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ANDRASSY, COUNT JULIUS.
ANDRE, CHRISTOPHER KARL.
An active Freemason, who resided at Brunn, in Moravia, where, in 1798, he was the Director of the Evangelical Academy. He was very zealously employed, about the end of the last century, in connection with other distinguished Freemasons, in the propagation of the Order in Germany. He was the editor and author of a valuable periodical work, which was published in five numbers, octavo, from 1793 to 1796, at Gotha and Halle under the title of Der Freimaurer, oder a compendiose Bibliothek alles Wissenswurdigen ueber geheime Gesellschaften, meaning The Freemason, or a Compendious Library of everything worthy of notice in relation to Secret Societies.... Besides valuable extracts from contemporary Masonic writers, it contains several essays and treatises by the editor.
ANDREA, JOHN VALENTINE.
This distinguished philosopher and amiable moralist, who has been claimed by many writers as the founder of the Rosicrucian Order, was born on the 17th of August, 1586, at the small town of Herrenberg, in the Kingdom of Wurttemberg, where his father exercised clerical junctions of a respectable rank.
After receiving an excellent education in his native province, he traveled extensively through the principal countries of Europe, and on his return home received the appointment, in 1614, of deacon in the town of Vaihingen. Four years after he was promoted to the office of superintendent at Kalw. In 1639 he was appointed court chaplain and a spiritual privy councilor, and subsequently Protestant prelate of a Adelberg, and almoner of the Duke of Wurttemberg. He died on the 27th of June, 1654, at the age of sixty-eight years.
Andrea was a man of extensive acquirements and of a most feeling heart. By his great abilities he was enabled to elevate himself beyond the narrow limits of the prejudiced age in which he lived, and his literary labors were exerted for the reformation of manners, and for the supply of the moral wants of the times. His writings, although numerous, were not voluminous, but rather brief essays full of feeling, judgment, and chaste imagination, in which great moral, political, and religious sentiments were clothed in such a language of sweetness, and yet told with such boldness of spirit, that, as Herder says, he appears, in his contentious and anathematizing century, 'ike a rose springing up among thorns.
Thus, in his Menippus, one of the ear1iest of his works, he has, with great skill and freedom, attacked the errors of the Church and of bis contemporaries.
His Herculis Christiani Luctus, xxiv, 18 supposed by a some persons to have given indirectly, if not immediately, hints to John Bunyan for his Pilgrim's Progress.
One of the most important of his works, however, or at least one that has attracted most attention, is his Fama Fraternitatis, published in 1615. This and the Chemische Hochzeit Christiani Rosencreuz, or Chemical Nuptials, by Christian Rosencreuz, which is also attributed to him, are the first works in which the Order of the Rosicrucians is mentioned. Arnold, in his Ketzergeschichte or History of Heresy, contends, from these works, that Andrea was the founder of the Rosicrucian Order.
Others claim a previous existence for it, and suppose that he was simply an annalist of the Order; while a third party deny that any such Order was existing at the time, or afterward, but that the whole was a mere mythical rhapsody, invented by Andrea as a convenient vehicle in which to convey his ideas of reform. But the whole of this subject is more fully discussed under the head of Rosicrucianism, which see.
ANDREW, APPRENTICE AND FELLOW CRAFT OF SAINT.
The French for this is Apprenti et Compagnon de Saint André; the German being Andreas Lehrling und Geselle. The Fourth Degree of the Swedish Rite, which is almost precisely the same as the Elu Secret of the French Rite.
ANDREW, CROSS OF SAINT.
See Cross, Saint Andrew's.
ANDREW, FAVORITE OF SAINT.
The French is Favori de Saint André. Usually called Knight of the Purple Collar. The Ninth Degree of the Swedish Rite.
One of the oldest of the high Continental grades added to Craft Freemasonry, probably originated in France among Stuart partisans and thence passing into Germany and elsewhere.
ANDREW, GRAND SCOTTISH KNIGHT OF SAINT.
See Knight of Saint Andrew.
From …, a man, and ...., a woman. Those degrees relative to Freemasonry which are conferred on both men and women. Besides the degrees of the Adoptive Rite, which are practised in France, there are several of these degrees which are, as side degrees, conferred in America. Sutch are the Mason's wife, conferred on the wives, daughters, sisters, and mothers of Master Masons, and the Knight and Heroine of Jericho, conferred on the wives and daughters of Royal Arch Masons.
About 1850 Rob Morris introduced and thereafter taught very generally through the Western States of America, a series of androgynous degrees, which he called The Eastern Star. There is another androgynous degree, sometimes conferred on the wives of Royal Arch Masons, known as the Good Samaritan.
In some parts of the United States these degrees are very popular, while in other places they are never practised, and are strongly condemned as improper innovations. The fact is, that by their friends as well as by their enemies, these so-called degrees have been greatly misrepresented. When females are told that in receiving these degrees they are admitted into the Masonic Order, and are obtaining Masonic information under the name of Ladies'freemasonry, they are simply deceived.
Every woman connected by ties of consanguinity, the blood relation or kinship, to a Master Mason is peculiarly entitled to Masonic assistance and protection. If she is told of this fact, and also told that by these androgynous degrees she is to be put in possession of the means of making her claims known by a sort of what may be called oral testimony, but that she is by their possession no nearer to the portals of Freemasonry than she was before, if she is honestly told this, then there is no harm, but the possibility of some good, in these forms if carefully bestowed and prudently preserved. But all attempts to make Freemasonry of them are wrong, imprudent, and calculated to produce opposition among the wellinformed and cautious members of the Fraternity.
That socalled Freemasonry which is dedicated to the cultivation of the androgynous degrees. The Adoptive Rite of France is Androgynous Freemasonry.
Angels were originaliy in the Jewish theogony considered simply as messengers of God, as the name ...., herald or angel, pronounced mal-awk, imports, and the word is thus continually, used in the early Scriptures of the Old Testament. It was only after the captivity that the Jews brought from Babylon their mystical ideas of angels as instruments of creative ministration, such as the angel of fire, of water, of earth, or of air. These doctrines they learned from the Chaldean sages, who had probably derived them from Zoroaster and the Zendavesta. In time these doctrines were borrowed by the Gnostics, and through them they have been introduced into some of the advanced degrees; such, for instance, as the Knight of the Sun, in whose ritual the angels of the four elements play an important part.
The German for this expression is Engelsbruder. Sometimes called, after their founder, Gichtelites or Gichtelianer. A mystical sect of religious fanatics founded by one Gichtel, about the close of the seventeenth century, in the United Netherlands. After the death of their founder in 1710, they gradually became extinct, or were continued only in secret union with the Rosicrucians.
See Alphabet, Angels.
The name of a pagan deity worshiped among the Romans. Pliny calls her the goddess of silence, and calmness of mind. Hence her statue has sometimes been introduced among the ornaments of Masonic edifices. She is represented with her finger pressed upon her lips (see Harpocrates, for what is further to be said upon this symbol).
The inclination of two lines meeting in a point. Angles are of three kinds-acute, obtuse, and right angles. The right angle, or the angle of 90 degrees, is the principal one recognized in Freemasonry, because it is the form of the trying square or try-square, one of the most important working tools of the profession, and the svmbol of morality.
A name given by Oliver to the three presiding officers of a Royal Arch Chapter.
The worship of animals is a species of idolatry that was especially practised by the ancient Egyptians. Temples were erected by this people in their honor, in which they were fed and cared for during life. To kill one of them was a crime punishable with death. After the death of these animals, they were embalmed, and interred in the catacombs. This worship was derived first from the earlier adoration of the stars, to certain constellations of which the names of animals had been given ; next, from an Egyptian tradition that the gods being pursued by Typhon, had concealed themselves under the forms of animals ; and 1astly, from the doctrine of the metempsychosis, according to which there was a continual circulation of the sculs of men and animals.
But behind the open and popular exercise of this degrading worship the priests concealed a symbolism full of philoscphical conceptions.
Gliddon says, in his Otia Egyptiaea (page 94), that "Animal worship among the Egyptians was the natural and unavoidable consequence of the misconception, by the vulgar, of those emblematical figures invented by the priests to record their own philoscphical conception of absurd ideas.
As the pictures and effigies suspended in early Christian churches, to commemorate a person or an event, became in time objects of worship to the vulgar, so, in Egypt, the esoteric or spiritual meaning of the emblems was lost in the gross materialism of the beholder. This esoteric and allegorical meaning was, however, preserved by the priests, and communicated in the mysteries alone to the initiated, while the uninstructed retained only the grosser conception."
Latin, meaning Soul of the World. A doctrine of the early pbilosophers, who conceived that an immaterial force resided in nature and was the source of all physical and sentient life, yet not intelligential.
The complete title is Annales Chronologiques, Litéraires et Historiques de la Maçonnerie des Pays-Bas, dater du 1" Janvier, 1814 (French, meaning the Chronological, Literary, and Historical Annals of the Masonry of the Netherlands from the year 1814). This work, edited by Brothers Melton and De Margny, was published at Brussels, in five volumes, during the years 1823 .
It consists of an immense collection of French, Dutch, Italian, and English Masonic documents translated into French. Kloss extols it highly as a work which no Masonic library should be without. Its publication was unfortunately discontinued in 1826 by the Belgian revolution.
ANNALES ORIGINIS MAGNI GALLIARUM ORIENTIS, ETC.
This history of the Grand Orient of France is, in regard to its subject, the most valuable of the works of C. A. Thory. It comprises a full account of the rise, progress, changes, and revolutions of French Freemascnry, with numerous curious and inedited documents, notices of a great number of rites, a fragment on Adoptive Freemasonry and other articles of an interesting nature. It was published at Paris, in 1812, in one volume of 471 pages, octavo (see Kloss, Bibliographic der Freimaurerei, No. 4088).
Latin, meaning In the Year of the Blessing; abbreviated A.'. B.". This date has been used by the brethren of the Order of High Priesthood to signify the elapsed period calculated from the year of the blessing of Abraham by the High Priest Melchizedek. The date is determined by adding the year of blessing to any Christian or so-called Vulgar Era thus: 1913+1930 = 3843.
Latin, meaning in the a year of the Deposit ; abbreviated A.'. Dep.'. The date used by Royal and Select Masters, which is found by adding 1000 to the Vulgar Era; thus, 1930+1000 =2930.
Latin, meaning in the Egyptian year. The date used by the Hermetic Fraternity, and found by adding 5044 to the Vulgar Era prior to each July 20, being the number of years since the consolidation of the first Egyptian monarchy under Menes who, according to Herodotus, built Memphis, and is reported by Diodorus to have introduced the worship of the gods and the practice of sacrifices into Egypt.
Latin, meaning in the Hebrew year ; abbreviated A. '. H. '. The same as Anno Mundi; which see.
Latin, meaning in the year of the Discovery; abbreviated A.'. I.'. or A.". Inv.'. The date used by Royal Arch Masons. Found by adding 530 to the Vulgar Era ; thus, 1930 + 530 =2460.
Latin, meaning in the Year of Light; abbreviated A.'. L.'. The date used in ancient Craft Freemasonry; found by adding 4000 to the Vulgar Era ; thus, 1930+ 4000 = 5930.
Latin, meaning in the Year of the World. The date used in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite; found by adding 3760 to the Vulgar Era until September. After September, add one year more ; this is because the year used a the Hebrew one, which begins in September. Thus, July, 1930+3760 = 5690, and October, 1930+3760+1= 5691.
Latin, meaning in the Year of the Order; abbreviated A.'. O.'. The date used by Knights Templar; found by subtracting 1118 from the Vulgar Era; thus, 1930-1118 = 812.
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