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A federal republic of south America. The Grand Lodge of Pennsyivania granted a Charter on September 5, 1825, to Southern Star Lodge, No. 205, at Buenos Aires. This was the first Lodge established in the Argentine Republic, but in 1846, with other Lodges which had been formed, it was suppressed.
It was reported that a Grand Lodge of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite had existed in 1856 but it did not flourish for long. On April 22, 1858, however, the Supreme Council and Grand Orient of Uruguay constituted a Body similar to itself at Montevideo. About this time it is said that a Roman Catholic Bishop in Buenos Aires was active against the Freemasons to such an extent that an appeal was made against one of his Degrees to Pope Pius IX at Rome. As a result of the appea1 it was claimed that a the Pope had, when a young man, taken the Degrees in 1816. This story, however, is also told with some variations in reference to ther people and places.
In 1861 the Grand Lodge of England and the Grand Orient of the Argentine agreed that the latter had the power to establish Lodges in La Plata and to appoint a District Grand Master to preside over the District Grand Lodge.
The Grand Orient of Spain has chartered two Lodges at Buenos Aires, the Grand Orient of Italy has authorized three Lodges at Bahia Blanca, four at Buenos Aires, two at Boca del Riachuclo, and one at La Plata ; the Grand Lodge of Hamburg has a Lodge at Rosario de Santa Fe and another at Buenos Aires; the Grand Orient of France has also one at Buenos Aires which has been active since July 8, 1852, and the Grand Lodge of England has twenty-two 'attered through the country, two being at Rosario, and seven at the capital. .
ARGONAUTS, ORDER OF.
A German androgynous or male and female society founded in 1775, by Brethren of the Rite of Strict Observance.
The name is from a Greek myth of those who sailed with Jason on the ship Argo in search of the golden fleece. Much of the myth of the Argonauts was introduced into the forms and ceremonies, and many of the symbols taken from this source, such as meeting upon the deck of a Vessel, the chief officer being called Grand Admiral, and the nomenelature of parts of the vessel being used. The motto was Es Lebe die Freude, or Joy forever.
In the demonology of the Cabala, the word is applied to the spirit of air; the guardian angel of innocence and purity : hence the Masonic aynonym.
A name applied to Jerusalem ; and to a water spirit.
That science which is engaged in considering the properties and powers of numbers, and ,wich, from its manifest necessity in all the operations of weighing, numbering, and measuring, must have had its origin in the remotest ages of the world.
In the lecture of the degree of Grand Master Architect, the application of this science to Freemasonry is made to consist in its reminding the Freemason that he is continualiy to add to his knowledge, never to subtract anything from the character of his neighbor, to multiply his benevolence to his fellowcreatures, and to divide his means with a suffering Brother.
The year 1866 saw the first Lodge established in Arizona when, on October 11, Aztlan Lodge at Prescott was chartered by the Grand Lodge of California. On March 23, 1882, delegates of three Lodges : Arizona, No. 257 ; Tucson, No. 263, and White Mountain, No. 5, held a Convention at Tucson, and the representatives of Solomon Lodge, under dispensation, were invited to take part in the proceedings. After adopting a Constitution a Lodge of Master Masons was opened, and the Grand Officers were elected.
Two days later the Grand Officers were installed, the Convention closed, and the Grand Lodge duly opened.
A Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, Arizona No. l, at Phoenix, Maricopa County, was chartered August 24, 1880.
On the invitation of Companion Past High Priest George J. Roskruge, of Tucson Chapter, No. 3, a Convention of Royal Arch Masons met in the hall of Tucson Lodge, No. 4, on November 13, 1889, to consider the organization of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons for the Territory of Arizona. Five Chapters were represented: Arizona, No. l ; Preseott, No. 2; Tucson, No. 3; Cochise, No.4 and Flagstaff No. 5. The Grand Chapter of Arizona was opened in Ample Form, Martin W. Kales was elected Grand High Priest, and G. J. Roskruge. Grand Secretary.
By a Dispensation dated July 1, 1893, a Council of Royal and Select Masters, Olive No. l, was organized at Prescott. It was chartered on August 22, 1893 but this Charter was annulled on October 6, 1903. Phoenix Couneil at Phoenix had a Dispensation dated April 4 l895, but this was surrendered, February 17, 1897, and a Dispensation dated April 5, 1895, was surrendered on September 2, 1897, by Tucson Council at Tucson. At a Convention in Tucson, February 14, 1922, General Grand Master Fay Hempstead presiding, representatives from Huachuca Council No. l, chartered August 31, 191a of Bisbee; Hiram Council No. 2, chartered August 31, 1915, of Prescott; Gila Council No. 3, chartered September 27, 1921, of Globe, and Phoenix Council No. 4, chartered September 27, 1921, of Phoenix, formed the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of Arizona, with M. I. Riekmer N. Frederieks of Preseott as Grand Master, and R. I. George J. Roakruge of Tuewn as Grand Recorder. "
On February 22, 1883, Arizona Commandery, No. l, was established by Dispensation at Tuewn, Pima County. Its Charter was granted on August 23, 1883. The Grand Commandery of Arizona was formed by Warrant from the Grand Encampment of the United States on November 16, 1893. Sir George J. Roskruge, acting as proxy for Sir Hugh Mccurdy, Grand Master of Knights Templar, aummoned together on November 14, 1893, in the Asylum of Phoenix Commandery, No. 3, the representatives of the three chartered Commanderies in Arizona-Arizona, No. l ; Ivanhoe, No. 2; Phoenix, No. 3. A Constitution was adopted and Grand Ofiieers eleeted. The following day at the same place the Grand Oflieers were installed and Sir George J. Roskruge declared the Grand Commandery then assembled to be duly constituted. A Charter was granted to Arizona, No. l, as a Consistory of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, at Tucson on October 20, 1909, and on the same date to a Council of Kadosh, Santa Cruz, No. I. A Chapter of Rose Croix, Santa Catalina, No. l, was chartered on October 23, 1907, and a Lodge of Perfection, Santa Rita, No. l, on April 25, 1883.
Arjuna is the name of a personification in the Sanskrit poem, the Bhagavad Gita, and was given to a society formed at Manchester, New Hampshire, on January 1, 1893, for archeological studies, by S. C. Gould who became president. The latter published Notes and Queries monthly up to his death in 1909, some thirty-seven volumes, and in this publication only a few meetings of the Arjuna Society are recorded.
In the ritual of the American Royal Arch Degree three arks are mentioned:
1. The Ark of Safety, or of Noah ;
2. The Ark of the Covenant, or of Moses;
3. The Substitute Ark, or the Ark of Zerubbabel. In what is technically called the passing of the veils, each of these arks has its commemorative illustration, and in the order in which they have been named.
The first was constructed by Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah; the second by Moses, Aholiab, and Bezaleel ; and the third was discovered by Joshua, Haggai, and Zerubbabel.
ARK AND ANCHOR.
See Anchor and Ark.
ARK AND DOVE.
An illustrative Degree, preparatory to the Royal Arch, and usually conferred, when conferred at all, immediately before the solemn ceremony of exaltation.
The name of Noachite, sometimes given to it, is incorrect, as this belongs to a Degree in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. It is very probable that the Degree, which now, however, has lost much of its significance, was derived from a much older one calied the Royal Ark Mariners, to which the reader is referred.
The legend and symbolism of the ark and dove formed an important part of the spurious Freemasonry of the ancients.
The modem school of historians, Masonic and profane, write history, from original sources when possible, but in this case that method is no longer possible, as all the records of the Grand Lodge of this State were burned in 1864 and again in 1876 when all records gathered since 1864 were destroyed-depriving them of all early reeords.
On November 29, 1819, the Grand Lodge of Kentucky issued a Dispensation to Arkansas Lodge, at the Post of Arkansas. Its Charter was granted on August 29, 1820, but was surrendered on August 28, 1822. Brother Robert Johnson was named in the Charter as Woschipful Master. Representatives of four Lodges, Washington, Moming Star, Western Star, and Mount Horeb, under dispensation, attended a Convention on November 21, 1838, and adopted a Constitution. Officers were elected and the Grand Lodge duly constituted.
The first Chapter in Arkansas was chartered by the General Grand Chapter of the United States on September 17, 1841. With three others this Chapter organized the Grand Chapter of Arkansas, at a Convention held on April 28, 1851. Far West Chapter, No. l, joined in 1852.
Companion Elbert H. English was elected the first Grand High Priest, and when the General Grand Chapter of the United States held its Convocation at Nashville on November 24, 1874, he was elected General Grand High Priest. Companion Albert Pike, elected Grand High Priest on November 10, 1853, and also on November 11, 1854, is said to have originated the Ritual employed in Arkansas, which is somewhat different from that in general use.
The Supreme Couneil of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in the Southem Jurisdiction chartered five Councils in the State of which four formed the Grand Council, November 6, 1860. The Convention is said by Brother Roberson to have been called at the invitation of the Southern Supreme Council, one provision of its Constitution being that all members of that Supreme Council, resident in the State, and all the members of the Convention, should be members of the Grand Council as long as they were members of Councils in the State (see History of the Cryptic Rite, page 95).
The Hugh de Payens, No. l, Commandery was organized at Little Rock, December 20, 1853, and received a Charter September 10, 1856. On May 23, 1872, the Grand Commandery of Arkansas was constituted.
Arkansas, No. l, was established a Consistory at Little Rock by Charter dated October 10, 1892. On September 10, 1891, Charters were granted to a Council of Kadosh, Godfrey de Saint Omar, No. l, to a Chapter of Rose Croix, Excelsior, No. l, and to a Lodge of Perfection, Acacia, No. l, all of which were located at Little Rock.
The almost universal prevalence among the nations of antiquity of some tradition of a long past deluge, gave rise to certain mythological doctrines and religious ceremonies, to which has been given the name of Arkite Worship, which was Very extensively diffused.
The evidence of this is to be found in the mered feeling which was entertained for the sacredness of high mountains, derived, it is supposed, from recollections of an Ararat, and from the presence in all the Mysteries of a basket, chest, or coffer, whose mystical character bore apparentiy a reference to the ark of Noah.
On the subject. of this Arkite Worship, Jacob Bryant in A New System or an analysis of ancient Mythology, George Stanley Faber in a Dissertation on the Mysteries of the Cabiri, Godfrey Higgins in the Anacalypas, the Abbé Antoine de Banier, and many other writers, have made learned investigations, which may be consulted with advantage by the Masonic archeologist.
ARK MARINER, JEWEL OF ROYAL.
The jewel of this Degree prefigures the teachings, which are unique, and draws their symbols from the sea, rain, ark, dove, olive-branch, and Rainbow. This last symbol, as the Almighty's sign, overshadows the ark, which really is the sign of Ishtar.
The ark is said to have contained all the elements of Elohim's creative power, and in ''about nine months and three days there came forth the pent-up energies of Maiya" ; her symbol is the dove with the mystie olive, which are sacred to her. The whole underlying thought is that of creation.
See Royal Ark Mariners.
Known also as the Ark of Safety. Construeted by Shem, Ham, and Japheth, under the superintendence of Noah, and in it, as a chosen tabernacle of refuge, the patriarch's family took refuge. This ark has been called by many commentators a tabernacle of Jehovah ; and Doctor Jarvis, speaking of the Hebrew word , pronounced Zo-har, which has been translated window, says that, in all other passages of Scripture where this word occurs, it signifies the meridian light, the brightest effulgence of day, and therefore it could not have been an aperture, but a source of light itself. He supposes it therefore to have been the Divine Shekinah, or Glory of Jehovah wich afterward dwelt between the cherubim over the Ark of the Covenant in the tabernacle and the Temple (see the Church of the Redeemed, 1, 20).
ARK OF THE COVENANT.
The Ark of the Covenant or of the Testimony was a chest, originally constructed by Moses at God's command (Exodus xxv, 10), in which were kept the two tables of stone, on which were engraved the Ten Commandments.
This ark contained, likewise, a golden pot filled with manna, Aaron's rod, and the tables of the covenant.
It was at first deposited in the most sacred place of the tabernacle and afterward placed by Solomon in the Sanctum Sanctorum of the Temple, and was lost upon the destruction of that building by the Chaldeans.
The later history of this ark is buried in obscurity.
It is supposed that, upon the destruction of the first Temple by the Chaldeans, it was carried to Babylon among the other sacred utensils which became the spoil of the conquerors. But of its subsequent fate all traces have been lost.
However, it is certain that it was not brought back to Jerusalem by Zerubbabel. The Talmudists say that there were five things which were the glory of the first Temple that were wanting in the seeond; namely, the Ark of the Covenant, the Shekinah or Divine Presence, the Urim and Thummim, the holy fire upon the altar, and the spirit of prophecy. The Rev. Salem Towne, it is true, has endeavored to Prove, by a Very ingenious argument, that the original Ark of the Covenant was concealed by Josiah, or by others, at some time previous to the destruction of Jerusalem, and that it was afterward, at the building of the second Temple, discovered and brought to light.
But such a theory is entirely at Variance with all the legends of the Degree of Select Master and of Royal Arch Freemasonry. To adinit it would lead to endless confusion and contradictions in the traditions of the Order. Besides, it is in conflict with the opinions of the Rabbinical Writers and every Hebrew scholar. Josephus and the Rabbis allege that in the second Temple the Holy of Holies was empty, or contained only the Stone of Foundation which marked the place which the ark should have occupied.
The ark was made of shittim wood, which is a species of acacia, overlaid, within and without, with pure gold, and was about three feet nine inches long, two feet three inches wide, and of the same extent in depth. It had on the side two rings of gold, through which were placed staves of shittim wood, by which, when necessary, the ark was bome by the Levites.
Its covering was of pure gold, over which was placed two figures called cherubim, an order of exalted angelic beings, with expanded wings. The covering of the ark was called nana, a Hebrew word pronounced kap-po-reth, from the word ana, pronounced kaw-far and meaning to blot out or pardon, and hence its English name of mercy-seat, as being the place where the intercession for sin was made.
The researches of archeologists in the last few years have thrown much light on the Egyptian mysteries. Among the ceremonies of that ancient people was one called the Procession of Shrines, which is mentioned in the Rosetta stone, and depicted on the Temple walls. One of these shrines was an ark, which was carried in procession by the priests, who supported it on their shoulders by staves passing through metal rings.
This ark was thus brought into the Temple and deposited on a stand or altar, that the ceremonies prescribed in the ritual might be performed before it. The contents of these arks were various, but always of a mystical character. Sometimes the ark would contain symbols of Life and Stability; sometimes the sacred beetle, the symbol of the Sun; and there was always a representation of two figures of the goddess Theme or Truth and Justice, which overshadowed the ark with their wings. These coincidences of the Egyptian and Hebrew arks must have been more than accidental.
The chest or coffer which constitutes a part of the furniture, and is used in the ceremonies of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, and in a Council of Select Masters according to the American system, is called by Freemasons the Substitute Ark, to distinguish it from the other ark, that which was constructed in the wilderness under the direction of Moses, and which is known as the ark of the Covenant. This the Substitute Ark was made to represent under circumstances that are recorded in the Masonic traditions, and especially in those of the Select Degree.
The ark used in Royal Arch and Cryptic Freemasonry in the United States is generally of this form:
Prideaux, on the authority of Lightfoot, contends that, as an ark was indispensable to the Israelitish worship, there was in the.second Temple an ark which had been expressly made for the purpose of supplying the place of the first or original ark, and which, without possessing any of its prerogatives or honors, was of precisely the same shape and dimensions, and was deposited in the same place. The Masonic legend, whether authentic or not, is simple and connceted. It teaches that there was an ark in the seeond Temple, but that it was neither the Ark of the Covenant, which had been in the Holy of Holies of the first Temple, nor one that had been constructed as a substitute for it after the building of the second Temple. It was that ark which was presented to us in the Select Master's Degree, and which being an exact copy of the Mosaical ark, and intended to replace it in case of its loss, which is best known to Freemasons as the Substitute Ark.
Lightfoot gives these Talmudic legends, in his Prospect of the Temple, in the following language:
"It is fancied by the Jews, that Solomon, when he built the Temple, foreseeing that the Temple should be destroyed, caused very obscure and intricate vaults under ground to be made, wherein to hide the ark when any such danger came; that howsoever it went with the Temple, yet the ark, which was the very life of the Temple, might be saved. And they understand that passage in the Second Chronicles ixxxv, 3), 'Josiah said unto the Levites, Put the holy ark into the house which Solomon, the son of David, did build,' ete., as if Josiah, having heard by the reading of Moses' manuscript, and Huldah's prophecy of the danger that hung over Jerusalem, commanded to convey the ark into this vault, that it might be secured; and with it, say they, they laid up Aaron's rod, the pot of manna, and the anointing oil. For while the ark stood in its place upon the stone mentioned-they hold that Aaron's rod and the pot of manna stood before it ; but, now, were all conveyed into obscurity-and the stone upon which the ark stood lay over the mouth of the Vault. But Rabbi Solomon, which useth not, ordinarily, to forsake such traditions, hath given a more serious gloss upon the place ; namel y, that whereas Manasseh and Amon had removed the ark out of its habitation, and set up images and abominations there of their own-Joshua speaketh to the priests to restore it to its plase again.
What became of the ark, at the burning of the temple by Nebuchadnezzar, we read not; it is most likely it went to the fire also. However it sped, it was not in the second Temple; and is one of the five choice things that the Jews reckon wanting there. Yet they had an ark there also of their own making, as they had a breastplate of judgment; which, though they both wanted the glory of the former, which was giving of oracles, yet did they stand current as to the other matters of their worship, as the former breastplate and ark had done."
The idea of the concealment of an ark and its accompanying treasures always prevailed in the Jewish church. The account given by the Talmudists is undoubtedly mythical; but there must, as certainly, have been some foundation for the myth, for every myth has a substratum of truth. The Masonic tradition differs from the Rabbinical, but is in every way more reconcilable with truth, or at least with probability. The ark construeted by Moses, Aholiab, and Bezaleel was burned at the destruction of the first Temple; but there was an exact representation of it in the second.
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