THE SEVEN LIBERAL ARTS
by Thomas D. Worrel
Presented to the Northern California Research Lodge March 20, 1997
(revised January 2002)
"Wisdom builded her house;
She has hewn out her seven
- Interpretations of Masonic Authors
- The History of the Seven Liberal Arts
- The Cathedral and School of Chartres
- The Winding Staircase as a Symbol of Ascension
- The Seven Liberal Arts
The Staircase Lecture is presented to the Masonic candidate in the
second degree of his work -that of Fellowcraft. The lecture is considered
to be quite a long one as it covers many subjects pertinent to the
Mysteries of Freemasonry. Within the dissertation are explanations of the
three, five, and seven steps, which compose the staircase. Yet when the
lecture reaches the seven steps we are merely told that they represent the
Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences; and, the seven subjects are named. There
are no further explanations given, nor elaboration offered but for one
exception -that of geometry. Being that the seven make up the bulk of the
staircase, it would seem that further light would be forthcoming. But such
is not the case.
In this situation, we are left with more questions than answers. Why
are these particular subjects mentioned? It is certainly debatable whether
or not these are the most important academic disciplines. Why are there
just seven? There are certainly more than just seven arts and sciences.
Why are they in a staircase motif? If we took this to mean levels of
prerequisite education or understanding or of importance, there would be
considerable disagreement regarding this order. So what we are really left
with are implications derived from the comments on geometry. That is, that
these are subjects worthy of study and geometry is the most important of
the seven. We are then left with the broadest question of them all: Is
this the extent of the message to the candidate?
In fact, that is the idea conveyed to most candidates. The apparent
interpretation of the seven steps is the importance of acquiring a solid
well-rounded education. And perhaps, highlighting the intimate connection
between Masonry and geometry. What other notion could the candidate have?
The importance of education has always been stressed in Freemasonry, not
only for cultural reasons, but also for its role in promoting freedom and
restricting tyranny. Indeed, there seems to be an inverse correlation
between the education of the population and the success of tyranny. But,
the importance of a good solid education seems obvious to most people.
There is nothing very profound about the good sense of acquiring it. We do
not need to join a fraternity nor participate in rituals to impress this
wisdom upon us.
The history of the Seven Liberal Arts tells us a completely different
story. Its origin is in antiquity. Its role in the development of Western
Civilization was immense. And its adoption among the Fraternity suggests
far more than currently realized. And because its history and relevance to
both our culture and our Craft was so central, it sadly points to the
present situation of American Masonry as something near tragic. What was
once a precious adornment of our Lodge has now become basically a footnote
in one of our lectures. In the ongoing sacking of the Temple in order to
attract more members and "modernize" our Craft, we are virtually draining
the life- blood from this august body. The purpose of this paper is to
look at something we have lost; to try and reestablish our connection with
a part of our past; and, in a broader sense, issue a call to preserve one
of the true beauties within our fraternity of Freemasonry.
There are, of course, many commentaries on the winding staircase by the
various Masonic writers. Usually the explanations of the Seven Liberal
Arts are somewhat sketchy. It is common to find mere basic definitions of
the seven subjects. Sometimes there is a little more elaboration but it
never seems complete. But, as we combine the different views, the Masonic
significance becomes clearer. The first section of this paper will look at
some of these explanations. Following that I will explore the curriculum
of the Seven Arts, how and where it developed and by whom. It is in the
history of the Seven Liberal Arts that we begin to glean the high purpose
for which it was intended. In the third part of the paper I will discuss
the incomparable cathedral at Chartres and the Neoplatonic school that
grew around it. In the last part I will explore the psychological and
spiritual significance of the seven steps and the winding staircase.
II. Interpretations of Masonic Authors
There are many Masonic writers who have given at least some explanation
of the Seven Liberal Arts. Space only permits my mention of only a few. My
criteria for selecting the authors I have is only a function of providing
a sample of the differing views and depth. There is a common thread and
that seems to be that most Masonic writers at least sense that the Winding
Staircase is much more than it at first appears. From that point the
opinions seem to diverge into several different directions. As H.L.
Haywood states in his book Symbolical Masonry: "The Three, Five and Seven
Steps have long been a puzzle to the candidate and a problem to Masonic
writers;…" 1 Every writer I have investigated knows that the
classification of the Seven Arts comes from the Medieval educational
curriculum. The problem is not where it originated but why is it included
in our Rites. But the answer seems to be approached in this sense: It is
obviously in our Rites for some reason; so, it must mean this or that.
First we will review what Masons have said; then, in the next section, we
will explore the history of the curriculum itself and the intentions of
A view common among Masonic writers is portrayed by H. L. Haywood in
this following statement in one of his books: "I believe that Masonry is
justified in retaining the Liberal Arts and Sciences in its Ritual just
because they still have power to humanize us, to 'improve us in social
intercourse,' to make us broader of mind, more tolerant in opinion, more
humane in action, and more brotherly in conduct. Besides, knowledge of
them, …can make us more useful to the lodge." 2
He goes on to explain the
usefulness of people in the lodge that can write, play music, and to
speak. He obviously considers the Seven Arts as merely having useful
educational purposes. This view is consistent with California monitors at
least dating from 1927 wherein a small explanation of each discipline is
given in the lecture.
H.P.H. Bromwell (1823 -1903) wrote in his massive tome Restorations of
Masonic Geometry and Symbolry that: "Although the number of recognized
sciences far exceeds seven, yet, giving to that number the benefit of its
symbolic meaning, it stands for the whole circle of sciences, whether
specifically named among the seven or not." 3
Here is an example of
someone who considers that the number seven is used in its symbolic sense
of meaning "the whole picture" or "all encompassing". We can speculate
that his interpretation is that the Seven Liberal Arts refers to all
knowledge. In Stellar Theology and Masonic Astronomy by Robert Hewitt
Brown, he wants to interpret just about everything in the ritual in an
astronomical way. He writes: "The wages of the faithful craftsmen, we are
told, are 'com, oiL and wine.' The seven signs of the zodiac, from the
vernal equinox to the first point of Scorpio, 'winding' in a glittering
curve about the heavens, may in a like manner be said to be emblematic of
seven winding steps, …thus corresponding with the more ancient versions of
the fellow-craft legend;…" 4 This is an interesting scenario but
completely ignores the subjects of the seven steps, and the history of the
There are Masonic authors who interpret the Seven Liberal Arts in ways
that are not based upon historical knowledge but more upon a more
psychological, philosophical or spiritual paradigm. For example, in the
popular Art and Imagination series by Thames and Hudson, the volume on
Freemasonry by W. Kirk MacNulty is a case in point. MacNulty writes the
following: "In the most general terms the Winding Staircase defines seven
'levels of consciousness', from consciousness of the physical body at the
bottom to consciousness of the Spirit and Divinity at the top. By
summarizing a large body of ritual and lecture, we can say that the
Stairs assign a step or level of consciousness to each of the seven
Officers of the Lodge; …" 5 His correspondences are the following: Tyler
with Grammar, Inner Guard with Logic, Junior Deacon with Rhetoric, Senior
Deacon with Arithmetic, Junior Warden with Geometry, Senior Warden with
Music, and the Worshipful Master with Astronomy. This type of explanation
deals more with how one might currently interpret the Seven Liberal Arts
but does not address the original intent of the founders of the Craft.
Another author in this survey is George H. Steinmetz. In his book
Freemasonry: Its Hidden Meaning he also tackles the seven steps. He makes
the cryptic statement: "…the seven steps have a deep occult meaning which
we will merely mention here. They are the vibrations producing color and
sound." 6 He does not elaborate on this and so neither will I! A few pages
later he states: "There are actually seven interpretations of Masonic
symbolism, or more correctly, seven means of interpretation."
7 He goes on
to explain how each discipline can individually be applied to the Rites of
Freemasonry to garner ever deeper interpretations. There may be some truth
here although it is a clumsy fit with some of the disciplines.
There is much in Freemasonry of an astronomical nature. Much obviously,
is related to geometrical and number symbolism. And you can make some case
for the others but it begins to get weaker and weaker.
In the Scottish Rite, the 30th Degree, that of "Knight Kadosh" or
"Knight of the Holy Spirit", we again run into the Seven Liberal Arts.
This time they are on a double seven-runged ladder. Albert Pike's
explanation in the Liturgy is really based around the lessons of the
Knight Kadosh degree but we get hints of a deeper and more mystical
significance when we consider the corresponding words on the other side of
the ladder. It is written in Hebrew and are obviously related to the
Spheres on the Kabalistic Tree of Life. Pike directly states in the
Legenda: "You conclude that, in this Degree, the words on the seven steps
of the Ladder mean something more and higher than the mere elementary
Sciences of which they are the names. You are right …" 8
commentary continues he basically explains these Seven Arts as steps to
ever larger vistas of God and Creation; and, with the corresponding rungs
on the opposite side develops a much more exalted role of these Arts and
Sciences. As we will see later, this is closer to the original intent.
The last Masonic writer I want to consider is Walter Leslie Wilmshurst
(1867- 1939). He is the author of several books including: The Meaning of
Masonry, Masonic Initiation and The Ceremony of Passing. As we can tell
from the passage I am about to quote, the ritual was somewhat different
than what we now work today. Wilmshurst is a very spiritual and mystical
writer and, as such, we should expect to find his interpretation down
those lines. This lengthy quote displays just that:
"The perambulations are made on the level floor of the Lodge, which the
candidate keeps on "squaring," visiting each of its four sides in turn.
But at the end of the third circuit the moment comes when his forward
motion on the level ceases, and he is directed to mount spirally, by a
series of winding steps. Linear motion gives way to circular; he advances
now not merely forward, but up. … By this change of motion, this spiral
ascent, is implied that the time has come when the Candidate must leave
the level of the sense- world and rise to the supra-sensual; must divert
his thoughts and desires from sensuous objects and concentrate them on the
insensible and much more real things of the world of mind."
Clearly, Wilmshurst is of the opinion that the winding staircase, which
includes the seven steps, is considerably more than an exhortation on the
merits of an extensive education. The winding stairs become the vehicle of
his ascension into the spiritual realm. He further states that: "From the
moment of ascending the winding staircase, then, the Candidate is mentally
leaving the outer world more and more behind him and rising into an inner
invisible world. He is making what has often been called ltinerarium
mentis in Deo, the ascent of the mind to the Source of Light; …"10
There can be no question that Wilmshurst sees a deeper role for the
Seven Liberal Arts. The above sampling of Masonic writers and their
comments on the winding staircase show different levels of possible
meaning to this Second Degree motif. We know that there have been ritual
changes in the past regarding the winding stairs. There were, indeed,
different numbers of steps at different times. Haywood informs us that:
"In some eighteenth century tracing boards the stair is composed of
only five steps, in other of seven. Preston divided them into one, three,
five, seven, nine and eleven, making thirty-six in all. The Hemming
lectures, which replaced Preston's at the time of the Union, struck out
the group of eleven steps, thus reducing the number to twenty-five. The
American Ritual, in turn, further reduced the number to fifteen by
striking out the one and the nine."11
Not only has the whole staircase changed but the Seven Liberal Arts
were not always in the Second Degree. They were in the First Degree at the
beginning of the eighteenth century.12
But regardless of the changes, the
seven steps has always represented the Seven Liberal Arts.
And it is those Arts which are our focus here. We have seen some
Masonic authors consider these steps in their most obvious interpretations
and we have seen others consider it the vehicle to mystical heights. In an
attempt to get closer to the actual we have to go outside of the
Fraternity and explore the history and development of this curriculum.
III. The History of the Seven Liberal Arts
The history of the Seven Liberal Arts is the history of the development
of education up until the end of the Middle Ages. Its origins are in
classical Athens. The different disciplines were developing at different
times and it was not till later that they crystallized into a set of
seven. The term "liberal" has lead to some confusion because we use the
term somewhat differently now. We think of it as a broad education in
contrast to a technical or professional education that is highly
specialized. But liberal in the context of the Seven Liberal Arts means
education suitable for the free man. The term is used as early as Plato.
The term "arts" has to be thought of in the sense of "skills".
Plato had a model curriculum as did his pupil Aristotle. Different
subjects were stressed at different times. By the third century BC the
curriculum begin to formulate into a foundational work consisting of:
gymnastics, grammar, music, drawing, arithmetic and geometry. Other
subjects taught were medicine and architecture. Later, the Romans adopted
the Greek ideas of education. It was not until the fourth century AD that
the Pagan schools fixed their curriculum to seven arts. With the decline
of paganism and the rise of Christianity we find the Christians adopting
similar methods of education. The first Christian to use the term "seven
liberal arts" was Cassiodorus (480-575). This curriculum was readily
adopted into the Latin West and remained fixed all throughout the Middle
Ages. Its full flowering was seen at the Cathedral School at Chartres in
the 12th century. 13
These seven subjects -grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry,
music, and astronomy -were considered a unity. They were divided into two
parts: the trivium of grammar, rhetoric and logic; and the quadrivium of
arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy. All seven made an integrated
whole which also made all seven necessary. And it must be remembered who
put these subjects together. William Stahl explains that: "...the people
who were most interested in the full span of subjects were philosophers;
and the seven liberal arts were in essence, and always remained, a
philosophers' curriculum." 14
There are some important issues to be aware of in considering the
individual subject matters. The study of grammar encompassed not only
parts of speech and rules but also literature, reading, exposition,
etymologies and what we now call linguistics. All instruction was in
Latin; therefore, mastery of the Latin language was preliminary to
everything else. Rhetoric is the training of the orator or developing the
practice of speaking to the level of an art. But in the Latin West it took
the forms of learning how to produce proper letters and documents. How to
make appropriate addresses and petitions and so on. Logic was not so much
as a preparation for philosophy but the study of formal logical methods.
Arithmetic was basically the art of computation but there was strong
interest in the mystical and symbolic elements due to the influence from
Pythagoras. Geometry was not anything like we now think of it until the
tenth century. It was not until the 12th and 13th centuries that complete
translations of Euclid from the Arabic were available. Music was
completely theoretical. It was only a mathematical and speculative
science. There the influence of Pythagoras was apparent again. Astronomy
was the most popular as there was a great interest to all things
astronomical including astrology.
What is important to keep in mind is the intention of the schoolmasters
in using this curriculum. This can not be better illustrated than by the
activities going on at the magnificent gothic cathedral of Chartres and
its appendant school in the 12th century. To this we will now turn our
IV. The Cathedral and School of Chartres
We know that as early as the sixth century that a cathedral school
existed at Chartres. But it was not until the twelfth century that it
became the center of Latin Platonism and a school where students flocked
to learn the highest philosophy of the land.
The geographic area itself is interesting. It is thought that prior to
the early school that it was a center used by the Celtic druids for their
purposes. The cathedral also sits on a granite promontory that cuts
through the limestone plain. This fact corresponds to the structure of
Stonehenge where the concentric circles were hewn out of granite and set
on the limestone of Salisbury Plain. 15
The cathedral and school are important to us here because the Seven
Liberal Arts reached not only a high degree of perfection as taught but it
seems that the architecture also gave witness to this same spirit. The
Seven Liberal Arts ''as a means to the knowledge of God finds visible
expression in the cathedral at Chartres."16
Adolf Katzenellenbogen states
in his work that:
"If one studies the representations of the Seven Liberal Arts in the
twelfth century one realizes that they are only a link in the whole chain
of representations of this subject, and that a long tradition of ideas and
forms lies behind their images." 17
and "It is generally agreed that the
first facade on which the Seven Arts were represented was that of the
Royal Portal of Chartres Cathedral. ...these systems of decoration
indicate in different ways the relation of secular learning to theological
We also know that Thierry was chancellor of the School when the figures
were carved. Thierry was not only chancellor but in charge of supervising
various parts of the building the Cathedral. There is no doubt that there
is a connection between the sculptural and architect's design and his
philosophical conceptions. In Thierry's own handbook on the Seven Liberal
Arts he defined the specific role of the Quadrivium as illuminating the
mind and that of the Trivium as making its expression. His influence was
great not only within the School but also for all of Europe. Raymond
Klibansky explains why is so:
"Under him Chartres became the center of the liberal arts to which
students came from all over Europe. In search of new sources of knowledge,
his pupils crossed the Pyrenees and the Alps. They brought back
mathematical and astronomical works in translations made from the Arabic,
and new texts of Aristotle in versions made from the Greek. From Chartres
this new learning was handed on to the Latin world." 19
It is true that the School laid emphasis on the quadrivium but as
Klibansky informs us that the purpose was: "… to attain, through knowledge
of the structure of the created world, knowledge of the Creator. As the
world, ...is ordered according to number, measure, and weight, the
sciences of the quadrivium -arithmetic and geometry, music and astronomy
-are the instruments which the human mind has at its disposal for
recognizing the art of the Creator." 20
It was a grand school with grand
designs. As David Luscombe states: "... the Chartrains attempted to
establish the existence of God by numerical speculations, to synthesize
Platonic cosmology and biblical revelation, and to compare the Platonic
world soul with the Holy spirit, ...[and] God was considered to be the
form of all being." 21
V. The Winding Staircase as a Symbol
A full understanding of the Seven Liberal Arts in a Masonic context
must take into account its use as symbolism. The Seven are actually
contained within another symbol -the Winding Staircase. It is interesting
to look at how the symbol has been interpreted in psychological ways and
also how it has been portrayed in religious art, story and legends.
The winding staircase is an image that refers to upward movement -of
moving from one level to a higher level. Related images include: ladders,
mountains, flying and towers. We can also include the image of climbing a
rope or cosmic pillar and in this modern time, taking an elevator. The
Jungian psychologist Edward F. Edinger classifies this type of image under
the term Sublimatio. It is an alchemical term he finds convenient to use.
I suppose he likes to use the Latin spelling to distinguish it from the
Freudian term sublimation which is not the same psychological mechanism.
Freud used it to refer to the way we channel our instincts into socially
The alchemical definition is the basic chemical operation of turning
material into air by volatilizing it, it then turns into air and
reformulates in a higher place. In a lab it works like this: take a
certain solid -apply heat -turns into gas -ascends -then cools -then
resolidifies. Distillation is related but is applied to liquids as when we
heat water to boil, capture the steam, and it recondenses to water as it
cools leaving the heavy contaminants behind in the original vessel. So
according to Edinger: "... the crucial feature of sublimatio is an
elevating process whereby a low substance is translated into a higher form
by an ascending movement." 22
Lets go back to our Latin studies and find
that sublimis means "high". Its meaning in Jungian psychological circles
is the following:
"Sublimatio is an ascent that raises us above the
confining entanglements of immediate earthly existence and its concrete,
personal particulars." 23
From their point of view this process can take
different forms. It can manifest as seeing a problem from a broader
perspective; maybe, something has troubled an individual to where his
functioning in some area of his life is restricted and then by some event
or change his view of the situation completely alters and he sees it from
a higher perspective which lessens its original hold upon him. Or even to
the extreme event of some mystical experience which usually overturns ones
life and washes away many of the petty things we once felt were so
important; and consequently frees us -or volatizes our consciousness
-where we can view things "from on high".
Ediniger points out that many of the alchemical processes overlap.
Overlapping with sublimation is the process of separation or separatio.
They are both extraction processes. The "spirit" is extracted from
"matter". Therefore, the ultimate sublimation is death which would remind
us of the Degree following the Fellowcraft. The alchemists sometimes
referred to the spirit of man as quicksilver.
Ediniger states that: "This 'expulsion of the quicksilver' is done by
sublimatio, which releases the spirit hidden in matter. In the largest
sense, this refers psychologically to the redemption of the Self from its
original unconscious state." 24
This statement is also interesting in a
cabalistic sense in Freemasonry. The words Aur Ganuz (Hebrew: AVR GNVZ)
meaning "hidden light' have the same numerological value as Hiram Abiff
(that is: 273) The situation as the alchemists saw it was that matter and
spirit was intermixed in a basic state of contamination. Thus, the need
for the alchemical procedures of extraction. The procedures produced a
purified state by separation. The Seven Liberal Arts were thought of as
achieving the same ends. It was considered a way of purifying the soul so
that it could ascend to the spiritual realms. Another aspect of
sublimation that Edinger mentions is the theme of translation to eternity.
For examples he relates the stories of ancient heroes being taken to the
realms of the gods such as Heracles, Elijah, Christ and the Virgin Mary.
We find this theme in ancient Egypt as well. This is a quote from the
Egyptologist E.A. Wallis Budge:
"...the model of a ladder was often placed on or near the dead body in
the tomb, and a special composition was prepared which had the effect of
making the ladder become the means of the ascent of the deceased into
heaven. Thus in the text written for Pepi the deceased is made to address
the ladder in these words: "Homage to thee, 0 divine Ladder! Homage to
thee, 0 Ladder of Set! Stand thou upright, 0 divine Ladder! Stand thou
upright, 0 Ladder of Set! Stand thou upright, 0 Ladder of Horus, whereby
Osiris came forth into heaven." 25
The resurrected Osiris is sometimes pictured in Egyptian art as a
ladder with arms holding the Crook and Scourge.
We find ladder and stair symbolism in many myths which of course are
symbols of ascending and descending. The phenomenon is prevalent
throughout the world. The historian of world religions Mircea Eliade
comments in his book on shamanism that: The preeminently shamanic
technique is the passage from one cosmic region to another -from earth to
the sky or from earth to the underworld. The shaman knows the mystery of
the break-through in plane. ...the essential schema is always to be seen,
...there are three great cosmic regions, which can be successively
traversed because they are linked together by a central axis.
Certain ancient Mystery Schools and religious traditions also show a
parallel with our tradition. Eliade mentions a few:
"A ladder with seven rungs is documented in the Mithraic mysteries,
...An ascent to heaven by ceremonially climbing a ladder probably formed
part of the Orphic initiation. ...the symbolism of ascension by means of
stairs was known in Greece. ...Jacob dreams of a ladder whose top reaches
heaven, ...Mohammed sees a ladder rising from the temple in Jerusalem to
heaven, ... in Islamic mysticism: to ascend to God, the soul must mount
seven successive steps, ...In the heaven of Saturn Dante sees a golden
ladder rising dizzyingly to the last celestial sphere and trodden by the
souls of the blessed." 27
Seven Liberal Arts
These are only a few examples that could be given. A study of world
mythology reveals this same motif all over the planet from the most
"primitive" tribes to the most sophisticated cosmologies.
We can now see the powerful use that Freemasonry developed in the
Fellowcraft degree as regards the Seven Liberal Arts and the Winding
Staircase. There is symbolism nested within symbolism. Not only do we have
a symbol of ascending in that of the Winding Staircase; but also that of
steps divided into three, five, and seven -all mystical numbers with their
own significance. Corresponding with the Seven Steps are the Seven Liberal
Arts; and, as we have seen, the whole point of this curriculum was to be a
launching point of the mind to scale the realms of the Spirit.
1. Haywood, Symbolical Masonry, p. 216.
2. Ibid., p. 237.
3. Bromwell, Restorations of Masonic Geometry and Symbology, p. 355.
4. Brown, Stellar Theology and Masonic Astronomy, p. 57.
5. MacNulty, Freemasonry: A Journey through Ritual and Symbol, p. 23.
6. Steinmetz, Freemasonry: Its Hidden Meaning, p. 120.
7. Ibid., p. 124.
8. Pike, Legenda of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of
Freemasonry, pp. 134-135.
9. Wilmshurst, The Ceremony of Passing, p. 20.
10. Ibid., p. 21.
11. Haywood, Symbolical Masonry, p. 218.
12. Ibid., p. 236.
13. Abelson, The Seven Liberal Arts: A Study in Medieval Culture. P. 3.
14. Stahl, Martianus Capella and the Seven Liberal Arts, p. 91.
15. Querido, The Golden Age of Chartres, p. 21.
16. Klibansky, The School of Chartres, p. 13.
17. Katzenellenbogen, The Representation of the Seven Liberal Arts, p.
18. Ibid., p. 39.
19. Klibansky, p. 9.
20. Ibid., p. 9.
21. Luscombe, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, volume 1, p. 83.
22. Edinger, Anatomy of the Psyche: Alchemical symbolism in
Psychotherapy, p. 117.
23. Ibid., p. 118.
24. Ibid., p. 123.
25. Ibid., pp. 133-134.
26. Eliade, Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, p. 259.
27. Ibid., pp. 488 - 489.
Abelson, Paul. The Seven Liberal Arts, A Study in Mediaeval Culture
Bromwell, H.P.H., Restorations of Masonic Geometry and Symbolry
Brown, Robert Hewitt, Stellar Theology and Masonic Astronomy
Clagett, Marshall, Twelfth-Century Europe and the Foundations of Modern
Edinger, Edward F., Anatomy of the Psyche
Eliade, Mircea, Shamanism
Haywood, H.L. Symbolical Masonry
MacNulty, W.Kirk. Freemasonry: A Journey through Ritual and Symbol
Querido, Rene. The Golden Age of Chartres
Stahl, William Harris. Martianus Capella and the Seven Liberal Arts
Wilmshurst, W.L. The Ceremony of Passing
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