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Hebrew ....., achlemah. The ninth stone in the breastplate of the high priest. The amethyst is a stone in hardness next to the diamond, and of a deep red and blue color resembling the breast of a dove.
AMICISTS, ORDER OF.
A secret association of students, once very extensively existing among the universities of Northem Germany, first about 1793, and again in 1810. According to Lenning this organization of students was widely spread, especially popular at Jena and Halle. Thory (Aeta Latomorum 1, 292 ), says that this association was first established in the College of Clermont, at Paris. An account of it was published at Halle in 1799, by F. C. Laukhard, under the title of Der Mosellaner-oder Amicisten- 0rden nach seiner Entstehung, innern Verfassung und Verbreitung auf den deutschen Universitaten. The Order was suppressed by the imperial government.
AMIS REUNIS, LOGE DES.
The Lodge of United Friends, founded at Paris in 1771, was distinguished for the talents of many of its members, among whom was Savalette de Langes, and played for many years an important part in the affairs of French Masonry. In its bosom was originated, in 1775, the Rite of Philalethes. In 1784 it convoked the first Congress of Paris, which was held in 1785, for the laudable purpose of endeavoring to disentangle Freemasonry from the almost inextricable confusion into which it had fallen by the invention of so many rites and new degrees.
The Lodge was in possession of a valuable library for the use of its members, and had an excellent cabinet of the physical and natural sciences. Upon the death of Savalette, who was the soul of the Lodge, it fell into decay, and its books, manuscripts, and cabinet were scattered, according to Clavel's Histoire Pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie (page 171).
All of its library that was valuable was transferred to the archives of the Mother Ledge of the Philosophic Scottish Rite. Barruel gives a brilliant picture of the concerts, balls, and suppers given by this Lodge in its halcyon days, to which "les Crésus de la Maçonnerie," meaning the wealthy ones of Freemasonry (Crésus being the name of the proverbially rich king of Lydia), congregated, while a few superior members were engaged, as he says, in hatching political and revolutionary schemes, but really in plans for the elevation of Freemasonry as a philosophic institution (see Barruel, Mémoires pour servir à l'Histoire du Jacobinisme iv, 343).
A war oi interest in connection with the Fellow Craft Degree. The Ammonites were the descendants of the younger son of Lot, and dwelt east of the river Jordan, but originally formed no part of the land of Canaan, the Israelites having been directed not to molest them for the sake of their great progenitor, the nephew of Abraham.
But in the time of Jephthah, their king having charged the Israelites with taking away a part of his territory, the Ammonites crossed the river Jordan and made war upon the Israelites. Jephthah defeated them with great slaughter, and took an immense amount of spoil. It was on account of this spoil-in which they had no share---that the Ephraimites rebelled against Jephthah, and gave him battle (see Ephraimites).
AMOR HONOR ET JUSTITIA.
Love, Honor and Juslice. A Latin motto of the Grand Lodge of England used prior to the union of 1813, which is to be found graven on the Masonic Token of 1794, commemorative of the election of the Prince of Wales as the Most Worshipful Grand Master, November 24, 1790.
See Saint A mphibalus.
When the Grand Master is present at the opening or closing of the Grand Lodge, it is said to be opened or closed "in ample form." Any ceremony performed by the Grand Master is said to be done "in ample form" ; when performed by the Deputy, it is said to be "in due form''; and by any other temporarily presiding ofiicer, it is "in form" (see Form).
The name given to the Phoenician carpenter, who is represented in some legends as one of the assassins, Fanor and Metusael being the other two.
The name given in the Zoroastrian religion of the ancient Persians, the Parsees, in the Zend-Avesta, their bible an d prayer book, to the six good genii or powerful angels who continuously wait round the throne of Ormudz, or Ormazd. Also the name of the six summer munths and the six productive working properties of nature.
The Supreme God among the Egyptians. He was a concealed god, and is styled "the Celestial Lord who sheds light on hidden things." From him all things emanated, though he created nothing. He corresponded with the Jove of the Greeks, and, consequently, with the Jehovah of the Jews. His symbol was a ram, which animal was sacred to him. On the monuments he is represented with a human face and limbs free, having two tall straight feathers on his head, issuing from a red cap ; in front of the plumes a disk is sometimes seen. His body is colored a deep blue. He is sometimes, however, represented with the head of a ram, and the Greek and Roman writers in genera1 agree in deseribing him as being ram-headed.
There is some confusion on this point. Kenrich says that Nouf was, in the majority of instances, the ram-headed god of the Egyptians; but he admits that Amun may have been sometimes so represented.
The student will be interested to leam that this word in the Hebrew language means builder or architect
Some Ritual makers, especially when they have been ignorent and uneducated, have often committed anachronisms or errors as to periods of time or dates by the introduction into Masonic ceremonies of matters entirely out of time. Thus, the use of a bell to indicate the hour of the night, practised in the Third Degree; the placing of a celestial and a terrestrial globe on the summit of the pillars of the porch, in the Second Degree ;
and quotations from the New Testament and references to the teachings of Christ, in the Mark Degree, are all anachronisms But, although it were to be wished that these disturbances of the order of time had been avoided, the fault is not really of much importance.
The object of the ritualist was simply to convey an idea, and this he has done in the way which he supposed would be most readily comprehended by those for whom the ritual was made.
The idea itself is old, although the mode of conveying it may be new. Thus, the bell is used to indicate a specific point of time, the globes to symbolize the universality of Freemasonry, and passages from the New Testament to teach the practise of duties whose obligations are older than Christianity.
The letters of a word or phrase so transposed as to make a different word or phrase. The manufacture of anagrams out of proper names or other words has always been a favorite exercise, sometimes to pay a compliment---as when Doctor Burney made Honor est a Nilo out of Horatio Nelson, the Latin phrase meaning Honor is from the Nile, and alluding to his victory at that river on August 1, 1798-and sometimes for purposes of secrecy, as when Robert Bacon concealed under an anagram one of the ingredients in his recipe for gunpowder, that the world might not too easil y become acquainted with the composition of so dangerous a material.
The same method was adopted by the adherents of the hous8e of Stuart when they manufactured their system of high degrees as a political engine, and thus, under an anagrammatic form, they made many words to designate their friends or, principally, their enemies of the opposite party. Most of these words it has now become impossible to restore to their original form, but several are readily decipherable.
Thus, among the assassins of the Third Degree, who symbolized, with them, the foes of the monarchy, we recognize Romvel as Cromwell, and Hoben as Bohun, Earl of Essex. It is only thus that we can ever hope to trace the origin of such words in the high degrees as Tercy, Stolkin, Morphey, etc. To look for them in any Hebrew roots would be a fruitless task. The derivation of many of them, on account of the obscurity of the persons to whom they refer, is, perhaps, forever lost; but of others the research for their meaning may be more successful.
The name of a learned Egyptian, who is said to have introduced the Order of Mizraim from Egypt into Italy. Doctor Oliver (in his Landmarks, ii, page 75 ), states the tradition, but doubts its authenticity. It is in a1l probability a matter of doubt (see Mizraim, Rite of).
ANCHOR AND ARK.
The anchor, as a symbol of hope, does not appear to have belonged to the ancient and classic system of symbolism. The Goddess Spes, the word meaning Hope, was among the ancients represented in the form of an erect woman, holding the skirts of her garments in her left hand, and in her right a flower-shaped cup.
This goddess was honored with several temples at Rome and her festival day was observed on August 1. As an emblem of hope, the anchor is peculiarly a Christian, and thence a Masonic, symbol. It is first found inscribed on the tombs in the catacombs of Rome, and the idea of using it is probably derived from the language of Saint Paul (Hebrews vi, 19), ''which hope we have as an anchor of the soul both sure and steadfast."
The primitive Christians looked upon life as a stormy voyage, and glad were the voyagers when it was done, and they had arrived safe in port. Of this the anchor was a symbol, and when their brethren carved it over the tomb, it was to them an expression of confidence that he who slept beneath had reached the haven of eternal rest. This is the belief of Kip, Catacombs of Rome (page l12). The strict identity between this conclusion and the Masonic idea of the symbol will be at once observed.
"The anchor," says Mrs. Jameson in her Sacred and Legendary Art (1, page 34), "is the Christian symbol of immovable firmness, hope, and patience; and we find it very frequently in the catacombs, and on the ancient Christian gems."
This representation of the anchor is the peculiar attribute of Saint Clement, and is often inscribed on churches dedicated to him.
But there is a necessary connection between an anchor and a ship, and hence, the latter image has also been adopted as a symbol of the voyage of life ; but, unlike the anchor, it was not confined to Christians, but was with the heathens also a favorite emblem of the close of life. Kip thinks the idea may have been derived from them by the Christian Fathers, who gave it a more elevated meaning. The ship is in Freemasonry substituted by the ark. Mrs. Jameson says in the above work that "the Ark of Noah floating safe amid the deluge, in which all things else were overwhelmed, was an obvious symbo1 of the Church of Christ. . . .
The bark of St. Peter tossed in the storm, and by the Redeemer guided safe to land, was also considered as symbolical."
These symbolical views have been introduced into Freemasonry, with, however, the more extended application which the universal character of the Masonic religious faith required. Hence, in the Third Degree, whose teachings all relate to life and death, "The ark and anchor are emblems of a well-grounded hope and a well-spent life. They are emblematical of that Divine ark which safely wafts us over this tempestuous sea of troubles, and that anchor which shall safely moor us in a peaceful harbor where the wicked cease from troubling and the weary shall find rest."
Such is the language of the lecture of the Third Degree, and it gives all the information that is required on the esoteric meaning of these symbols. The history that is here added by Doctor Mackey of their probable origin will no doubt be interesting to the Masonic student.
ANCHOR, KNIGHT OF THE.
See Knight of the Anchor.
ANCHOR, ORDER OF KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF THE
A system of Freemasonry for both sexes wich arose in France in the year 1745. It was a schism wich sprang out of the order of Felicity from Which it differed only in being somewhat more refined . Its existence was not more durable than that of its predecessor. Clavel, in his Histoire Piltoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie (page 111), gives this information (see Felicity, 0rder of).
ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED RITE.
See Scottish Rite.
ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER NOBLES OF THE MYSTIC SHRINE.
ANCIENT CRAFT MASONRY.
This is the popular name given to the three symbolic degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason.
The degree of Royal Arch is not generally included under this appellation; although, when considered as it really is-a complement of the Third Degree, it must of course constitute a part of Ancient Craft Freemasonry. In the Articles of Union between the two Grand Lodges of England, adopted in 1813, it is declared that "pure Antient Masonry consists of three degrees and no more, namely: those of the Entered Apprentice, the Fellow Craft and the Master Mason, including the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch.
But this article is not intended to prevent any Lodge or Chapter from holding a meeting in any of the degrees oi the Orders of Chivalry, according to the constitutions of the said Orders."
ANCIENT FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS.
The title most generally assumed by the English and American Grand Lodges (see Tilles of Grand Lodges).
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