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If any think they are religious, and do not bridle their
tongues but deceive their heart, their religion is worthless.

        --James 1:26

Who should be better able to "reveal the secrets of the lodge" than a former Mason, especially one who achieved significant recognition within Masonry? This is the promise that The Deadly Deception holds out for its readers.

The Reverend James D. Shaw and Mr. Tom McKenney coauthored this engaging book. It tells the story of Rev. Shaw, from becoming a Mason to joining the Scottish Rite to leaving the Fraternity. Rev. Shaw became a Christian and decided that it was his duty to "expose" Freemasonry to save other men from being victims of its deadly deception. The reader should expect a higher standard of accuracy from Rev. Shaw's story because of the years he spent in Masonry.

The Cover of the Book

We begin our analysis of Rev. Shaw's accuracy without going any farther than the cover of his book. Six claims are made there, four of which are deliberate, verifiable lies. It does not bode well for the accuracy of the contents, if the cover achieves no more than 33% of the truth. We examine the claims individually and through them Rev. Shaw's devotion to truth.

SHAW'S FIRST CLAIM. The full title of the book is The Deadly Deception: Freemasonry Exposed by One of Its Top Leaders. It is laughable to suggest that Rev. Shaw was ever a "top leader" of Freemasonry. He served the Craft decently during his membership and received recognition for his work, but he never attained any position of prominence. Rev. Shaw's co-author, Tom C. McKenney, however, was apparently embarrassed at this claim.

    I would like to explain to you that disputed "one of Masonry's top leaders" statement in the subtitle. That was insisted upon by the publisher; I argued against the word "top" for at least an hour on the phone, but he had his way. At any rate, it is a completely imprecise term; it could mean he was one of the top two, or one of the top two million ... but I'd like for you to know how it arrived in the subtitle, which I though was much too lurid (I also argued against "exposed," but lost that one too).(82)

The claim, however, is harmless puffery, well within acceptable limits for advertising. THE TRUTH

SHAW'S SECOND CLAIM. The cover claims Rev. Shaw was "Past Worshipful Master, blue lodge." To be elected and to serve as Master of a lodge is a great privilege and honor for any Mason. By identifying himself as a Past Master, Rev. Shaw seeks to establish himself as one who has achieved Masonic recognition through hard work. As with so many of his statements about Masonry, the factual record establishes something quite different.

Rev. Shaw received the First Degree in Masonry on September 11, 1945, in Evergreen Lodge No. 713 in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Second and Third Degrees were conferred by courtesy in Biscayne Bay Lodge No. 124, Miami, Florida on May 21 and July 23, 1946. He transferred his membership to Allapattah Lodge No. 271 in Florida on July 1, 1952, and remained a member until his resignation on October 25, 1966. He never held office in any Masonic lodge or affiliated body in Indiana.(83)

In 1964 he was appointed Junior Steward of Allapattah Lodge, in 1965 he was appointed Junior Deacon, and on October 25, 1966, he resigned from Masonry. The names of the principal elected officers of every Florida lodge, the Master and Senior and Junior Wardens, are published annually in the Proceedings of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge F.&A.M. of Florida. These Proceedings can be inspected in any of the 300+ Florida lodges. The name of James Dayton Shaw never appeared in the list of elected lodge officers. He was never elected an officer in Allapattah Lodge, much less Master of the lodge. A LIE

Officers of Allapatah Lodge No. 271, F.&A.M.
Miami, Florida

Extracted from the 1952-1967
Proceedings of the MW Grand Lodge F.&A.M. of Florida



1967 -- Edwin A. Horborouny
1966 -- George B. Tate
1965 -- David K. Hellings
1964 -- Arthur W. Scott, Jr.
1963 -- Garnet R. McGlocklin
1962 -- Marshall R. Dyer
1961 -- Daniel L. Beebe
1960 -- Robert K. Overstreet
1959 -- Melvin C. Foster
1958 -- John R. Gillette
1957 -- Charles L. McCord
1956 -- Jack M. Harris
1955 -- Donald K. Curry
1954 -- Harold E. Harris
1953 -- Justus P. Bailey
1952 -- Alto V. Harrison


Senior Warden

1967 -- Raymond D. Slattery
1966 - Edwin A. Horborouny
1965 -- George B. Tate
1964 -- David K. Hellings
1963 -- Arthur W. Scott, Jr.
1962 -- Garnet R. McGlocklin
1961 -- Marshall R. Dyer
1960 -- Daniel L. Beebe
1959 -- Robert K. Overstreet
1958 -- Melvin C. Foster
1957 -- John R. Gillette
1956 -- Charles L. McCord
1955 -- Jack M. Harris
1954 -- Donald K. Curry
1953 -- Harold E. Harris
1952 -- Justus P. Bailey

Junior Warden

1967 -- Lester R. Grant, Jr.
1966 -- Raymond D. Slattery
1965 -- Edwin A. Horborouny
1964 -- George B. Tate
1963 -- David K. Hellings
1962 -- Arthur W. Scott, Jr.
1961 -- Garnet R. McGlocklin
1960 -- Marshall R. Dyer
1959 -- Daniel L. Beebe
1958 -- Robert K. Overstreet
1957 -- Melvin C. Foster
1956 -- John R. Gillette
1955 -- Charles L. McCord
1954 -- Jack M. Harris
1953 -- Donald K. Curry
1952 -- Harold E. Harris



1955-65 -- Justus P. Bailey
1952-54 -- Joseph G. Roberts



1955-67 -- Harold E. Harris
1952-54 -- Robert K. Overstreet

Above: A listing of all Masters, Wardens, Secretaries and Treasurers of Allapattah Lodge No. 271, from 1952-1967, of which Rev. Shaw falsely claimed to be a Past Master (cf. The Deadly Deception, p. 79).

SHAW'S FOURTH CLAIM. Rev. Shaw was indeed invested with the rank and decoration of a Knight Commander of the Court of Honour on December 18, 1965. The award was honorably earned and is properly claimed on the cover of his book. THE TRUTH


Figure 8. An excerpt of the listing of the 1965 Florida recipients of the Knight Commander of the Court of Honor, showing the name of James D. Shaw. From Transactions of the Supreme Council, 33º S.J., pp.224-25.

SHAW'S FIFTH CLAIM. The 33º is an important honor in the Scottish Rite, limited to about 1% of all Scottish Rite Masons. It cannot be applied for, and must be denied if requested. It can be falsely claimed, however, by anyone brazen enough to steal the title. This is what Rev. Shaw has done.

Although he never provided the exact date, Rev. Shaw gave some hint as to the date of his alleged reception of the Thirty-third Degree.

    ...I had been a K.C.C.H. for only four years. A man cannot even be considered for the 33rd Degree until he has been a K.C.C.H. four years. I was being considered for the 33rd in the minimum time!(84)

He resigned from Masonry on October 25, 1966, ten months after receiving his K.C.C.H. and thirty-seven months before reaching the four year mark. In special circumstances The Supreme Council, 33º, S.J., may wave the traditional four year period between the K.C.C.H. and its bestowal of the Thirty-third Degree. In such cases the recipient has performed an extraordinary labor benefitting and/or honoring the Fraternity. The Supreme Council, 33º, N.M.J. may also wave its traditional period for similar reasons. An example of the latter was the bestowal of the Honorary Thirty-third Degree on John J. Robinson just before his death. Mr. Robinson was a popular author and lecturer who publically defended Freemasonry though not a Mason himself. Shortly after joining the fraternity in 1993, when it became known that Robinson was terminally ill, The Supreme Council, 33º, N.M.J. exercised its right to confer the Honorary Thirty-third Degree on him, in recognition of his extraordinary labors.


Figure 9. The special conferral of the 33d Degree on John J. Robinson as published in the Abstract of the Proceedings of the Supreme Council (Lexington, Mass., 1993), p.74.

Although Rev. Shaw served decently in the few positions he held while an active Mason, he was relatively unknown outside of his local circle, and did nothing which would have warranted his reception of an Honorary Thirty-third Degree.

All Masons elected to the 33º have their names published in the Transactions of the Supreme Council. These volumes are easily available for inspection in any Scottish Rite body in the Southern Jurisdiction. The name of James Dayton Shaw was never listed as the recipient of the 33º, despite his claims to the contrary. YET ANOTHER LIE


Figure 10. The listing of the 1969 Florida recipients of the Thirty-third Degree conferred in Washington, D.C. Although Rev. Shaw claimed he received the Thirty-third Degree four years after receiving the K.C.C.H. in 1965 (cf. The Deadly Deception, pp. 89-90, 99-105), his name is not found. From Transactions of the Supreme Council, 33º, S.J., pp. 42-43.

SHAW'S SIXTH CLAIM. The upper right-hand corner of the book's cover has a bright red, eye-catching band with this come-on, "The 33rd Degree initiation ceremony revealed for the first time in history!" Rev. Shaw takes almost seven pages in the book to describe the events leading up to his so-called receipt of the 33º. The ceremony he describes is not based on his personal experience, but was rather been plagiarized from another source. The source Rev. Shaw selected was an exposé of the Cerneau 33º ritual in Jonathan Blanchard's Scotch Rite Masonry Illustrated, which has been in print since 1888. It helped Rev. Shaw in his deception that such sources are easy to come by. A casual search shows that authors have "revealed" versions of the Thirty-Third Degree initiation ceremony repeatedly since at least 1813. A partial listing is given below.


    1813--"Souverain-Grand-Inspecteur-Général," in [François H. Stanislaus Delaunay], Thuileur des Trente-trois Degrés de L'Ecossisme di Rit Ancien, dit Accepté, Paris: Delaunay, Libraire, Palais-Royal, 1813, 1821.

    1829--"Sovereign Grand Inspector General," in David Bernard, Light on Masonry, Utica, N.Y.: William Williams, 1829.

    1830--"Souverain Grand Inspecteur Général," in Vuillaume, Manuel Maçonnique ou Tuileur des Divers Rites de Trente-trois Degrés de L'Ecossisme di Rit Ancien, Maçonnerie Practiqués en France, 1830 (reprint ed.; Paris: Dervy-Livres, 1975)

    1843--"Réception au 33ème degré," in F. T. B. Clavel, Histoire Pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie, Paris: N.p., 1843.

    1857--"Sovereign Grand Inspector General," in Charles Laffon de Ladebat, Thirty-Third Degree and Last of the Ancient and Accepted Scotch Rite: Sovereign Grand Inspector General, New Orleans: N.p., 1857.

    1860--"Sovereign Grand Inspector General," in Jabez Richardson, Richardson's Monitor of Free-Masonry, New York: Fitzgerald, 1860.

    1860--"Sobrano Gran Inspector General," in Andres Cassard, Manual de la Masoneria, New York: Macoy, 1860.

    1861--"Souverain Grand Inspecteur Général," in Jean-Baptiste Marie Ragon, Tuileur Général de la Franc-Maçonnerie, ou Manuel de l'Initié, Paris: Collignon, 1861.

    1872--"Old Cahier of the 33rd Degree," in Albert Pike, Grand Constitutions of Freemasonry, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, New York: Masonic Publishing Co., 1872.

    1888--"Sovereign Grand Inspector General," in Jonathan Blanchard, Scotch Rite Masonry Illustrated, 2 vols., Chicago: Ezra A. Cook, 1887-1888.

    1890--"Sovereign Grand Inspector General," in Secret Societies Illustrated, Chicago: Ezra A. Cook, ca. 1890.

    1923--"Sovereign Grand Inspector-General," in Arthur Edward Waite, A New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, 2 vols., rev. ed., London: Rider & Co., 1923.

    1933--"Official Ritual of the 33rd and Last Degree of Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite," in Paul Rosen, Satan et Cie, Paris: 1888, excerpted in Edith Starr Miller, Occult Theocrasy, 2 vols., 1933, reprint, Hawthorn, Calif.: Christian Book Club, 1968, 1976, 1980.

    1933--"33d Degree--Knight Grand Inspector General," in W. J. Coombes, trans., E. J. Marconis de Negre, The Sanctuary of Memphis or Hermes, [N.C.]: Nocalore, 1933.

    1946--S. Farina, "Sovrano Grande Ispettore Generale" in Il Libro Completo dei Rituali Massonici Rito Scozzese Antico ed Accettato. Rome: n.p. 1946.

    1984--"Soverain Grand Inspecteur Général," in Paul Naudon, Histoire, Rituels et Tuileur des Haut Grades Maçonniques, Paris, Dervy-Livres, 1984.

A naïve anti-Mason might be forgiven for not knowing that the Thirty-Third Degree has been "exposed" for the better part of two centuries. Rev. Shaw, however, obviously knew about at least one such "exposure" because he lied about receiving the degree. Not only did Rev. Shaw lie about receiving the Thirty-Third Degree himself, he did not have the intellectual integrity to cite the source he pilfered for his so-called description. THE FOURTH LIE ON THE COVER

These lies could not have resulted from simple misunderstandings; they were carefully calculated to deceive the trusting. Since at least 1976, Rev. Shaw has been making similar claims, one assumes to increase his importance in the eyes of his readers.

    I was not willing to be just a "card carrier." I was too eager for that. So I served in all the chairs and ultimately became Worshipful Master of the lodge. I pursued the degrees of the Scottish Rite and joined the Shrine in my quest for preeminence in the eyes of men. In time I became Past Master to all Scottish Rite Bodies. And finally was selected for the coveted 33rd Degree, and was made a 33rd Degree Mason in House of The Temple in Washington, D.C.(85)

Before getting to even the first page of The Deadly Deception, the reader is deliberately deceived with four verifiable lies. They seem intended to boost the reputation of Rev. Shaw as an important former Mason, to reinforce the believability of his story, and to increase the sales of his book. They obviously are not intended to promote the truth.

The Cost of the Thirty-Second Degree

On page 59 Rev. Shaw describes joining the Scottish Rite. On page 63 endnote 1 to this description amplifies the cost of "going all the way to the 32nd Degree."

    The Secretary greeted me and explained the nature and structure of the Scottish Rite. . . . He said that some men could not afford to take all of the degrees at one Reunion because of the cost.1

      1There is a price to be paid, in dollars, for all "earned" Masonic degrees, from Entered Apprentice to the 32nd Degree. Dollar values change with time and fees vary some from place to place, but the total cost of going all the way to the 32nd Degree can be very substantial, well into the thousands of dollars today.

It's not clear what the authors intended by this aside, unless it was to suggest an extravagant waste of money by Masons for initiation fees. A copy of Rev. Shaw's Scottish Rite petition, dated August 14, 1952, shows the true state of affairs (see Figure 11).


Figure 11. Portion of the Reverend James D. Shaw's 1952 Scottish Rite Petition showing cost of fees and dues.

The cost in 1952 for the Fourth through Thirty-Second Degrees, "including Patent [membership certificate], [gold 14º] Ring, and Copy of Morals and Dogma" was $160. Rev. Shaw chose to purchase a 32º cap for $7.50. So his complete cost for joining the Miami Scottish Rite was $167.50. During his 15 years of membership, he paid a total of $107.50 in annual dues: $7.50 dues annually for 1953 to 1966 plus $2.50 pro rated dues for 1952 (see Figure 12).


Figure 12. "Members Record Card" of the Reverend James Dayton Shaw, from Miami, Florida Scottish Rite.

The cost of joining the Scottish Rite in Miami has not kept pace with inflation. The fees in 1993 for the 4­32, including patent, 14 ring in a lucite pyramid, and a 32 cap is $200. Rex Hutchens's A Bridge to Light is now given to new members rather than Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma. Members wanting a 14 ring to wear must make a separate purchase.

When joining Evergreen Lodge No. 713 in 1945, Rev. Shaw paid $50.00 in initiation fees for the 1­3, Entered Apprentice to Master Mason; his annual dues then were $7.00. By 1993 the initiation fees of Evergreen Lodge had risen to $125.00 and the annual dues had risen to $56.00.

Rev. Shaw's entire cost for the 1­32 was $217.50 and his total annual dues then were $14.50. The cost now for the 1­32 is $325.00 and annual dues are $96.00. This is far from being "well into the thousands of dollars today."

Scottish Rite Obligations

As he continues his summary of joining the Scottish Rite, Rev. Shaw describes receiving the Fourth Degree on pages 60-61. Endnote 2 on page 63 amplifies the obligations of the degrees.

    The Fourth Degree was put on just like a play, with one candidate chosen from the class to represent us all as he participated. The presentation went on until time to take the oath at the end. At this time we were told to stand, put our hands over our hearts and repeat the oath2 of obligation. . . .

      2There was a blood-oath of obligation for each degree, as in the Blue lodge.

This description of the twenty-nine Scottish Rite obligations certainly sounds ominous, but it overlooks a few niceties of fact. To start with, there have been no symbolic physical penalties in the Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, since about 1860, and there have never been any actual physical penalties. Here is what Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia says about the matter.

    Albert Pike, in revising the rituals of the Southern Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite about 1855­1860, completely eradicated all such penalties from the degrees and substituted mental, moral, and symbolic condemnation, and that example was followed in the Northern Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite about the middle of the 20th century.(86)

Rev. Shaw received the Scottish Rite degrees and conferred them for years. He knows as well as any Mason that there are no "blood oaths" in the Scottish Rite.

Why Must We Always Do So Much Drinking?

Rev. Shaw describes traveling to a "conclave" in a distant city to receive the Knight Commander of the Court of Honour (K.C.C.H.). In his story he makes an aside about drinking, much like his comment about the cost of the Scottish Rite degrees. There is a subtle attempt by the authors to vilify Masons without the courage of making direct charges.

    There was a great deal of drinking at the Conclave and it bothered me. "Why must we always do so much drinking?" I asked myself, but had no answer. I enjoyed a little drinking and did it regularly. But it bothered me that there was always so much of it and that it played such a major role in the Masonic life.(87)

The Grand Lodge of Florida, like most other American grand lodges, firmly forbids the sale or consumption of alcohol at any lodge function. Here is the 1954 regulation on alcoholic beverages that governed Florida lodges when Rev. Shaw joined.

    28.06 (398) No particular Lodge shall allow its properties or any part thereof to be used for the purpose of conducting or carrying on a liquor business or for the dispensing of alcoholic beverages in any form.(88)

In 1975 the regulation was unchanged, though the following decision had been added to clarify the law. "The serving of any intoxicating beverage in Masonic Temples or Lodge Rooms or at Masonic banquets is forbidden by Masonic Law. (1969 Proc. 58, 212)"(89) Bro. William Wolf, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Florida, summarized the 1993 rules governing alcohol in Florida lodges.

    . . . the Grand Lodge of Florida itself does not allow any alcoholic beverages in its ceremonies or the sale or dispensing of any alcoholic beverages on any property that it owns. Nor do we allow a function that is held in a particular lodge or in the Grand Lodge to have any alcoholic beverages for dispensing, such as Grand Master Homecomings, Grand Lodge Dinners, etc.(90)

Equally explicit are the 1953 Statutes of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, to which the Scottish Rite Bodies of Miami hold allegiance. "Art. XV §24. The use of any spirituous, vinous, or malt liquors by any Body is hereby prohibited..." (91)

Neither the Grand Lodge of Florida nor the Supreme Council, S.J., permits alcoholic beverages to be used by any of their subordinate bodies. Florida Masons are bewildered when asked how alcohol "played such a major role in the Masonic life," because there it has no role. What sort of meetings did Rev. Shaw attend where they "always do so much drinking?" It could not have been meetings of the blue lodges or the Scottish Rite bodies in Florida. His statement is cleverly designed to leave the reader with the impression that regular, heavy drinking is the norm at Masonic gatherings.

The Resurrection of Hiram Abif

One of the most subtle frauds of The Deadly Deception is Rev. Shaw's distortion of the legend of Hiram Abif. Rev. Shaw tries to convince his readers that he is a reliable expert on Masonry: "33rd Degree [sic], Knight Commander of the Court of Honour, Past Worshipful Master [sic], blue lodge, Past Master of all Scottish Rite bodies [sic]."(92) How could someone with these credentials not expose the plain truth about Masonic ritual?

The legend of Hiram Abif is a simple story, apparently based upon Hiram the metalworker, mentioned in 1 Kings 7:13. In the Masonic tale, Hiram is the master architect of King Solomon's Temple and one of only three Master Masons, the others being King Solomon and Hiram, King of Tyre. One day Hiram Abif is accosted by three Fellowcrafts who demand the secrets of a Master Mason. Hiram refuses to betray his trust and is murdered. The murderers are captured and executed. After a search, Hiram's body is removed from its temporary grave and reinterred in the Sanctum Sanctorum. (Such a burial never would have been allowed under Jewish law, but that didn't stop the authors of Masonic legend, who were familiar with the European practice of burying dignitaries beneath the floors of a cathedral.)

The legend is a simple vehicle for teaching fidelity to a trust; it has no basis in historical truth. It seems to have been introduced into Masonic ceremonies shortly before 1730. The legend was first published in 1730 in Masonry Dissected by Samuel Prichard, an exposure of Masonic rituals.

In the Masonic legend the body of Hiram is taken from its temporary grave so it can be given a more suitable burial. Rev. Shaw's description, again, does not agree with the record: "Hiram was not only brought up out of the grave but restored to life."(93) The purpose of this subtle distortion isn't entirely clear, but it seems to be to support Rev. Shaw's charge that Masonry teaches a doctrine of reincarnation to its members.(94) This teaching is offensive to Christians and, if true, would be ample reason for a Christian to leave the lodge.

    With the degree work and other Masonic writings as our source, we finally decided that the truth lay in reincarnation and that if we would try to live a good life now, be good to our brother Masons, help the sick and attend to good deeds in general, when we died we would enter the next life on a higher plane--just like going through a door.(95)

This lie is best discredited by Rev. Shaw's fellow anti-Masons who, in this case, have agreed with Masonic writers. Since at least 1723, Masonic ritual has been "exposed" in print, usually with the motives of embarrassing Masons, closing lodges, and making money for the author. For over 250 years these books have sought the same ends as Rev. Shaw, but they have told a story that stands in contrast to his. We quote several representative books to illustrate the consistent version of the Hiramic legend. Rev. Shaw's motives here are unknown but, like his version of the Hiramic legend, are not to be trusted.

Masonry Dissected, Samuel Prichard (London: 1730; reprint, Bloomington, Ill.: The Masonic Book Club, 1977), pp. 28, 29.

    Ex. What did King Solomon say to all this?
    R. He order'd him to be taken up and decently buried.
    Ex. Where was Hiram inter'd?
    R. In the Sanctum Sanctorum.

Light on Masonry, David Bernard (Utica, N.Y.: William Williams, 1829), p. 81.

    Q. What did they do with the body?
    A. Raised it in a masonic form, and carried it up to the temple for more decent interment.

Three Distinct Knocks, anonymous (London: 1760; reprint, Bloomington, Ill.: The Masonic Book Club, 1981), p. 61.

    After this King Solomon sent those 12 Crafts to raise their Master Hiram, in order that he might be interred in Sanctum Sanctorum.

Jachin and Boaz, anonymous (London: 1762; reprint, Bloomington, Ill.: The Masonic Book Club, 1981), p. 45.

    When the Execution was over, King Solomon sent for the Twelve Crafts, and desired them to take the Body of Hiram up, in order that it might be interred in a solemn Manner in the Sanctum Sanctorum....
    "What did they do with the body?"
    Ans. "Raised it in a Masonic form and carried it up to the temple for more decent interment."

Morgan's Freemasonry Exposed and Explained, William Morgan (Batavia, [New York]: Printed for the Author, 1826), pp. 88-89.

    Q. What did they do with the body?
    A. Raised it in a Masonic form and carried it up to the Temple for more decent interment.
    Q. Where was it buried?
    A. Under the sanctum sanctorum, or holy of holies of King Solomon's Temple....

Secret Societies, Norman MacKenzie (New York: Crescent Books, 1967), pp. 318, 319.

    [King Solomon], when the first emotions of his grief had subsided, ordered them to return and raise our Master to such a sepulture, as became his rank and exalted talents. . . . Our Master was ordered to be reinterred as near to the Sanctum Sanctorum as the Israelitish law would permit. . . .

The evidence is clear and consistent. Anti-Masonic authors, all with the intent of harming Masonry, have told the same story for over 250 years, which in this instance happens to agree with what Masons have said. Hiram Abif was murdered and buried in a hastily dug, temporary grave. His body was taken from the grave to be reinterred in, or near (workings vary) the Sanctum Sanctorum. There is no resurrection nor doctrine of reincarnation. The legend of Hiram Abif is not the only thing Rev. Shaw misunderstood while he was a Mason--Freemasonry teaches a reverence for truth to its members.


82. Tom C. McKenney, Ocean Springs, Miss., 31 Oct. 1996, to S. Brent Morris, Columbia, Md.

83. Rollin O. Simpson, Grand Secretary, F.&A.M., Indianapolis, Indiana, to S. Brent Morris, Columbia, Md., June 10, 1993, Typescript, In the possession of the author.

84. Shaw and McKenney, p. 90.

85. James D. Shaw, introduction to The Masonic Report by C. F. McQuaig (Norcross, Ga.: Answer Books and Tapes, 1976), n.p.

86. Henry W. Coil, et al., Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia (New York: Macoy Masonic Publishing and Masonic Supply Co., Inc., 1961, 1996), s.v. "Penalties, Masonic."

87. Jim Shaw and Tom McKenney, The Deadly Deception (Lafayette, La.: Huntington House, 1988), p. 83.

88. Grand Lodge of Florida, F.&A.M., Digest of the Masonic Law of Florida F.&A.M. (Tallahassee: Rose Printing Co., 1954), p. 157.

89. Grand Lodge of Florida, F.&A.M., Digest of the Masonic Law of Florida F.&A.M. (Jacksonville, Fla.: Grand Lodge F.&A.M., 1976), p. 245.

90. William G. Wolf, Gr. Secretary, Jacksonville, Fla. to S. Brent Morris, Columbia, Md., Nov. 18, 1992, in the possession of the author.

91. Statutes of the Supreme Council, ([Washington]: [Supreme Council, S.J.], October 1953), p. 60. The prohibition remains in the 1991 Statutes, though renumbered as Art. XV, §25.

92. Shaw and McKenney, cover.

93. Shaw and McKenney, p. 151.

94. Shaw and McKenney, pp. 84­85.

95. Shaw and McKenney, p. 85.

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