The Masonic Trowel

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Roman author, born at Madaura in northern Africa about 125 to 130 A.D. Well educated, widely traveled, he became notable as lecturer and advocate at Rome and Carthage.
Accused of Witchcraft by the relatives of a rich widow he had married, he made a spirited and entertaining defence that is still in existence, and tells us something of his life. His chief work, the Metamorphoses or Golden Ass, tells of the adventures of the hero in the form of an ass but who is restored to human shape by the goddess Isis, his initiation into the Mysteriesais described and his progress in the priesthood discussed; he became a provincial priest, collected the temple funds and administered them. The works of Apuleius are valuable for the light they throw upon ancient manners and references to them during the centuries by Saint Augustine and others show the interest this writer excited in his studies of religion, philosophy and magic.

This country is a peninsula forming the southwestern extreme of Asia. The Lodge of Integrity attached to the 14th Regiment of Foot, warranted June 17, 1846, and constituted on October 20 at Halifax, Nova Scotia, the same year, met in1878 at Aden.
There is at present in existence a Lodge at Aden chartered by the Grand Lodge of Scotland under the name of Felix Lodge.

An Arabian sect of the second century, who believed that the soul died with the body, to be again revived with it at the general resurrection.

An appendage to the Veda of the Indians supplementary to the Brahmanas, but giving more prominence to the mystical sense of the rites of worship.

See Ornan.

In the Old Charges Freemasons are advised, in all cases of dispute or controversy, to submit to the arbitration of the Masters and Fellows, rather than to go to law.
For example, the Old Charges, adopted by the Grand Lodge of Ohio as part of the Constitution of that Masonic Jurisdiction, provide in the Code and Supplement of 1914 and 1919 (page16), that "Finally, all these Charges you are to observe, and also those that shall be communicated to you in another way ; cultivating Brotherly-Love, the foundation and Cap-stone, the Cement and Glory of this ancient Fraternity, avoiding all Wrangling and Quarreling, all Slander and Backbiting, nor permitting others to slander any honest Brother, but defending his Character, and doing him all good Offices, as far as is consistent with your Honour and safety, and no farther. And if any of them do you Injury, you must apply to your own or his Lodge ; and from thence you may appeal to the Grand Lodge at the Quarterly Communication, and from thence to the annual Grand Lodge; as has been the ancient laudable Conduct of our Forefathers in every Nation ; never taking a legal Course but when the Case cannot be otherwise decided, and patiently listening to the honest and friendly Advice of Master and Fellows, when they would prevent you going to Law with strangers, or would excite you to put a speedy Period to all Law Suits, that so you may mind the Affair of Masonry with the more Alacrity and Success ;
but with respect to Brothers or Fellows at Law, the Master and Brethren should kindly offer their Mediation, which ought to be thankfully submitted to by the contending Brethren, and if that submission is impracticable, they. must however carry on their Process, or Law-suit, without Wrath and Rancor, (not in the common way,) saying or doing nothing which may hinder Brotherly-Love, and good Offices to be renew'd and continu'd; that all may see the benign Influence of Masonry, as all true Masons have done from the Beginning of the World, and will do to the End of Time."

Erected in Scotland during the twelfth century. Rev. Charles Cordinet, in his description of the mins of North Britain, has given an account of a seal of the Abbey Arbroath marked ''Initiation.'' The seal was ancient before the abbey had an existence, and contains a perfectly distinct characteristic of the Scottish Rite. The town is also known as Aberbrotack and is a seaport in Forfarshire.

The name of derision aven to the Orient tif Clermont in France, that is to say, to the Old Grand Lodge, before the union in 1799.

Latin, meaning secrets or inner mystery.

The mode of initiation into the primitive Christian church (see Discipline of the Secret).

Writers on architecture have, until within a few years, been accustomed to suppose that the invention of the arch and keystone was not before the era of Augustus. But the researches of modern antiquaries have traced the existence of the arch as far back as 460 years before the building of King Solomon's Temple, and thus rescued Masonic traditions from the charge of anachronism or error in date (see Keystone).

See Catenarian Arch.

The Thirteenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite is sometimes so called (see Knight of the Ninth Arch).

Job (xxvai, 11) compares heaven to an arch supported by pillars. "The pillars of heaven tremble and are astonished at his reproof."
Doctor Cutbush, on this passage, remarks, "The arch in this instance is allegorical, not only of the arch of heaven, but of the higher degree of Masonry, commonly called the Holy Royal Arch. The pillars which support the arch are emblematical of Wisdom and Strength; the former denoting the wisdom of the Supreme Architect, and the latter the stability of the Universe" (see the Arneric&n edition of Brewster's Encyclopedia).

The Thirteenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Rite is sometimes so called, by which it is distinguished fiom the Royal Arch Degree of the English and American systems.

The grand honors are conferred, in the French Rite, by two ranks of Brethren elevating and crossing their drawn swords. They call it in French the Voute d'Acier.

The seventh Degree of the American Rite is sometimes so called to distinguish it from the Royal Arch of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, which is called the Royal Arch of Solomon.

See Royal Arch Degree.

The science which is engaged in ahe study of those minor branches of antiquities which do not enter into the course of general history, such as national architecture, genealogies, manners, customs heraldic subjects, and others of a similar nature.'The archeclogy of Freemasonry has been made within a recent period, a very interesting study, and is much indebted for its successful pursuit to the labors of Kloss, Findel, and Begemann in Germany, and to Thory and Ragon in France, and to Oliver, Lyon, Hughan, Gould, Sadler, Dr. Chetwode Crawley, Hawkins, Songhurst, and others in Great Britain.
The scholars of this science have especially directed their attention to the collection of old records, and the inquiry into the condition and organization of Masonic and other secret associations during the Middle Ages. In America, William S Rockwell, Albert Pike and Enoch Carson were diligent students of Masonic archeology, and several others in the United States have labored assiduously in the same inviting field.

The principal type, figure, pattern, or example whereby and whereon a thing is formed. In the science of symbolism, the archetype is the thing adopted as a symbol, whence the symbolic idea is derived. Thus, we say the Temple is the archetype of the Lodge, because the former is the symbol whence all the Temple symbolism of the latter is derived.

The chief officer of the Mithraic Mysteries in Persia. He was the representative of Ormudz, or Ormazd, the type of the good, the true, and the beautiful, who overcame Ahriman, the spirit of evil, of the base, and of darkness.

In laying the corner-stones of Masonic edifices, and in dedicating them after they are finished, the architect of the building, although he may be a profane, is required to take a part in the ceremonies. In the former case, the square, level, and plumb are delivered to him with a charge by the Grand Master; and in the latter case they are retumed by him to that officer.

See African Architects

An officer in the French Rite, whose duty, it is to take charge of the fumiture of the Lodge. In the Scottish Rite such officer in the Consistory has charge of the general arrangement of all preparatory matters for the working or ceremonial of the degrees.

The French expression is Grande Architecte par 3, 5, et 7. A degree in the manuscript of Peuvret's collection.

The French expression is Grande Architecte and is used in reference to the following:
1. The Sixth Degree of the Rite of Martinism.
2. The Fourth Degree of the Rite of Elect Cohens.
3. The Twenty-third Degree of the Rite of Mizraim.
4. The Twenty-fourth Degree of the third series in the collection of the Metropolitan Chapter of France.

See Grand Master Architect.

The French expreasion is Petit Architecte and refers to the following :
1. The Twenty-third Degree of the third series of the collection of the Metropolitan Chapter of Franee.
2. The Twenty-seeond Degree of the Rite of Mizraim.

The French expression is Architecte de Salomon. A degree in the manuscript collection of M. Peuvret.

The French phrase is, Parfait Architecte. The Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth, and Twenty-seventh Degrees of the Rite of Mizraim are Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Perfeet Architect.

The French is Parfait et Sublime Grande Architecte. A degree in the collection of the Loge de Saint Louis des Amis Réunis at Calais.

A Greek word, adopted in Latin, signifying belonging to architecture. Thus, Vitruvius writes, rationes architectonicae, meaning the rules of architecture.
But as Architecton signifies a Master Builder, the Grand Lodge of Scotland, in some Latin inscriptions, has used the word architectonicus, to denote Masonic or relating to Freemasonry. In the inscription on the corner-stone of the Royal Exchange of Edinburgh, we find fratres architectonici used for Freemasons; and in the Grand Lodge diplomas, a Lodge is called societas architectonica; but the usage of the word in this sense has not been generally adopted.

The urge toward art of constructing dwellings, as a shelter from the heat of summer and the cold of winter, must have been resorted to from the very first moment in which man became subjected to the power of the elements. Architecture is, therefore, not only one of the most important, but one of the most ancient of sciences. Rude and imperfect must, however, have been the first efforts of the human race, resulting in the erection of huts clumsy in their appearance, and ages must have elapsed ere wisdom of design combined strength of material with beauty of execution.
As Geometry is the science on which Freemasonry is founded, Architecture is the art from which it borrows the language of its symbolic instruction. In the earlier ages of the Order every Freemason was either an operative mechanic or a superintending architect.
Therefore something more than a superficial knowledge of the principies of architecture is absolutely essential to the Freemason who would either understand the former history of the Institution or appreciate its present objects.
There are five orders of architecture: the Doric, the Ionic, the Corinthian, the Tuscan, and the Composite. The first three are the original orders, and were invented in Greece; the last two are of later formation, and owe their existence to Italy. Each of these orders, as well as the other terms of architecture, so far as they are connected with Freemasonry, will be found under its appropriate head throughout this work.
The Books of Constitutions, commenced by Anderson and continued by Entick and Noorthouck, contain, under the title of a History of Freemasonry, in reality a history of the progress of architecture from the earliest ages. In the older manuscript, Constitutions, the science of Geometry, as well as Architecture, is made identical with Freemasonry; so that he who would rightly understand the true history of Freemasonry must ever bear in mind the distinction between Geometry, Architecture, and Freemasonry, which is constantly. lost sight of in these old records.

The French expression is Morçeau d'architecture. The name given in French Lodges to the Minutes and has also been applied to the literary, musical, or other contributions of any Brother and especialiy to such offerings by a new member.

This word means, properly, a place of deposit for records; but it means also the records themselves. Hence the archives of a Lodge are its records and other documents. The legend in the Second Degree, that the pillars of the Temple were made hollow to contain the archives of Freemasonry is simply a myth, and a modern one.

An officer in the Grand Council of Rites of Ireland who performs the duties of Secretary General.

An officer in some of the Bodies of the advaneed degrees a whose duties are indicated by the name. In the Grand Orient of France he is called Grand Garde des Timbres et Sceaux, as he combines the duties of a keeper of the archives and a keeper of the seals.

An officer in French Lodges who has charge of the archives. The Germans call him the Archivar.

A word in the advanced degrees, used as the name of the angel of fire. It is a distorted form of Adariel, or aw-dar-ale, meaning in Hebrew the splendor of God.

A word used in some of the rituals of the advanced degrees. It is found in Isaiah (xxxiii, 7), where it is translated, in the authorized version, "valiant ones," and by Lowth, ''mighty men.'' It is a doubtful word, and is probably formed from Ariel, meaning in Hebrew the lion of God. D'Herbelot says that Mohammed called his uncle Hamseh, on account of his valor, the lion of God. In the Cabala, Arelim is the name of the third angel or sephirah, one of the ten attributes of God.

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