and were preparatory to the last and greatest initiation. Serapis is said to have been only Osiris while in Hades; and hence the Serapian initiation night have represented the death of Osiris, but leaving the lesson of resurrection tor a subsequent initiaw tion. But this is merely a conjecture.
In the Mysteries of Osiris, which were the consummation of the Egyptian system, the lesson of death and resurrection was symbolically taught; and the legend of the murder of Osiris, the search for the body, its discovery and restoration to life is scenically represented. This legend of initiation was as follows:
Osiris, a wise king of Egypt, left the care of his kingdom to his wife Isis, abd traveled for three years to communicate to other nations the arts of civilization.
During his absence, his brother Typhon formed a secret conspiracy to destroy him and to usurp his throne. On his return, Osiris was invited by Typhon to an entertainment in the month of November, at which all the conspirators were present. Typhon produced a chest inlaid with gold, and promised to give it to any person present whose body would most exactly fit it. Osiris was tempted to try the experiment; but he had no sooner laid down in the chest, then the lid was closed and nailed down, and the chest thrown into the river Nile.
The chest containing the body of Osiris was, after being for a long time tossed about by the waves, finally cast up at Byblos in Phenicia, and left at the foot of a tamarisk tree. Isis, overwhelmed with grief for the loss of her husband, set out on a journey, and traversed the earth in search of the body. After many adventures, she at length discovered the spot whence it had been thrown up by the waves and returned with it in triumph to Egypt. It was then proclaimed, with the most extravagant demonstrations of joy, that Osiris was risen from the dead and had become a god. Such, with slight variations of details by different writers! arc the general outlines of the Osiric legend which was represented in the drama of initiation. Its resemblance to the Hiramic legend of the Masonic system will be readily seen, and its symbolism will be easily understood. Osiris and Typhon are the representatives of the two antagonistic principles—good and evil, light and darlcrLess, life and death.
There is also an astronomical interpretation of the legend which makes Osiris the sun and Typhon the season of winter, which suspends the fecundating and fertilizing powers of the sun or destroys its life, to be restored only by the return of invigorating spring.
The sufferings and death of Osiris were the great mystery of the Egyptian religion. His being the abstract idea of the Divine goodness, his manifestation upon earth, his death, his resurrection, and his subsequent office as judge of the dead in a futurestate, look, says Wilkinson, like the early revelation of a future manifestation of the Deity converted into a mythological fable. Into these Mysteries Herodotus, Plutarch, and Pythagoras were initiated, and the former two have given brief accounts of them. But their own knowledge must have been extremely limited, for, as Clement of Alexandria (Stromoteis v, 7) tells us, the more important secrets were not revealed even to all the priests, but to a select number of them only.
EGYPTIAN PRIESTS, INITIATIONS OF THE.
In the year 1770, there was published at Berlin a work entitled Crata Repoa; oder Einweihungen der Egyptischen Priester; meaning in English, Crata Repoa, or Initiations of the Egyptian Priests. This book was subsequently republished in 1778, and translated into French under the revision of Ragon, and published at Paris in 1821, by Bailleul. It professed to give the whole formula of the initiation into the Mysteries practised by the ancient Egyptian Priests. Lenning cites the-work, and gives an outline of the system as if he thought it an authentic relation; but Gadicke more prudently says of it that he doubts that there are more mysteries described in the book than svere ever practised by the ancient Egyptian Priests. The French writers have generally accepted it as genuine. Forty years before, the Abbé Terrasson had written a somewhat similar work, in which he pretended to describe the initiation of a Prince of Egypt. Kloss, in his Bibliography, has placed this latter work under the head of Romances of the Order; and a similar place should doubtless be assigned to the Crata Repoa. The curious may, however, be gratified by a brief detail of the system.
According to the Crata Repoa, the Priests of Egypt conferred their initiation at Thebes. The Mysteries were divided into the following seven degrees:
The first degree was devoted to instructions of the phvsical sciences; the second, to geometrv and architecture. In the third degree, the candidate was instructed in the symbolical death of Osiris, and was made acquainted with the hieroglyphical language. In the fourth he was presented with the book of the laws of Egvpt! and became a judge. The instructions of the fifth degree were dedicated to chemistry, and of the sixth to astronomy and the mathematical sciences. In the seventh and last degree the candidate received a detailed explanation of all the mysteries, his head was shaved, and he was presented with a cross, which he was constantly to carry, a white mantle, and a square head dress. To each degree was attached a word and sign. Anyone who should carefully read the Crata Repoa would be convinced that, so far from being founded on any ancient system of initiation, it was simply a modern invention made up out of the high degrees of continental Freemasonry. It is indeed surprising that Lenning and Ragon should have treated it as if it had the least claims to antiquity.
Brother Hawkins says that it has been suggested that Crata Repoa may be an anagram for Arcta Opera or close finished works. The letters of a word being so transposed as to give a different one, then the one is an anagram for the other.
EHEYEH ASHER EHEYEH.
The pronunciation which means, I am that I am, and is one of the pentateuchal names of God. It is related in the third chapter of Exodus, that when God appeared to Moses in the burning bush, and directed him to go to Pharaoh and to the children of Israel in Egypt, Moses required that, as preliminary to his mission, he should be instructed in the name of God, so that, when he was asked by the Israclites, he might be able to prove his mission by announcing what that name was; and God said to him, Eheyeh, or I am that I am; and he directed him to say, "I am hath sent you." Eheych asher eheyeh is, therefore, the name of God, in which Moses was instructed at the burning bush.
Maimonides thinks that when the Lord ordered Moses to tell the people that Eheyeh sent him, he did not mean that he should onlv mention his name; for if they were already acquainted with it, he told them nothing new, and if they were not, it has not likely that they would be satisfied by saying Rich a name sent me, for the proof would still be wanting that this was really the name of God; therefore, he not only told them the name, but also taught them its signification. In those times, Sabaism being the predominant religion, almost all men were idolaters, and occupied themselves in the contemplation of the heavens and the sun and the stars, without any idea of a personal God in the world. Now., the Lord, to deliver his people from such an error, said to Moses, "Go and tell them I am that I am hath sent me unto you," which name Eheyeh, Signifying Being, is derived from; , Heyeh, the verb of existence, and which, being repeated so that the second is the predicate of the first, contains the mystery. This is as if He had said, "Explain to them that I am What I am: that is, that My Being is within Myself, independent of every other, different from all other beings, who are so alone by virtue of My distributing it to them, and might not have been, nor could actually be such without it." So that denotes the Divine Being Himself, by which He cought Moses not only the name, but the infallible demonstration of the Fountain of Existence, as the name itself denotes.
The Cabalists say that Eheyeh is the croum or highest of the Sephiroth, and that it is the name that was hidden in the most secret place of the tabernacle.
The Talmudists had many fanciful exercitations on this word rend, and, among others, said that it is equivalent to Ore, meaning the Almighty, and the four letters of which it is formed possess peculiar properties. The letter X is in Hebrew numerically equivalent to 1, and 8 to 10, which is equal to 11; a result also obtained by taking the second and third letters of the holy name, or is and 1, which are 5 and 6, amounting to 11. But the 5 and 6 invariably produce the same number in their multiplication, for 5 times 5 are 25, and 6 times 6 are 36, and this invariable product of is and 1 was said to denote the unchangeableness of the First Cause. Again, I am commences with R or 1, the beginning of numbers, and Jehovah, with 10, the end of numbers , which signified that God was the beginning and end of all things.
The phrase Eheyeh asher eheyeh is of importance in the study of the legend of the Royal Arch system. Years ago, that learned Freemason, William S. Rockwell, while preparing his Ahiman Rezon for the State of Georgia, undertook its use in the veils.
Among the Pythagoreans the number eight was esteemed as the first cube, being formed by the continued multiplication of 2 by 2 by 2, and signified friendship, prudunce, counsel, and justice; and, as the cube or reduplication of the first even number, it was made to refer to the primitive law of nature, which supposes all men to be equal.
Christian numerical symbologists have called it the symbol of the resurrection, because Jesus rose on the 8th day, that is, the day after the 7th, and because the name of Jesus in Greek numerals, corresponding to its Greek letters, is 10, 8, 200, 70, 400, 200, which, being added up, is 888. Hence, too, they call it the Dominical Number. As eight persons were saved in the ark,those who, like Faber, have adopted the theory that the Arkite Rites pervaded all the religions of antiquity, find an important symbolism in this number, and as Noah was the type of the resumetion, they again find in it a reference to that doctrine. It can, however, be scarcely reckoned among the numerical symbols of Freemasonry.
A sacred number in the advanced Degrees, because it is the square of nine, which is again the square of three. The Pythagoreans, however, who considered the nine as a fatal number, and especially dreaded eighty-one, because it was produced by the multiplication of nine by itself.
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