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"The Authentic and Complete History of the Ancient and Mystical Order Rosae Crucis"

Compiled by H. Spencer Lewis, F.R.C. Grand Master
General and Imperator of the Order in the United States.
From The American Rosae Crucis, January 1916


It is no violation of secrecy to give the outer, objective details of the history of the Ancient and Mystical Order of Rosae Crucis, but the genuine conservatism of the Eastern Councils until now has acted as a barrier against such publicity as we in America believe necessary for the growth of any public or semi-public institution.  

After twelve years' study of the doctrines and principles of Rosa Crucis and a very careful examination of all matters pertaining to the history of the Order, one does not find a single prohibition against the general publication of the Order's history except in such minor details as are closely associated with the working or manifestation of some of the R.C. doctrines. While these exceptions are few, although of vast importance to the higher students, they have undoubtedly caused that subconscious attitude on the part of all R.C. Brothers and Sisters that it is safer, in the face of their individual sacred oaths, to refrain from alt mention of either the antiquity or progression of the Order.  

There is also the element of mysticism which explains the attitude of even the most advanced Brothers and Sisters. Realizing as most of them do that the real history of the Order has never been given to the public and has for centuries defied the exhaustive and indefatigable researches of scientists, historians and archivists alike, they feel a certain pride in having been able to mystify the profoundly inquisitive minds. Even the grossly erroneous and occasional biased raisonne of the history of the Order given in various encyclopaedias, reference books, and histories only adds to this feeling of pride and victory.  

But such secrecy is not only uncalled for, but is positively detrimental to the Order in America. We are a people of frankness; Americans are lovers of the truth and have a natural antipathy toward that which may be characterized as "mystically mythical," and such is the general impression of the origin and existence of the R.C. Order in the minds of many thousands to-day.  

Nor is it necessary to enshroud the history' of the Order in the cloak of blackest mystery to make the Order itself appeal to the thinking mind. One will find that the true history of the Order arouses, even commands, such deep respect for its noble birth, grand growth and wonderful increase of power. that this alone is a greater attraction to the thinking American than the element of mystery.  

Inexactness and indefiniteness are the principal faults to be found with all the published accounts of the origin and present status of the Order. The few instances of willful and inconsistent deception shown by some writers on the subject may be ignored in any consideration of the matter, for no mind can explain these things nor account for them aside from the writers' own personal bias which we are always led to believe has had no influence upon the honesty of the work.  

Still, there are many very definite and exact facts easily within the reach of an analytical mind bent upon historical research, even when such mind is uninitiated into the secrets of the Order.  

The claim has always been made that the A.M.O.R.C. is the oldest fraternal or secret order known to man. This claim makes the Order antedate Freemasonry and the latter has always claimed great antiquity. Here again the casual, aye, the deep investigator is confronted with a mass of details purporting to be the history of Freemasonry, but gradually classifying themselves into two groups which one may label "inexact" and "indefinite."  

Right here is where some of the mystery be-comes clarified. Rosaecrucians claim, and can prove, that the Order of Free and Accepted Masons is an offspring of the A.M.O.R.C., and for this reason its origin is so veiled and indefinite except to those who have passed through the Scottish Rites. Because of its frankness publicity and public propaganda, Freemasonry has grown into a powerful organization, overshadowing in the public's mind, all other secret or fraternal orders.  

On the point of its connection with the A.M.O.R.C., Freemasonry is very silent. It traces its antiquity to "Solomon's Temple" and refers to characters whose history, if not actual existence, are cloaked with doubt. Its published history is very esoteric and mystical although its actual history; as known to all advanced Rosaecrucians, is a living testimonial to the truth of the noble principles of Brotherhood which underlie Freemasonry.  

So closely are the two Orders allied that many of the great exponents of the one are active workers, in the other. Freemasonry has acknowledged its debt to the A.M.O.R.C. by adding a Rosaecrucian Degree to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, making it the 18. 1 It has also established "Societies Rosicruciana" in England and various parts of the United States to which none but an advanced Mason may apply for admission.  

In these Rosaecrucian Societies, as in the A. and A.S.R 18, certain elements of the Rosaecrucian initiations and doctrines are used (in the crude form resulting from tradition by word of mouth, since none but the legitimate Lodges of the A.M.O.R.C. have the correct work) and the tendency on the part of these Brother Masons in such degrees and Societies is to practice and emulate the noble rules and doctrines of the A.M.O.R.C. (see endnote 1)

Naturally all genuine Rosaecrucian Lodges practice many of the elements of the WORK of Freemasonry, since the latter adapted ist WORK from that of the A.M.O.R.C. The first degree in all Rosaecrucian Lodges is very similar indeed to the third (or Master Mason's) degree of Freemasonry. Many of the tatters symbols and terms are taken from Rosaecrucianism (as explained elsewhere) and in general the two Orders are aiming to accomplish the same great and noble purpose, except that the R.C. work is OPERATIVE while Freemasonry is SPECULATIVE.  

Notwithstanding their knowledge of many of the Masonic secrets, all real Rosaecrucians respect the Masons' oaths of secrecy as rigorously as they do their own. Therefore let no word that has been written or will be written in this connection convey the idea that Rosaecrucianism (Rosicrucianism) has any feeling other than kindness and real R.C. love toward ist capricious and arbitrary offspring. and it has demonstrated in many ways its debt of gratitude and filial love toward the Rosaecrucian Order. Certain criticisms and comments seem inevitable; however, in order to justify fully our claims of greater antiquity and it is the hope of the writer that these will have no greater reaction among Masons than to urge a few of their unofficial and overzealous writers to limit their journeys into Masonic retrospection to the known paths of historical accuracy.  

Aside from the Masonic Rosaecrucian Societies in America there are a number of other bodies which glory in the reflected light of Rosaecrucianism. These neo-Rosaecrucian societies, under the names of Temples, Centers and Brotherhoods, have naught to do with the genuine doctrines, principles, philosophies or WORK of the A.M.O.R.C. and their members or students as well as their Masters. Dictators or Teachers are uninitiated into the Truths of real Rosaecrucianism. As a guide to the SEEKER OF LIGHT these various bodies will be dealt with at length in another part or this work..  

The real name of the genuine body is The Ancient and Mystical Order of Rosae Crucis, (or Rose Cross, Rosy Croix). None but a genuine, legitimate Lodge of the Order can use the terms Rosaecrucian Order, Rosaecrucian Lodge or the complete name as given above; and it is only fair to state that none of the unauthorized bodies referred to above have ever publicly used these restricted terms or the genuine symbols.  

The Order had its conception and birth in Egypt. In giving the facts of the origin the writer realizes that to an exceptional degree will exactness and authoritativeness be demanded by the reader and in consequence pardon must be granted for reiteration.  

Time and space will not be used in describing conditions in Egypt as they existed at the time of the conception of so wonderful an organization as this. The reader is requested to read either a brief or extended history of Egypt which will prove highly illuminating on this subject.  

One will find however that the Egyptians had reached a high state of civilization and advanced learning at the beginning of the 18th dynasty comparable only with the Renaissance of France. Many were the means adopted to preserve the knowledge attained that it might be correctly given to future generations. The hieroglyphic markings on the pyramids,2 oblisks and temple walls give us evidence of the first desires to make permanent the knowledge and learning of the Egyptians. (see endnote 2)

But the more profound secrets of nature, science and art were not to be entrusted to the masses nor were they susceptible to preservation through writing upon papyri. For this reason classes were formed by the most learned, attended by the select minds, at which the doctrines and principles of science were taught.  

These classes or SCHOOLS, as history refers to them, were held in the most isolated grottos at times, and again in the quiet of some of the Temples erected to the many Egyptian gods. In some cases classes of a very select nature were held in the private chambers of the reigning Pharaoh.  

The members of such assemblies became more and more select the teachings more profound and the discussions so dialectic that there arose a most autocratic and secret society of the truly great minds of the day.  

Thus the first Pharaoh who conducted the class in his private chambers was Ahmose I, who reigned from 1580 B.C. to 1557 B.C. Because he was capable of conducting the great school as well as ruling the people upon a more civilized and advanced principle (due to his training in the school no doubt), he is referred to as the "deliverer of Egypt" by some historians.  

He was succeeded as Pharaoh by Amenhotep I, who reigned ten years and became a teacher in the secret school for three years.  

On January 12th (approximately) 1538 B.C., Thutmose I was crowned succeeding Amenhotep I. He owed his position to his wife, Ahmose, who was he first woman to become a member of the class on equal terms with the men.. The discussion regarding her admittance (still preserved in the Rosaecrucian Archives) forms an interesting document and reveals the origin of some of the doctrines of the equality of the sexes.  

Thutmose I was succeeded by Hatshepsut, his daughter, who ruled as a "king," independently and as co-regent with her half-brother Thutmose III, a son of Thutmose I by his marriage to Isis.  

It was Thutmose III who organized the present physical form of the Rosaecrucian Order and outlined many of its rules and regulations. He became ruler upon the deposition of his father, Thutmose I, in 1500 B.C. He ruled until 1447 B C, and his reign is unimportant to us except for his establishment of the Order.  

He appears to have been quite original in his application of the doctrines of Rosaecrucianism, but held to the existing external form of religion, possibly because of political conditions. Egypt was not free from the danger of the "grasping hand" of adjoining nations and the life of this ruler was constantly tormented by outbreaks of war; and the cooperation of his military forces depended considerably upon permitting the populace to indulge in all its fanciful beliefs--the idolatrous religions especially. For this reason an immediate change in the fundamentals of their religion such as was made by Thutmose's descendant, Amenhotep IV in 1355 with such reactionary resu1ts--did not seem advisable or even necessary.  

A gradual development in the existing beliefs could be more easily and permanently accomplished by establishing a school of philosophy, the students at which would put into practice the high standards decided upon.  

As in all ages there were then those who might he called ADVANCED THINKERS, true philosophers, sages and scholars. Many of these were students of the Rosaecrucian doctrines as taught by Thutmose's predecessors and they evidently had great faith in the final success of the principles; for when Thutmose proposed that the "class" which had been meeting in his chambers become a closed and secret order "there was no dissenting voice and articles of limitations were established ere the assembly dispersed in the early hours of dawn."  

This grand "Council Meeting," for such it is considered in all official records, occurred during what would he the week of March 28th to April 4th of 1489 B.C. according to our present calendar. It is generally conceded to have been on Thursday, April 1st, but this may be associated with Maunday Thursday, a later establishment. However; Thursday has become the usual day for Rosaecrucian meetings, and "Maunday" Thursday has become usual occasion for special Temple Services throughout all A.M.O.R.C. Lodges of the world.  

Twelve Brothers and Sisters were present at this first "Supreme Council R.C. of the World" the Sisters being the wife of Thutmose III, known in the Order as the wife of one of the Brothers, and another who was a descendant of one of the rulers of a preceding dynasty. Therefore, there were 9 Brothers and 3 Sisters at this Council, a combination of numbers very significant.  

No name was decided upon for the Order, the records showing that the predominating thought was the maintenance of secrecy. The Order was to have no publicity, required no propaganda other than personal advice to those whose presence in the Order was desired, and as the one word, translated into ORDER (a secret, fraternal body), was sufficient name for all purposes, we do not find any other term. This accounts for the widespread diversion of the name as adopted later. In so many of the documents issued by the Supreme Magis to the Grand Lodges throughout the world, the name of the Order is seldom mentioned. The writer has noticed this especially in such documents as are given to a newly established Grand Lodge and which are translations or the documents prepared prior to 1326 B.C. In these the element, the idea, of secrecy is so strong and predominant that the Order is referred to indirectly and sometimes erroneously (or perhaps diplomatically) as IT, the SCHOOL, the BROTHERHOOD, and the COUNCIL. Furthermore many of these documents begin with the Announcement: "I BROTHER OF THE ILLUMINATI, with power decreed, do declare this Manifesto," or with the salutation: "I, F. Illuminati of the 12." (I, Frater Illuminati of the 12th degree). Very often these official manifestos are signed "With Peace Profound" and sometimes "F, Profundis" or "F. 12."  

These words not only show that the twelfth or last degree was the last Order within the Order, known as the ILLUMINATI, even to this day, but they also explain why some references are made to these documents as "Instructions of the Illuminati" which may easily be misinterpreted or carelessly interpreted as "Instructions to the Illuminati" as one sees them referred to in works published abroad. in the 15th, 16th,and 17th centuries A.D., where the Order of Rosae Crucis is designated solely by the term "Illuminati."  

Furthermore, if one considers for a moment the prejudice--even the prohibition--against such secret Orders as the A.M.O.R.C. represented, one will appreciate the very evident attempts at subterfuge. Not only did certain religious organizations condemn all secret orders as "works of the devil" but those orders or bodies which claimed to have rare knowledge of the sciences were severely criticized by the various open scientific bodies of the day. As soon as learning became very general and competition arose between schools and students, the secret orders were widely condemned even though many of the most unfair critics of some were oath-bound members of others.  

However, without definite name, Thutmose saw that the Order had very definite principles, rules and modes of procedure, all of which have come down to us to-day without material change.  

At the close of his reign in 1447 there were thirty-nine Brothers and Sisters in the Order and the meetings, which had become regular and systematic, were held in one of the halls of the Temple at Karnak, outside of which Thutmose III erected. two obelisks bearing a record of his achievements.  

Thutmose signed most of the decrees of the Council with his own cartouche and it became the Seal of the Order "in testimony to the great work of our teacher (Master) to be forever a mark of honor and loyalty." As was customary with these rulers when any event of national importance occurred, Thutmose issued a SCARAB bearing his cartouche on one side, plus a mark which has a special meaning to all Rosaecrucians. This original scarab, which was used for hundreds of years in Egypt by various A.M.O.R.C. Councils to impress the Seal of the Order in wax to all official documents, was given to the Grand Lodge of America along with other jewels and papers of an official nature and is considered one of the rarest antiquities of Egypt now in this country. The Order here is to be congratulated on having in ist possession perhaps the OLDEST, if not the most SACRED, of alt Rosaecrucian jewels, one which has never been used by others than the Supreme Masters at Egypt; for it means virtually the passing of the Master's Spirit from Egypt to America as was planned by the founders centuries ago.  

This Seal appears on the stationery and official documents of the Order in America along with the American R.C. Seal, and ist illegitimate use constitutes a forgery, according to the By-Laws of the Order throughout the world, punishable by a special decree of the Masters. Of all the so-called Rosaecrucian movements in America none has ever dared to use this Seal and certainly none ever will use it without the permission of the Grand Lodge of America.  

In this connection it may be explained that the Obelisk in Central Park [in New York City], one of the two erected in Egypt by Thutmose III and intended to stand some day in "the country where the Eagle spreads its wings," bears the Cartouche or Seal of the Order as well as many other authentic and instructive Rosaecrucian signs.  

Before his transition, Thutmose III made his son (by Hatshepsut) co-regent. Thus Amenhotep II took up his father's work in tile Order about the end of September 1448. In the month of March--the seventeenth to be exact--1447 B.C., Thutmose passed to the Great Beyond, having been king for nearly 54 years and being but one week less than 89 years of age. His mummy was found in the Cachette at Deir el Bahri, and history acclaims him "the greatest pharaoh in the New Empire if not in all Egyptian history."  

Amenhotep II ruled from 1448 to 1420 B.C. and he in turn was succeeded by his son Thutmose IV who ruled from 1420 to 1411 B.C. Amenhotep III, son of the preceding, occupied the throne from 1411 to 1375 B.C. and was the last of the truly powerful pharaohs or emperors.  

Upon the transition of Amenhotep III the Empire fell to his son Amenhotep IV, with whose history all Rosaecrucians are greatly concerned. He was the last Great Master in the family of the founders and the one to whom we owe the really wonderful philosophies and writings used so universally in all Lodge work throughout the world.  

Amenhotep IV was born in the Royal Palace at Thebes, November 24th, 1378 B.C. His mother Tiy or Tia was of humble birth, but both he and his father paid the most sincere respects to her and were ever proud of designating her "Queen Tia" upon all monuments.  

He was only eleven years old in 1867 B.C. when he was crowned and immediately began a career unequaled by any pharaoh of Egypt.3 his father, having been the Master of the Order for a number of years, built the great Temple of Luxor and dedicated it to the Order. He also added to the Temple of Karnak and in many ways left "monuments of testimony and praise."  

The Order numbered two hundred and eighty-three Brothers and sixty-two Sisters at this time and at the time of the crowning of young Amenhotep IV, the Master of the Order was one Thehopset who remained in the office until 1365 B.C. Amenhotep's installation MASTER-BY-COUNCIL-DECREE occurred in the Temple of Luxor, April 9th, 1365, at sunset, in the presence of his bride and her parents.  

Amenhotep being the only descendant it was deemed advisable that he marry as early as the customs then permitted in order that an heir to the throne would be assured. But though Amenhotep had a number of children, unfortunately they were daughters,4 and this proved disastrous to the Order as well as to the throne. (see endnote 3, & 4)

The life of this great man is too easily found in various histories of Egypt, especially Breasteds, to warrant space in this work, but his accomplishments for the Order must be treated at least briefly.  

Rosaecrucianism is not given to any belief in the special or unusual divinity of any man; it recognizes in the man Jesus only the same qualities, physically and spiritually, to be found in every other man, although it does recognize his superior mental abilities as evidenced by his teachings of the Rosaecrucian philosophy and doctrines. But we do feel, perhaps as a result of our great pride, honor and respect, that Amenhotep IV, our last foundation Master, was unusually inspired with the Laws of the Divine Principles and that unto him was revealed the Great Truth.  

Born in a country whose peoples were given to idolatry, where the chief endeavors were those of building Temples to gods of all kinds, it is easy to appreciate his attitude toward the existing religion (or religions) after he had been thoroughly instructed in the Rosaecrucian philosophy. His mind and understanding were unusually keen, for in his fifteenth year he composed many of the most beautiful prayers psalms and chants used in the Order today, as well as contributed to the philosophy and sciences.  

But to him came the inspiration of over-throwing the worship or idols and substituting the religion and worship of one God, a supreme deity, whose Spirit was in heaven and whose physical manifestation was the Sun--the SYMBOL OF LIFE. This was in accordance with the Rosaecrucian doctrines and it changed the worship of the Sun as a god to the worship of THE god SYMBOLISED by the sun. This was the beginning of Monotheism in Egypt and the origin of the worship of a spiritual deity which "EXISTED EVERYWHERE, IN EVERYTHING, but was NOTHING OF' THE EARTH" (i. e., had no physical existence on earth in the form of inanimate or non-spiritual images.)  

Arthur E. P. Weigall, Chief inspector of the Department of Antiquities, Upper Egypt in writing of the religion inspired by Amenhotep IV, says: "Like a flash of blinding light in the night time, the Aton [the sun-symbol of the deity] stands out for a moment amidst the black Egyptian darkness, and disappears once more--the first signal to the world of the future religions of the West. One might believe that Almighty God had for a moment revealed himself to Egypt."  

Truly the religion of Amenhotep did not endure for long. Compared to the years of darkness, it was but a flash, for it died as a public and general religion when Amenhotep passed beyond the veil in 1350 B.C.  

He too left many monuments to the glory of the Order. First he removed as far as possible all "pillars to Amon" and all references to Amon as a god. So thorough was his work that he did not hesitate to mutilate the work done by his father at Karnak and Luxor by effacing all reference to the god Amon, even to removing the name of his father and mother where they were connected with such idolatry. This naturally provoked the populace especially since Amenhotep substituted beautiful monuments to the "living God."5  

In the fifth year of his reign--when only sixteen years of age, a sweeping reform was initiated throughout Egypt by his decree, which prohibited any other form of worship except that already mentioned. In one of his decrees he wrote: "This is my oath of Truth which it is my desire to pronounce, and of which I will not say: 'It is false' eternally forever."  

He then changed his own name to that it would not be inconsistent with his reform. Amenhotep meant "Amon is satisfied"; this he altered to Akhnaton or lkhenaton meaning "pious to Aton" or "Glory to Aton."6  

He built a new capitol at El Amarna in the plain of Herm-opolis on a virgin site at the edge of the desert 7 and abandoned Thebes because it was the MAGNIFICANT CITY OF AMON. At El Amarna he also built a large Temple for the Order in "the form of a cross" and a large number of houses for his Council of the Order. Here was the beginning of the monastic life for within the boundaries of El Amarna lived two hundred and ninety six Brothers of the Order, each having taken an oath never to pass "beyond the shadow of the Temple." (See Endnote 5, 6 & 7)

These Brothers wore special costumes which included a "cord at the loins" and a covering for the head, while the priest in the Temple wore a surplice of linen and had his head. shaved in a round spot on the top.  

It is from this institution that all monastic orders, especially that of St. Francis, derive their methods, even their costumes.  

During these years at El Amarna the A.M.O.R.C, was being made into a concrete organization and the Brothers at this community outlined the initiations and forms of service as used today in every Lodge of the Order.  

Akhnaton (Amenhotep IV) not only built his Temple in the form of a cross, but he added the cross and the rose 8 as symbols of the Order and further adopted the Crux Ansata, in a special coloring, as the symbol to be worn by all teachers (Masters) in the Lodges. In fact, the last year of his life was spent in evolving a wonderful system of symbols used to this day, to express every phase and meaning of the Rosaecrucian sciences, arts and philosophies, and while some of these have become known to the uninitiated through the researches of Egyptologists, many remain secret to the Order and all are understandable only to the initiated. (See Endnote 8)

As a ruler of Egypt our Master failed utterly to check the desire for war and by his attacks on the popular religion he left the way open for invasion through lack of to-operation on the part of his subjects. As the crisis approached our Master foresaw the result and sad. at his neglect of political matters in his enthusiasm for the spiritual, he weakened his health--which seems to have been below normal and he was finally forced to take to his bed in the month of July 1350 B.C. Instead of using his mighty knowledge to regain his health it appears from his last dictated writings that his constant wish was to be spiritualized, that he might be RAISED UP to THAT PLANE from which God's symbol shone down upon him. He fasted--practically starving himself--refused the services of the physicians in the Order and prayed constantly. Then, on July24, late in tile afternoon, while he lay with his right hand upstretched to God pleading to be taken into the NOUS he was seen by his Brothers and Sisters of the Order watching there, to be actually raised from his bed for a moment and then to drop back in "sweet repose with a smile of illumination upon his countenance."  

Thusly passed to the beyond our Great Master who did so much and left so much for our Order.  

He may have neglected Egypt politically but she will always remember her young Pharaoh whose twenty-eight years left its art and architecture, its sciences and philosophies so greatly changed and improved. His reign was like unto the Renaissance of France, and even the hieroglyphics and art show a vast improvement based upon the principles of Truth. At the time of his crowning he took the title of "Amenhotep, King, LIVING IN TRUTH" which was the Rosaecrucian phrase of fidelity as it is today, and he passed onward to the other life IN TRUTH.  

Perhaps the most summary of all testimonies to Amenhotep IV found outside of the Rosaecrucian literature, is that paid by James Breasted, Professor of Egyptology. University of Chicago, who says in the HISTORY OF EGYPT: "The modern world has yet adequately to value, or even acquaint itself with this man, who in an age so remote and under conditions so adverse, became the world's first individual."  

ENDNOTES

1. Questions from "Life of Martines de Pasqualley and Martinism" by Dr. Encausse (Papus, translated by Rev.. Geo. H. Peeke. "Freemasonry at first had been established in England by men already belonging to one of the most powerful of secret fraternities of the Occident--the Brotherhood of Rosaecrucians. These men, and above all, Elias Ashmole, had the idea of creating a central propaganda, where they could mould it, unknown, to gain members instructed by the Rosaecrucians. Therefore the first Masonic Lodges had a mixed membership composed partly of active workers and workers by correspondence (Masons at Liberty). The first attempts (Ashmole) are dated 1646, but it is in 1717 that the Grand Lodge of London was constituted. This is the lodge which gave the regular charters to the French lodges of Dunkirk (1721), Paris (1725), Bordeaux (1732), etc. And again, about the illuminate (the 12th degree of the Rosaecrucian Order): "The Illuminated fraternity, best known anterior to Swedenborg, and the only one of which we are permitted to speak to the profane world, is the illuminated Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross. It is the members of this fraternity who have decided upon the creation of symbolic societies, charged with preserving the rudiments of the Hermetic initiation, and which have thus given birth to many rites of the Freemasons. No conflict can be established between the Illuminati or inferior center of conservation, reserved for debutantes. It is only by joining with the fraternities of Illuminati that the Freemasons are able to gain the practical knowledge after which they seek from grade to grade."  

"In 1754 Martines de Pasqualley, having been initiated into the mysteries of the Rosaecrucians, established at Paris a center of Illuminism. The recruiting of these brothers was very carefully done and the work which followed was directed to the study of Ceremonial Magic, to the ritual for evoking Spirits, and absolute dominion of Man over his passions and instincts."  

In France the members of the 18th Masonic degree are called: "Sovereign Princes Rose-Croix." In England the title was changed to "Excellent and Perfect Princes." The Brothers are called "Fraters" and the Master was "Imperator."  

2. For instance, Alexander the Great found in the Great Pyramid of Gizeh, the Emerald Tablet. This famous tablet was engraved with a diamond by the great Hermes, and contained the secret Hermetic and Rosaecrucian secrets of alchemy. It was originally hidden in the tombs of Hermes by the Rosaecrucians to preserve for future generations the knowledge they possessed.  

3. It is claimed in official records that Amenhotep was a prodigy as a result of a special course of pre-natal influence adopted by his mother for the very purpose of bringing into the world a holy, inspired, learned man. In this respect his looked-for birth as the coming of a great leader of God's chosen people furnishes another precedent for the beliefs of later nations and peoples that in times of great crises a leader would be sent by God. Also has this incident furnished a feeling in all Rosaecrucians that a great Rosaecrucian leader will be born into the Order in each decade and in each nation where such a leader is required.  

4. It may be permissible here to contribute a few facts to the history of Egypt--more especially to this ruler's life, and thereby settle, with authority from the R.C. archives, the doubt regarding Amenhotep IV's children. There has always been considerable concern felt by historians because Amenhotep did not leave more accurate date regarding his family. In this, as other instances of Egyptian history, the R.C. archives are exact and illuminating. Amenhotep's wife was Nefer-Tythi. His daughters were named: Mery-aten, Makt-aten, Ankhespa-aten Nefer-neferu-aten-ta-shera, Nefer-neferu-aten, Setep-en-aten, and Baqt-aten.  

5. At Karnak, for instance, he built an R.C. Temple which he dedicated to "Ra Herakhti" which means "to the life-heat which is in Aton,"--the sun. The ruins of the Temple may be seen today, and the word "Horakhti" is significant to all Rosaecrucians. It was on tablets erected by Amenhotep at this Temple that the sun-symbols as now used in the Order, were first designed and adopted.  

6. The word or term "Aton" was adopted by Amenhotep to mean the exact equivalent of "Lord," the same as "Shekinah" in the Jewish Temples represented or expressed "the presence of spirit of God." It is a strange coincidence that, although "Shekinah" was adopted by the Jews, and is still used by them in very orthodox services--it was adopted also by Rosaecrucians in Egypt many years previously and is referred to in the present day first-degree Initiations of the Order.  

7. El Amarna is situated about 160 miles above modern Cairo, along the Nile. Here was a bay protected on the west side by the river, in which lies a small island. As Amenhotep viewed the scene from his boat on the Nile, he is quoted as saying: "On the island shall be pleasure houses and pavilions. ON the main land along the river where is the strip of cultivated land I shall place my palaces, rose gardens of my nobles. Beyond these in the plains of the sand I shall erect the Temples and Palaces, and further on, where the limestone cliffs in crescent shape enclose the city, I shall have the chariot drives, roads and tombs." And so it was. Even today the once famous chariot drives, tombs, Temples and palaces, in ruins, may be seen.  

8. Here was given birth to many of the most interesting symbols used in our Order. Amenhotep was passionately fond of his Persian Rose Garden and wandered in it daily for study and inspiration, His "Tribute to the Rose," undoubtedly inspired by his close study or the unfoldment of his roses, is a masterpiece of admiration for the beauties of nature. Incidentally it contains many significant remarks easily interpreted as a prophesy of later discoveries in botany. It was his great love for tie rose and its resemblance to the human soul in process of evolution. that made him adopt it as an R.C. symbol. It may, interest Masons to know that when the cornerstone or the Temple here was laid by Amenhotep, with due ceremony, "Year 6, fourth month of the 2nd season, day 132,"--the three of Freemasonry was first used. And--that when Amenhotep was laid in his list resting place in the tomb. his face was covered with a "Gold vulture with wings outstretched." Many hundreds or years later when his body was recovered this was found to be true by the eminent Egyptologists and English expeditions--just as our records had always recorded. Perhaps Freemasons will recognize the meaning then, and the origin of, the "Vulture with outstretched wings" in some of their symbols, especially in connection with the Rose Croix in their eighteenth degree, adopted so many hundreds of years later.  

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