The Masonic Trowel

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The poor-box; the name given by German Freemasons to the box in which collections of money are made at a Table-Lodge for the relief of poor Brethren and their families.

A corrupted form of Hermes, found in the Lansdowne and some other old manuscripts.

I. A bearer of arms. The title given by Heralds to the Esquire who waited on a Knight. 2. The Sixth Degree of the Order of African Architects.

In English statutes, the word armor means the whole apparatus of war ; offensive and defensive arms. In the Order of the Temple pieces of armor are used to a limited extent. In the Chivalric Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, in order to carry out the symbolism as well as to render effect to its dramas, armor pieces and articles for the use of knights become necessary, with mantling, crest, mottoes, ete. Some of these are herein enumerated as follows:
AILLETTES-Square shields for the shoulders, the original of the present epaulet.
ANLACE-A broad two-edged dagger or short sword once hung at the belt or girdle.
BALDRIC-Belt diagonally crossing the body.
BATTLE-Ax-Waeapon with ax blade and spearhead. ,
BEAVER-Front of helmet, which is raised to admit food and drink or permit the recognition by a View Of the face.
BEAKER-The drinking-cup with mouth-lip.
BELT-For body. Badge of knightly rank.
BRASSARD-armor to protect the arm from elbow to shoulder.
BUCKLER-A round shield for protecting the body.
CORSELET-Breastplate or body armor.
CREST-Ornament on helmet designating rank and in heraldry as well to show identity.
CUIRASS-Defensive armor covering the entire upper part of the trunk and including breastplate and backplate, but has also been applied to breastplate alone.
GADLING-Sharp metallic knuckles on gauntlet.
GAUNTLET-Mailed gloves.
GORGET-Armor between the neck guard and breastplate.
GREAVES-Guards for calves of legs.
HALBERD-Battle-ax and spearhead on long staff formerly used as weapon but later became an emblem of authority at ceremonials.
HAUBERK-Shirt of mail, of rings or scales.
HELMET or CASQUE-Armor for the head.
JAMBEUX-Armor for the legs.
JUPON-Sleeveless jacket, to the hips.
LANCE-Long spear with metallic head and pennon or small pointed flag bearing personal device.
MACE-Heavy short staff of metal, ending with spiked ball.
MANTLE-Outer cloak.
MORION-Head armor without vizor.
PENNON-A pennant, or short streamer, pointed or forked.
PLUME-The designation of knighthood.
SALLET-Light helmet for foot-soldiers.
SOLLERETS-Shoes of mail.
VIZOR-Front of helmet (slashed), moving on pivots.

An apartment attached to the asylum of a Commandery of Knights Templars, in which the swords and other parts of the costume of the knights are deposited for safe-keeping.

Stow says that the Freemasons were incorporated as a company in the twelfth year of Henry IV, l412. Their arms were granted to them, in 1472, by William Hawkesloe, Clarenceux King-at-Arms, and are azure on a chevron between three castles argent; a pair of compasses somewhat extended, of the first. Crest, a castle of the second. They were adopted, subsequently, by the Grand Lodge of England.
The Atholl Grand Lodge objected to this as an unlawful assumption by the Modern Grand Lodge of Speculative Freemasons of the arms of the Operative Freemasons.
They accordingly adopted another coat, which Laurence Dermott blazons as follows: Quarterly per squares,counterchanged vert. In the first quarter, azure, a lion rampant, or. In the second quarter, or, an ox passant sable. In the third quarter, or, a man with hands erect proper, robed crimson and ermine. In the fourth quarter, azure, an eagle displayed or. Crest, the holy ark of the covenant proper, supported by cherubim. Motto, Kodes la Adonai, that is, Holiness to the Lord.
The reader in following the above language of heraldry will note, with reference to the colors, that of the words in French, taking them in order, azure means blue, argent means silver, vert means green, or means gold, sable means black.
These arms as described by Dermott and adopted by his Grand Lodge are derived from the tetrarchical, as Sir Thos. Browne calls them, or general banners of the four principal tribes ; for it is said that the tweive tribes, during their passage through the wilderness, were eneamped in a hollow square, three on each side, as follows : Judah, Zebulun, and Issachar, in the East, under the general banner of Judah ; Dan, Asher, and Naphtali, in the North; under the banner of Dan; Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin, in the West, under the banner of Ephraim; and Reuben, Simeon, and Gad, in the South, under Reuben (see Banners).

Bom at Norwich, Connecticut, January 14, 1741, and died at London, England, June l4, 1801. Settled in New Haven, 1762, and as captain of the local militia offered his services in Revolutionary War, becoming Major-General in 1777, and a trusted associate of Washington but his progress embroiled by several serious conflicts with other officers and his sensitive waywardness matching his bravery, his vexations resulted in an attempt to betray West Point to the British. The plot was discovered but Arnold escaped and as Brigadier-General led an attack upon the Americans at Richmond, Virginia, and New London, Connecticut. The same year, 1781, he removed to England. The published history, 1917, Hiram Lodge No. l, New Haven, Connecticut, page 20, Past Grand Master Wallace S. Moyle writes, "The first record in Book 2 states that "Br. Benedict Arnold is by R. W. (Nathan Whiting) proposed to be made a member (i.e. an affiliate) of this R. W. Lodge. . . and is accordingly made a member in this Lodge." Arnold is recorded as being present as a visiting Brother. Page 82 of the history gives the date as April 10, 1765. Past Master George E. Frisbie, Secretary of Hiram Lodge, was, however, of the opinion (letter dated October 21, 1926) that Amold was made a Freemason in Hiram Lodge and held membership there until his death.
A temperate account is the Life of Benedict Arnold by Isaac N. Amold, 1880, Chicago. Nathan Whiting was Master for several years, was with the Colonial Army in the wars against Canada, was at the fall of Quebec, 1761, and from the outbreak of hostilities to the end Whiting, with other members of the Lodge, was at the front.

Pledge, covenant, agreement. Latin, Arrhabo, a token or pledge. Hebrew, Arab, pronounced aw-rab, which is the root of Arubbah, pronounced ar-oob-baw, surety, hostage. This important word, in the Fourteenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, is used when the initiate partakes of the Ancient Aroba, the pledge or covenant of friendship, by eating and drinking with his new companions. The expression is of greater import than that implied in mere hospitality. The word aroba appears nowhere in English works, and seems to have been omitted by Masonic writers.
The root arab is one of the oldest in the Hebrew language, and means to interweave or to mingle, to exehange, to become surety for anyone, and to pledge even the life of one person for another, or the strongest pledge that can be given. Judah pleads with Israel to let Benjamin go with him to be presented in Egypt to Joseph, as the latter had requested. He says:
"Send the lad with me; I will be surety for him" (Genesis xliii, 9) ; and before Joseph he makes the same remark in Genesis (xliv, 32). Job (xvii, 3), appealing to God, says: "Put me in a surety with thee ; who is he that will strike hands with me?" (see also First Samuel xvii, 18). In its pure form, the word arubbah occurs only once in the Old Tostament (Proverbs xvii, 18) : "A man void of understanding striketh hands, and becometh surety in the presence of bis friend." In Latin, Plautus makes use of the following phrase : Hunc arrhabonem amoris a me accipe, meaning Accept from me this pladge of love, or more freely, Accept this pledge of my love.

Arras is a town in France in the department of Pas de Calais, where, in the year 1747, Charles Edward Stuart, the Pretender, is said to have established a Sovereign Primordial and Metropolitan Chapter of Rosicrucian Freemasons. A portion of the charter of this body is given by Ragon in his Orthodoxie Maçonnique. In 1853, the Count de Hamel, prefect of the department, discovered an authentic copy, in parchment, of this document bearing the date of April 15, 1747, which he deposited in the departmental archives. This document is as follows:
We, Charles Edward, King of England, France, Scotland, and Ireland, and as such Substitute Grand Master of the Chapter of H., known by the title of Knight of the Eagle and Pelican, and since our sorrows and misfortunes by that of Rose Cros, wishing to testify our gratitude to the Masons of Artois, and the officers of the city of Arras, for the numerous marks of kindness which they in conjunction with the officers of the garricon of Arras have lavished upon us, and their attachment to our person, shown during a residence of six months in that city.
We have in favor of them created and erected, and do create and erect by the present Bull, in the aforesaid city of Arras, a Sovereign Primordial Chapter of Rose Crox, under the distinctive title of Scottish Jacobite, to be ruied and governed by the Knights Lagneau and Robespierre; Avocats Hazard, and his two sons, physiciam ; J. B. Luoet, our upholsterer, and Jérome Cellier. our clockmaker, giving to them and to their successors the power not only to make knights, but even to create a Chapter in whatever town they may thak fit, provided that two Chapters shall not be created in the same town however populous it may be.
And that credit may be given to our present Bull, we have signed it with our hand and caused to be affixed thereunto the secret seal, and countersigned by the Secretary of our Cabinet, Thuraday, 15th of the second month of the Year of the Incarnation, 1747.
Countersigned, BERKLEY.

This Chapter created a few othem, and in 1780 established one in Paris, under the distinctive title of Chapter of Arras, in the valley of Paris. It united itself to the Grand Orient of France on the 27th of December, 1801. It was declared First Suffragan of the Scottish Jacobite Chapter, with the right to constitute others. The Chapter established at Arras, by the Pretender, was named the Eagle and Pelican, and Oliver, Origin of the Royal arch (page 22), from this seeks to find, perhaps justifiably, a connection between it and the R. S. Y. C. S. of the Royal Order of Scotland.
Brother Hawkins points out that the story of the establishment of this Chapter by the Pretender is doubted by some writers and it certainly lacks confirmation ; even his joining the Craft at all is disputed by several who have carefully studied the subject.
Brother Hughan in the Jacobite Lodge at Rome (page 27), quotes the advicse to students of Brother George W. Speth that they "put no trust whatever in accounts connecting the Stuarts with Freemasonry.
We have it in the Young Pretender's own written and verbal statements that they are absolutely baseless, pure inventions."

Sm Exlusion.

To arrest the Charter of-a Lodge is a technical phrase. by which is meant to suspend the work of a Lodge, to prevent it from holding its usual communimtions, and to forbid it to transact any business or to do any work. A Grand Master cannot revoke the Warrant of a Lodge ; but if, in bis opinion, the good of Freemasonry or any other sufficient cause requires it, he may suspend the operation of the Warrant until the next Communication of the Grand Lodge, wach Body is alone competent to revise or approve of his action.

Name under which the transactios of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati, No. 2076, London, the premier litemry Lodge of the world, have been pub1ished in annual volumes, commencing with the year 1888.

A learned native of Dantzic, Rector of the Gymnasium at Frankfort-the-Main, who wrote many works on Rosicrucianism, under the assumed name of Irenaeus Agnostus (see agnostus).

An officer in the Council of Knights of Constantinople.

See Royal art

In the Masonic phrase, "arts, parts, and points of the Mysteries of Freemasonry" ; ants means the knowledge, or things. made known, parts the degrees into which Freemasonry is divided, and points the rules and usages (see Parts, and also Points).

See Liberal Arts and Sciences.

Tradition places Arundel as the Grand Master of English Freemawns from 1633 to 1635. This claim is in accordance with the accounts of Anderson and Preston.

One of the three historical divisions of religion-the other two being the Turanian and the Shemitic. It produced Brahmanism, Buddism, and the Code of Zoroaster.

A variegated pavement used for flooring in temples and ancient edifices.

Also called Holy Thursday. A festival of the Christian church held in commemoration of the ascension of our Lord forty days after Easter. It is celebrated as a feast day by Chapters of Rose Croix.

The twelve gods and as many goddesses in the Scandinavian mythology.

A literary plagiarist who resided in Bristol, England. In 1814 he published The Masonic Manual; or Lectures on Freemasonry. Ashe does not, it is true, pretend to originality, but abstains from giving credit to Hutchinson, from whom he has taken at least two-thirds of his book. A second edition appeared in 1825, and in 1843 an edition was published by Spencer, with valuable notes by Dr. Oliver.

The first translator into German of the Halliwell or Regius Manuscript, which he published at Hamburg, in 1842, under the title of Alteste Urkunde der Freimaurerei in England. This work contains both the original English document and the aan translation.

This is defined by Bailey as "Freestone as it comes out of the quarry." In speculative Freemasonry we adopt the ashlar, in two different states, as symbols in the Apprentice's Degree. The Rough Ashlar, or stone in its rude and unpo1ished condition, is emblematic of man in his natural state---ignorant, uncultivated, and vicious. But when education has exerted its wholesome influence in expanding his intellect, restraining his passions, and purifying his life, he then is represented by the Perfect Ashlar, which, under the skilfuI hands of the workmen, has been smoothed, and squared, and fitted for its place in the building. In the older lectures of the eighteenth century the Perfect Ashlar is not mentioned, but its place was supplied by the Broached Thurnel.

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